Zidinac - kasnoantičko utvrđenje u Đerdapu
Late Roman fortification at Zidinac in the Iron Gates
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Tokom 1969. godine, na ušću potoka Zidinca u Dunav, u selu Dobri u oblasti Đerdapa, arheološki su ispitani ostaci kasnoantičkog utvrđenja. Utvrđenje je kvadratne osnove, a sastoji se od ograđenog dvorišta i kule u severoistočnom uglu. Objekat je preliminarno publikovan u dva kratka izveštaja 1969. i 1984. godine. U prvom je datovan u IV vek, a u kasnijem izveštaju datovanje je korigovano u kraj III - početak IV veka. U ovom radu pokušaćemo da damo detaljnije podatke o stratigrafiji, kao i analizu arhitekture i pokretnih nalaza kako bi dobili precizniju sliku o samom nalazištu, nameni i periodima korišćenja.
First to record the remains of antique fortification-watchtower at the mouth of the brook Zidinac in the area of the village Dobra, Golubac community, was F. Kanitz in the second half of the 19th century. Surveying of the site in the 1960s confirmed that its ramparts were relatively well preserved. Before the construction of hydroelectric power station Djerdap I, small-scale archaeological excavations had been conducted at this site because the fortification was situated below the line of flooding. Ten days archaeological excavations encompassed ground plan of entire fortification whose total dimensions are 306.25 square meters. Fortification consists of square tower and enclosed yard built at the same time of broken stone and mortar. Investigations had been conducted only in the northeast corner where tower was explored in detail. Inside the tower were recorded hearth with rectangular platform and circular structure built of stone. Interior of fortification has unfortunately not been ...explored. Rather sparse archaeological material was recorded that, nevertheless, includes few elements significant for closer determination of date of use and destruction of this structure. Rather small amount of pottery vessels was found including types of bowls and pots characteristic of the Late Roman production. The closest analogies could be found in the neighboring Saldum where such pottery is characteristic of the layer from the time of Valentinian, i.e. from AD 364-378/380. Worth mentioning among the finds are long iron sword of the spatha type and fragment of cruciform fibula that could be also dated, regarding shape and decoration, to the period of restoration of limes in Moesia Prima in the time of Valens and Valentinian I. Fortification was built on the terrain used in earlier periods (prehistory, time of Principate) but most intensive period of life was in the time of Valens' restoration of limes AD 364-378, until the invasion of the West Goths in AD 378 when life at this site died out for few centuries. In the early medieval period, probably by the end of 8th /beginning of 9th -10th centuries meager traces of the Slavic material culture have been recorded in the tower at Zidinac. Fortification at Zidinac belongs to the type of burgus speculatorius used for observing the surrounding area and stay of small military unit. It is according to its shape similar to a certain extent to the fortification at Pesača built in the end of 3rd century and also destroyed in invasion of the West Goths in AD 378. Burgus at Zidinac was situated in the defense line of the limes between the auxiliary fortification at Čezava (Novae) and numerus castellum at Saldum. .
Кључне речи:Zidinac / utvrđenje / osmatračnica / Moesia Prima / kasna antika / IV vek / Dobra / Đerdap / burgus speculatorius / 364-378/380. godina
Извор:Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija, 2013, 21-1, 189-207
- Narodni muzej, Beograd