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Exclusive Chinese pottery in the Balkans: Finds of 14th century celadon from the Belgrade fortress

dc.creatorBikić, Vesna
dc.description.abstractU toku arheoloških istraživanja na Beogradskoj tvrđavi nađeni su delovi dve činije od seladona, posebne vrste kineskog porcelana. U tekstu se razmatraju okolnosti tih nalaza i njihova hronologija prema utvrđenim odlikama proizvodnih etapa. Takođe, analiziraju se distribucija seladona i kulturni konteksti u kojima se posuđe javlja izvan matičnog regiona, posebno na Istoku i u Evropi, a prema vestima iz pisanih dokumenata i do sada objavljenim arheološkim nalazima. Na osnovu svih raspoloživih podataka pretpostavljeno je da se prisustvo seladona na Beogradskoj tvrđavi može sagledati u okvirima, pre svega, kulturnog miljea na dvoru despota Stefana Lazarevića u ranom XV
dc.description.abstractFragments of two bowls of celadon, distinct kind of Chinese porcelain (fig. 1, 2) have been found in the course of archaeological investigations at the Belgrade fortress. These specimens come from the castle area and from Lower Town, from the filling layers, which could be roughly dated, on the basis of contents, from the 15th to the 17th century. However, considering available data about complete appearance - shapes of the bowls, glaze colors and decoration, vessels of celadon from Belgrade indubitably belong to the production from the time of late Yuan dynasty, i.e. from the second half of the 14th century. In the text are analyzed distribution of celadon and cultural contexts of appearance of these vessels outside home territory, particularly in the East and in Europe, according to the records in written documents and hitherto published archaeological finds. It has been assumed, on the basis of all available data, that occurrence of celadon at the Belgrade fortress could be studied first of all within the cultural milieu at the court of despot Stefan Lazarević in early 15th century. In that light, circumstances and way of arrival in Belgrade could be associated with entire economic development and particularly with stimulation of trade, which resulted in establishing of dynamic cultural milieu resembling the Renaissance courts in Italy and France. So, celadon could have been either acquired during one of regular commercial trips or it could have been a gift from some prominent person who already possessed these vessels. Also, despot Stefan had the opportunity to personally obtain Chinese celadon at least on three occasions when he was staying in the East: first when he accepted vassal obligations at the court of sultan Bayazid I after the battle of Kosovo in 1389/1390, and after that at the court of the Palaiologoi in Constantinople where he was granted title of despot twice, in 1402 and in 1410. Considering high regard for celadon among the Ottoman elite, vessels from Belgrade fortress could be studied also in the context of finds of other kinds of porcelain, which occurred in the archaeological assemblages dating from late 17th and the 18th century. Everything previously said, although indicative, does not allow for drawing founded conclusion about historical, social and cultural context of appearance of celadon in Belgrade. Nevertheless, suggested assumption about valuable celadon vessels at the court of despot Stefan seems realistic, partially also because rather short period of time passed between the production and use of these vessels. It is, however, undeniable that celadon vessels are rare items disregarding the epoch when they had been used. It is very rare in Europe, while it has been recognized in the Balkans only sporadically although it would have been logical that at least some specimens could be found in certain larger centers. Besides other luxurious objects, discovery of valuable Chinese celadon in Belgrade as well as in Buda is of particular significance as it represents both these centers in a different light and gives new dimension to the concept of international trade in the late medieval period.en
dc.publisherNarodni muzej, Beograd
dc.sourceZbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija
dc.subjectkulturni kontekstsr
dc.titleEkskluzivno kinesko posuđe na Balkanu - nalazi seladona iz XIV veka sa Beogradske tvrđavesr
dc.titleExclusive Chinese pottery in the Balkans: Finds of 14th century celadon from the Belgrade fortressen
dc.citation.other(21-1): 253-273

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