Ostaci životinja iz srednjovekovnog utvrđenja Gradina-Trešnjevica kod Ivanjice
Animal remains from medieval fortress Gradina-Trešnjevica near Ivanjica
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Životinjske kosti pronađene u srednjovekovnom utvrđenju Gradina-Trešnjevica kod Ivanjice, podignutom u drugoj polovini XIV veka, predstavljaju ostatke hrane, na šta ukazuje veliki broj tragova kasapljenja, kao i starost ubijenih životinja. Stanovnici ovog utvrđenja su u ishrani najviše koristili meso ovaca i koza, a zatim goveda i svinja. Kosti jelena, zeca, srne i divlje svinje svedoče da se i meso divljači ponekad nalazilo na trpezi.
In this paper the results of archaeozoological analysis of animal remains collected during excavations of the medieval fortress Gradina-Trešnjevica (second half of the 14th century) near Ivanjica are presented. The aim of this study was the reconstruction of diet, strategy of using different animal species by the fort inhabitants, and comparing differences in animal husbandry in relation to other medieval sites in the territory of Serbia. Nine species were identified (table 1). Domestic animals include: sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), cattle (Bos taurus), pig (Sus domesticus) and chicken (Gallus domesticus), and the wild: deer (Cervus elaphus), wild boar (Sus scrofa), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and hare (Lepus europeus). Domestic animals outnumber wild (97% NISP). Caprines (sheep and goats) are the most frequent taxa at Gradina-Trešnjevica (51%), followed in abundance by domestic cattle (27%) and domestic pigs (16%). Caprines also played a major role in the economy of fort...ress Ras (Blažić 1999a: 440), while in rural settlements cattle are economically most important species (Blažić 1995: 343-344). The age structure of sheep/goats, domestic cattle and domestic pig based on the state of fusion of the epiphyses of postcranial skeleton is shown in Figure 1. Slaughter of cattle was focused on individuals between 24 and 42 months of age. The age profile of pig indicates that besides individuals mostly slaughtered were those between 12 and 36 months of age, pigs younger than 12 months were also exploited. On the other hand, majority of caprines are older than 36 months indicating that besides meat exploitation, they were also herded for milk and wool (sheep) production. Arhaeozoological study of the sample from the fortress Gradina-Trešnjevica provided important information concerning distribution of various animal species and ways of their exploitation. However, in order to gain insight into animal husbandry strategies and possible links with contemporary indigenous breeds of domestic animals, it is necessary to include larger number of medieval sites in archaeozoological researches.
Keywords:XIV vek / utvrđenje / ostaci životinja / ishrana / Gradina-Trešnjevica / arheozoologija
Source:Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija, 2013, 21-1, 291-298
- Narodni muzej, Beograd