Primena istorijsko-arheološkog geografskog informacionog sistema u istraživanjima Caričinog grada i okoline
Application of historical-archaeological geographic information system in the research of Caričin grad and its environs
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U radu se opisuje struktura istorijsko-arheološkog geografskog informacionog sistema u koji se pohranjuju podaci sa istraživanja Caričinog grada i njegove šire okoline. IAGIS Caričinog grada sadrži veoma brojne podatke, koji potiču sa starih i novih istraživanja, pri čemu se stari podaci -aero-fotografije, situacioni planovi, osnove istraženih objekata i prostorni raspored pokretnih arheoloških nalazaprevode u jedinstveni koordinatni sistem i tako postaju podložni raznovrsnim analizama u kreiranom geografskom prostoru baze. Analize omogućavaju kako izradu novih i znatno potpunijih situacionih planova lokaliteta, tako i uže određenje njegovih hronoloških faza. Na širem planu, rad u našoj bazi pospešuje analize naseljavanja i korišćenja prostora Leskovačke kotline ne samo u vreme života Justinijane Prime već i u prethodnim i kasnijim epohama. Osim opisa građe koja je uključena u bazu i sažeto predstavljenih rezultata dela dosadašnjih analiza, u članku se nagoveštavaju i osnovni pravci bu...dućeg razvoja IAGIS-a Caričinog grada.
The syntagms Historical Geographic Information System (historical GIS, HGIS) and Archaeological Geographic Information System (archaeological GIS, AGIS) denote specific GIS databases on historical landscapes, events and changes, and on archaeological monuments and sites. Within their environment, data can be arranged, integrated and displayed in new, significantly faster and easier ways than the traditional ones. Because of the possibility of cross-referencing data of different nature, these databases do not constitute mere clusters of separate types of information, but a rather suitable tool for carrying out different analyses. The database developed within the scope of the Caričin Grad Project was set up in 2011 on the basis of the materials collected and digitalised over a longer period of time. Depending on the course of research, the interests of the scholars involved and the topics of several international inter-disciplinary projects, it contains both broader historical and more ...narrowly relevant archaeological data. Along with the abundant cartographic materials, in order to understand the diachronic settlement processes in the wider region of the Leskovac basin, our database maps prehistoric, Roman and medieval sites; these last ones on the basis of both archaeological finds and written sources. The other components of the Caričin Grad database mostly are usually of a strictly archaeological character. Still, primarily because of the detailed mapping and the systematic application of modern sensing and detection methods - mainly the LIDAR and geophysical surveys - an increasingly clearer picture is emerging of the historical landscape of the 6th century and the surroundings of Justiniana Prima. Therefore, our database may be considered an extended AGIS database, that is, the HAGIS database. It is noteworthy that the syntagm historical-archaeological geographic information system(s) is actually rather new. As far as we know, it has been mentioned in this form only in the context of mapping heterogeneous sources, written and archaeological, within the scope of a Russian GIS database. Our integrated historical-archaeological geographic information system has been established to store all available materials, from the first records of the site to contemporary satellite images. The basic task was to create a complex database of maps, satellite and LIDAR images, digital terrain models, aerial photographs, orthophotographs, geophysical and archaeological plans, field sketches, theodolite and GPS measurements from the excavations and field surveys, etc., and their translation into a unique coordinate system. The HAGIS for Caričin Grad has been designed within a QGIS platform. To successfully use the databases in the GIS, they must be precisely oriented and therefore one of the most important steps is to translate the data into a single coordinate system and projection. In our case, we have adopted a new reference system ETRS89 and the UTM projection. By combining the data in the geographic information system and using different tools within the software packages it is possible to carry out numerous spatial and statistical analyses. The application of these systems has enabled visualisation, analysis and interpretation both of the ground plan of Caričin Grad and its broader environs, and of small archaeological finds. The GIS tools allow us to carry out complex statistical analyses, as well as simple visual presentations of the distribution maps. On the basis of the data, to which we have ascribed certain attributes, it is possible to monitor changes in the landscape, population movements, their relation with the environment and to track anthropogenic changes in different periods. We have focused part of our explorations of Caričin Grad and its broader environs on recognising and studying settlement patterns and on creating settlement models for different periods. With the data at our disposal, it is possible to recognise settlement patterns within the GIS, their location and spatial logic, distribution models, as well as the features of individual sites. Along with this, it is possible to reconstruct the social-economic connections, similarities and differences in particular micro-regions, and to create threedimensional models which improve visualisation and presentation of all materials. Through further processing, our HAGIS database will fully develop into a spatial-temporal, 4D GIS database.
Keywords:Leskovačka kotlina / istorijsko-arheološki geografski informacioni sistem / dokumentacija / digitalizacija / Caričin grad / baze podataka
Source:Saopštenja, Republički zavod za zaštitu spomenika kulture, 2018, 50, 259-279
- Zavod za zaštitu spomenika kulture Srbije, Beograd