Radionica za izradu predmeta od kosti i roga u utvrđenju Timacum minus
The workshop of the bone and antler items in the Roman fortress of Timacum minus
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Na lokalitetu Timacum minus je tokom iskopavanja 1998. godine otkrivena, u Sloju A, velika građevina od lakog materijala koja je datovana u poslednju četvrtinu IV - prvu polovinu V veka, odnosno najmlađu fazu života na sektoru južne kapije ovog utvrđenja. Na osnovu količine poluproizvoda i sirovina za izradu predmeta od kosti i roga, nađenih u istraženom objektu, pretpostavili smo postojanje radionice za njihovu proizvodnju. Publikovanjem radionice za izradu predmeta od kosti i pora sa utvrđenja Timacum minus, skrećemo pažnju kolega na problem ove zanatske delatnosti, koji treba imati u vidu u budućim arheološkim iskopavanjima.
During the September 1998. archaeological investigation of the site Timacum minus by the village Ravna near Knjaževac were continued on the section of the Southern gate of the fortification. Inside the rampart, behind the Southern gate, the youngest phase of living in the fortification of Timacum minus was explored. The large building laying E - W, 12, 50 m long, made of packed earth on the stone foundation was discovered. The walls of the construction running N - S in sq. Q XXVI - Q XXVII and O XXVI were leaning on the East and West tower of the Southern gate, which was on this level closed by the stone wall. The building was destroyed in fire. The explored section of this building consisted of two rooms (fig. 1). In the room 1, leaning on the towers of the Southern gate, a demolished owen of the rectangular shape made of stone plastered with yellow clay, was discovered with two ceramic vessels above it, a deep conical bowl with the horizontal rim and an amphora with the ribbed orname...nt (fig. 2). From the corresponding layer in this room derived four ceramic lamps made on the potters' wheel (fig.3, 1 - 2), a bronze plate of the belt buckle (fig. 3, 3), a grindstone (fig. 3, 5), an iron knife (fig. 3, 6), a semiproduct of a handle made of bovid antler (fig. 4, 2) and semiproducts of comb plates made of red - deer antler (fig. 4, 1 6). In the room 2, on the level of the floor, level a, three large pots pitoi, of the spherical recipient with the horizontal rim were found in situ. From the corresponding layer A derived a fragment of a glass bracelet (fig. 3, 4), semiproducts of a handle and a pointed tool (harpoon) made of red deer antler (fig. 4, 3 - 4), a bone awl (fig. 4, 5) as well as a red deer and a bovid antler with the working traces (fig. 6). On the floor of this room destroyed in fire a coin of Theodosius II (408. - 459) was found. According to the stratigraphy of the cultural layers and archaeological finds, the building behind the Southern gate and corresponding level a and layer A could be dated in the last quarter of the 4th - the first half of the 5th century A. D. On the basis of the amount of semiproducts and row material for the production of the bone and antler items we assumed the existence of the workshop in the room 2 of the building. There were also working places on the stone blocks, the owen and nearby three pitoi in situ, in which the row material could have been cooked or stored, found. The iron knife with crescent blade and the light-grey grindstone from the room 1, as well as the iron chisel and drill (fig. 3, 5 - 8) could have been used in this workshop. It is interesting that the raw material and semiproducts of the bone and antler items and iron tools were found in situ by the working places in the room 2, and the antler objects and tools from the room 1 had been thrown away from the workshop as useless before the building was destroyed in fire.
Keywords:Timacum minus / radionica / predmeti od kosti i roga / Gornja Mezija
Source:Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva, 2001, 17, 59-73
- Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd