Mezolitska i neolitska kamena industrija Đerdapa
The Mesolithic and Neolithic stone industry of the Iron Gates
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Rad prikazuje nove rezultate u proučavanju proizvodnje mezolitskih i neolitskih kamenih predmeta sa lokaliteta na srpskoj strani Đerdapa. Đerdapska ranoholocenska kamena industrija sastoji se od dve komponente lokalne i "uvozne". Lokalna varijanta se sasvim samostalno razvija, u uslovima sedelačkog života u mezolitu, odgovarajući osnovnim potrebama stanovnika ove oblasti (lov, ribolov). "Uvoznu" varijantu čine alatke sa sečicom (sekire, tesle i dleta) koje su po oblicima i sirovinama istovetne sa neolitskim oruđem iz centralne Srbije. Ove dve industrije pojavljuju se paralelno u ranoholocenskim slojevima đerdapskih lokaliteta.
In the course of archaeological researches in the Iron Gates, the stone tools have been analyzed from Mesolithic and Early Neolithic (VIII-VI millennium BC) horizons at the following sites: Padina, Lepenski Vir, Vlasac, Hajdučka Vodenica, Ajmana, Velesnica, Knjepište and Ušće Kameničkog Potoka. All implements were studied from two main aspects: petrographical and functional-typological. The Iron Gates early Holocene stone industry is composed of two elements: local and 'imported'. The local variant developed quite independently, against a background of sedentary settlement satisfying the essential needs of inhabitants in this region. This led to the production of mallet-scepters, mallet-weights with grooves, pebble-axes grindstones/polishers and hammer stones. Judging by their shape and considerable dimensions, these implements were probably used in game hunting and for killing large fish. On the other hand, because of the blunt cutting edges of the pebble axes and the massiveness of t...he tools themselves, it may be assumed that they were not used in woodworking or agriculture. In essence the local variant is based on the pebble, its natural shape being only finished. In parallel with this autochthonous stone industry, there occur in the Iron Gates early Holocene sites tools typical of the Starčevo and Vinča cultures - the 'imported' variant. The occurrence of ground-edge implements made of rocks gray-greenish in colour (whether hornfelses or local rocks of the same physical-technical characteristics) indicates the import of this technology, and occasionally the import of the artifacts themselves into the Iron Gates area. The common appearance of two variants of the stone industry different in character, is perhaps further evidence of the parallelism of the Iron Gates late Mesolithic with the developed Neolithic of the neighboring areas, which is otherwise indicated by absolute dates. In some sites artifacts of the local industry are more abundant, while in others there are more 'imported' artifacts (fig. 10). This is not a chronological gradation, but merely an example illustrating the extent to which some Iron Gates early Holocene settlements accepted Neolithic products from outside. In this respect, Lepenski Vir and Padina - Sector III appear to a higher degree as a neolithized settlements based on hunting and gathering supported by intensive fishing. In contrast, Velesnica is far behind Lepenski Vir and according to the ground stone material, was a highly developed fisher's settlement. The Iron Gates stone industry is the unique example in the central Balkan prehistory where is visible, in stone tools, the metamorphosis of technology caused by gradual change of mode of subsistence, in which fishing had the most important role. This metamorphosis can be recognized in big stone tools for fishing (mal-let-weights and mallet-scepters) originated from smaller artifacts used in manufacturing of chipped stone artifacts. From anvils and hammerstones became much bigger objects like mallet-weights and mallet-scepters used for killing big animals and fishes, which gradually turned into cult objects. The cult significance of stone tools is much more visible at Hajdučka Vodenica. At the necropolis of Hajdučka Vodenica were found tools for gathering food and woodworking: mallet-scepters mallet-weights hammerstones, anvils, quern-altars, axes and adzes. All artifacts were very carefully manufactured and some of them were ornamented with engravings. It is interesting to notice that at Hajdučka Vodenica were found only artefacts of macrocrystalline rocks and objects of chipped stone industry were not recorded at all. Stone artifacts and stone as a raw material had a special place in the Lepenski Vir culture. This conclusion does not refer to artifacts of chipped stone industry nor to stone of microcrystalline structure (like various forms of silica). Chipped stone industry had a complete profane character in the Lepenski Vir culture. It seems that stone and stone artifacts for inhabitants of the Lepenski Vir culture represented personification of advantages they had got from new subsistence advantages which they had to admire and respect. They made tools for fishing and hunting of pebble and with those tools they killed big fishes and animals - those hunted as well as those domesticated. The population of the Lepenski Vir culture gradually became conscious of the great importance of the river on which banks they lived. That importance they expressed by putting objects made of pebble and a pebble itself as a products of the river and certainly the most important raw material in the center of the cult.
Keywords:tehnologija kamena / rani holocen / izvori sirovina / istočna Srbija
Source:Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva, 2003, 20, 19, 9-35
- Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd