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Roman period necropolis with cremations at Ljanik near Preševo

dc.creatorBulatović, Aleksandar
dc.creatorČerškov, Toni
dc.description.abstractU selu Ljanik u opštini Preševo istražen je deo nekropole sa spaljenim pokojnicima iz perioda rimske dominacije. Sa ukupno 5 sondi istraženo je 18 grobova. Rake su bile plitko ukopane u mrku zemlju, a dna su bila usečena u stenu gde su bili pohranjeni ostaci sa lomače. Ukop je posle zatrpavanja bio pokriven kamenom konstrukcijom. U nekoliko grobova pronađeni su prilozi u vidu kvadratnih ili pravougaonih posuda-žrtvenika, bronzanih novčića, fibula vrha koplja, gvozdenih klinova i dr. Prema prilozima nekropola je hronološki opredeljena u III v. Stilsko-tipološke osobine keramičkih posuda i sepulkralni obred ukazuju na autohtono tračko stanovništvo na čiju kulturu rimska civilizacija nije značajnije
dc.description.abstractAt the Stare Kolibe site, in Ljanik village in the region of Gornja Pčinja near the border with the FYR of Macedonia, a necropolis was partially excavated with five trial trenches, exposing a total of 116 m 2 (fig. 2). In addition to six stone cists with inhumations, dated to the 18th-19th centuries, some eighteen grave pits containing Roman period cremations were uncovered (in Trial Trenches 1, 5 and 6). The grave pits were dug into brown earth, with the grave bottom shallowly cut into the rock. The cremated human remains, along with the grave goods, were laid at the grave bottom. After the grave pit was filled up, a circular or oval stone structure was formed above it. In Trial Trench 1, some three graves were uncovered, with no grave goods at all. In the eastern part of the Trial Trench 1, close to Grave 1, a burnt area was discovered measuring 1.6 x 1 m, above which was a rectangular area of baked earth measuring 2 x 1.8 m. This is taken to be traces of a crematory fire which was covered with earth immediately after use. In Trial Trench 5 (fig. 3) five graves were uncovered, the grave goods of which consisted of a conical bowl in Grave 1; a slightly rectangular sacrificial vessel and iron objects in Grave 3; and two iron objects in Grave 5. In Trial Trench 6 (figs. 4-5; pl. I/1), which was located on a dominant rise in the central part of the necropolis, 10 cremations were unearthed. These graves are richer than the ones on the peripheral part of the necropolis, equipped with more numerous and various grave goods. At the bottom of all the graves, apart from Grave 4, along with the cremated human remains were square or slightly rectangular sacrificial vessels. In Grave 1, beside the square vessel (pl. II/2), a platter of fired clay made on a potter's wheel was found. Grave 2 along with the square vessel with inner cups atop two diametrically opposite corners (fig. 6; pl. II/3) contained a bronze loop and an iron object similar to a key. Grave 3, along with a square vessel (pl. II/1), contained four bronze coins, two of which are clearly readable and belong to the coinage of Philip I, the Arabian (244-249) (pl. III/1, - one sentence is shown before and another after cleaning process), and a bronze buckle. In Grave 4 (pl. I/2) three bronze coins were found, the first of which belonged to coinage of Julia Domna, wife to Septimius Severus (193-211), second to Trajan (114-117) and the third to Didia Clara (193) daughter to Didius Julianus, along with bronze fibulae and a bronze loop. Along with the square sacrificial vessel with inner recipient in the corner (fig. 7; pl. II/4), in Grave 5 a bronze loop and a bronze coin of Gordian III (238-244) were found. Grave 6, along with a square vessel (pl. II/5) contained a bronze coin of Philip I the Arabian, and an iron nail. In Grave 7 grave goods encompassed only the square vessel (pl. II/6), whereas in Grave 8 (pl. III/4) along with the square vessel (pl. III/2) a platter of fired clay made on a potter's wheel was also found. In Grave 9 along with a square vessel, two bronze coins, one of which belonged to the coinage of Marcus Aurelius (161-180) and an iron spearhead with a long tang were uncovered. In Grave 10 only a square vessel (pl. III/3) was found. Judging from the grave goods in general, and bronze coins in particular, the necropolis should be dated to the 3rd century. Similar necropolises are located in the close vicinity of the site (e.g. Donja Ljubata, Sebrat, Svinjšte, Mala Lukanja), and also in south-west Bulgaria (e.g. Popovjane, Drašan) and north-east Macedonia (e.g. Kočani, Otošnica) (fig. 1) - all the mentioned necropolises have in common the square or rectangular sacrificial vessels. With these vessels, wheel made pottery decorated with stamped ornaments are often found. These are characteristic of the late Iron Age in this region. Thanks to the grave construction, the characteristic pottery and ornamentation, in addition to written sources and toponyms, these burial sites can be attributed to autochthonous Thracians of highly conservative culture, who had not accepted the trends of Roman civilization in their entirety.en
dc.publisherSrpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd
dc.sourceGlasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva
dc.subjectspaljeni pokojnicisr
dc.subjectkamene konstrukcijesr
dc.subjectIII veksr
dc.titleNekropola spaljenih pokojnika iz rimskog perioda u Ljaniku kod Preševasr
dc.titleRoman period necropolis with cremations at Ljanik near Preševoen
dc.citation.other(23): 141-157

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