Dugi i kratki tranzit u kasnoj antici na primeru Munjskog brda i Rogatice
Long- and short-distance transit in late antiquity: The example of Munjsko Brdo and Rogatica
MetadataShow full item record
U funkcionisanju rimske ekonomije jedan od najvažnijih faktora uticaja bio je transport. U radu se raspravlja o funkcionisanju dugog i kratkog tranzita na ekonomskoj relaciji grad - selo - vila rustika. Nalazi keramike sa lokaliteta u okolini Rogatice i Munjskog brda kod Požege pokazuju da je sistem kratkog tranzita i ekonomski princip poljoprivredne i zanatske proizvodite pri vilama rustikama funkcionisao i u periodu kasne antike.
Generally, there are two different opinions as to how the Roman economy functioned under the Empire. Some see it as a clearly organized connection along the line province-taxation-army and the capital, which basically constitutes political economy. Others see it as a connection between major local economic systems, which involves political economy, but which was integrated by trade, land, credits and agricultural production. But regardless of how the functioning of the Roman economy under the Empire is seen and which of its part is in question, transport was among the major factors influencing the functioning of the economy. It is habitually held that the costs of transport may have brought about radical change in the economy, agriculture in particular. Such radical change in agriculture is mainly associated with the Late Empire, i.e. the period of a severe economic crisis. It is usually held that the period of Late Antiquity witnessed a drastic loss of long-distance transit to short, ...but more recent research shows that this was a decrease in quality and thus in the number of transport lines rather than a total failure. It is traditionally held that short-distance transit was on the increase, especially because of the necessity of supplying agricultural products, and, thereupon, that villae rusticae were not only centers of agricultural production but also of crafts. Although the true nature of trade under the Late Empire is difficult to establish - whether it was more of a state-organized or the so-called "aristocratic" type - it is certain that rich landowners were interested in making profit on agricultural produce from their estates. Two somewhat forgotten finds, one from a grave in the Rogatica area, recovered in the late nineteenth century (Fiala, WMBH 5, 1897, 259-62), and the other from Munjsko Brdo near Požega (Zotović, Požega i okolina 1978, 118), show some identical components, each containing an oinochoe, hammer-axe and iron knife. The oinochoes belong to the widespread fourth-century type of jugs occurring throughout the Empire, whose production centre is only identifiable in terms of local potteries. On the other hand, Rogatica and the Požega area, to the territory of which belongs the site of Munjsko Brdo were centres of agricultural production and of some crafts as well. The area of Rogatica contained some 7 or 8 villae, while the environs of Požega may be presumed to have been organized into farming estates, and perhaps even as a conciliabulum, i.e. that it had a council of Roman citizens in a structured community gravitating towards an urban center and, as some recent research shows, that it may have had a certain form of self-government similar to the "partial" organization of municipal administration. It is certain that both areas were production centers, especially agricultural. Agricultural products were the most profitable for transport in any one period, and especially during severe economic crises. Pottery also belonged among commodities that had never been too expensive on the market. These two goods were regularly transported together. It is not difficult to assume therefore that in the period of Late Antiquity the areas of Rogatica and Požega retained their primary role as centers of agricultural and some forms of craft production, constituting zones where the economic principle of short-distance transit functioned.
Keywords:zanatstvo / trgovina / transport / poljoprivreda / ekonomija
Source:Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva, 2004, 21, 20, 85-92
- Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd