Mesto i uloga eksperimentalne i iskustvene arheologije u interpretaciji prošlosti
Place and role of experimental and experiential archaeology in the reconstruction of the past
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Eksperimentalna arheologija je kao poddisciplina arheologije definisana šezdesetih godina 20. veka, međutim, njeni začeci se mogu videti još u 19. veku. Razvoj eksperimentalne arheologije odslikava i teorijsko-metodološke promene kroz koje je prolazila celokupna arheologija. Eksperimentalna arheologija je prošla kroz brojne transformacije - od pojedinačnih eksperimenata u 19. veku i prvoj polovini 20. veka, preko definisanja teorijsko-metodološkog okvira, sve do današnjih dana. Budući da se najpotpuniji podaci mogu dobiti prilikom sprovođenja kompleksnih eksperimenata, u kojima učestvuje veliki broj stručnjaka iz različitih oblasti arheologije, u drugoj polovini 20. formiraju se istraživački centri eksperimentalne arheologije. U ovakvim centrima, eksperimentalni arheolozi prave čitava naselja iz različitih perioda prošlosti. Atraktivnost ovih naselja i mogućnost praktičnog prenosa znanja na širu javnost otvara ova naselja za posetioce. Stvara se novi koncept muzeja - arheološki muzej n...a otvorenom, čiji broj raste iz godine u godinu. Interesovanje za otkrivanje života u prošlosti raste, te pored muzeja na otvorenom, javljaju se i brojne emisije, a u poslednjih neokoliko godina, i specijalizovani jutjub kanali koji se bave tradicionalnim zanatima. Na taj način, iz eksperimentalne arheologije nastaje iskustvena arheologija, čiji je fokus upravo u prenosu znanja preko ličnih doživljaja, kako arheologa, tako i šire javnosti. Cilj ovog rada je da se prikaže razvoj eksperimentalne i iskustvene arheologije, kako u svetu, tako i u Srbiji.
Experimental archaeology, as a sub-discipline of archaeology, was defined in the second half of the 20th century, but its origins date back to the 19th century. The beginnings of experimental archaeology can only be defined as individual small-scale experiments, without any theoretical base. Those experiments were conducted for the sake of the experiments alone and their results were not compared with other research data. Changes in experimental archaeology follow theoretical and methodological changes in archaeology. Therefore, logical positivism of the processual archaeology was the perfect base for the establishment of experimental archaeology. The hypothetico-deductive method of the new archaeology has remained the main methodological approach in experimental archaeology up until today. In this paper, the formation and changes in experimental archaeology were presented, illustrating different stages that this sub-discipline went through. The first examples of experimental archaeolo...gy in Serbia date back to the late 1970s and the early 1980s, but those experiments were isolated cases. The real emergence of experimental archaeology in Serbia occurred during the first and second decade of the 21st century. Experiments were more frequent in the last decade, and several experimental archaeologists have obtained formal education in this field. Unfortunately, these experiments are still small-scale research activities, conducted without proper funding, fuelled mostly by individual enthusiasm. Examples from the rest of the world have shown that experimental archaeology has to be institutionalised in some way, so that the research could reach its full capacity and so that new generations of experimental archaeologists could be produced. In order for the experimental archaeology in Serbia to grow and develop further, there is a necessity for institutionalisation of experimental archaeology, by opening either an independent research centre or a department within some of the existing institutions. During the second half of the 20th century, large scale and long-lasting experiments started to be conducted, involving not only experimental archaeologists, but specialists from different fields of archaeology. As the number of experimental archaeologists and the complexity of experiments grew, the need for the foundation of formal institutions emerged. Research centres for experimental archaeology were formed in different European countries. In those centres, whole settlements were being reconstructed, including houses, farms, workshops and objects. Opening those centres for the public made a major impact on archaeology and presentation of the past. A new museum type was born - archaeological open-air museum. Those museums consisted of reconstructed settlements from different time periods, showing a variety of activities that people conducted in the past, including, but not limited to: pottery, basketry, textile, stone tool production and metal smelting. In a short period of time, a number of archaeological open-air museums appeared all over Europe, gaining popularity with the public. Seeing the appeal of the mysteries of the past, television houses started making television series which showed different aspects of life, from Prehistory to the Middle Ages and beyond. Now, there is a number of shows and specialised television channels dedicated exclusively to the past - events, intriguing people or everyday activities. The considerable technological progress and the emergence of YouTube gave birth to specialised YouTube channels, which demonstrate various traditional crafts all over the world. However, open air museums, television shows and YouTube channels cannot be considered experimental archaeology, as they lack the theoretical base and obligatory methodological approach. They do offer the experience of the past, so they cannot be classified as experimental, but rather as experiential archaeology.
Keywords:teorijska arheologija / metodologija / iskustvena arheologija / eksperimentalna arheologija / theoretical archaeology / methodology / experimental archaeology / experiential archaeology
Source:Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva, 2020, 36, 401-423
- Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd