Naselja ranog neolita u Timočkoj krajini i zaleđu Đerdapa
The neolithic settlements in the Timok region and Đerdap gorge hinterland
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Ukoliko pogledamo arheološke karte neolitskih nalazišta na teritoriji Srbije, primetićemo prazan prostor bez označenih lokaliteta, u severoistočnoj Srbiji, između Pomoravlja i Đerdapa. Kučajna kod Bora predstavlja jedino sistematski istraženo neolitsko naselje iz perioda ranog neolita na teritoriji sliva Crnog Timoka. Cilj ovog rada je da prikaže nove i nepublikovane neolitske lokalitete konstatovane tokom više rekognosciranja sa područja srednjeg toka ovog značajnog komunikacijskog pravca Timočke Krajine. U radu je naročita pažnja posvećena topografskim karakteristikama naselja i prirodnom okruženju, u cilju boljeg razumevanja procesa naseljavanja ovog dela Srbije.
For many years, the territory along the course of the Crni Timok river in northeast Serbia was not presented as an interesting area for early Neolithic excavation. However, recent inspection of older unpublished data, with newer reconnaissance, has shed new light on this period of prehistory. A larger number of sites have been discovered with similar topographical positions on the edges/rims of large areas or on ridges above river courses. Thanks to cooperation between the geographical project TOPOI from Berlin and the Archaeological Institute in Belgrade, work has begun on the production of a digital 'archaeological model of probability' (ARM), which will improve reconnaissance of this region. Alongside the only systematic excavation/investigation of settlements in Kučajna, 16 more localities have been confirmed, situated in the area between the Roman imperial palace of Felix Romuiana in the south and Bor in the north. They are located at the following sites: Cerova Faca and Dubrava i...n Brestovac; Kot 1 and 2, Punđilov potok (Punđil's stream) in Metovnica; La Bunar in Šarbanovac; Smolnica, Abri above Lazareve pećine (Lazarus' cave), Donja Stopanja (Lower Stopanja) Kobila in Zlot. In the area around Felix Romuliana several settlements have been discovered: in sectors Intra and Extra muros, Kravarnik, Varzari, Petronj 2, sites between Magura and Rimski majdan (Roman mine) and Višicina Bašta. From the examination of finds discovered at these sites it can be concluded that on the territory along the course of the River Timok the population of the Starčevo-Kereš-Kriš cultural complex was relatively well established during the early Neolithic period. The Neolithic occupation of the region had proceeded from the Đerdap gorge in the north and Sićevačka, Svrljiška and Trgoviška gorges in the south, towards the course of the River Timok i.e. the central part of north-east Serbia. The Mesolithic populations had gradually accepted the production of food. Utilizing the optimal climate and fertile soil, they improved their husbandry through new agricultural methods and the better domestication of animals. This experimental process demanded successive migrations, which impoverished the quality of soil and the seasonal movements of animals that needed to be tamed. By analysis of the topographical and geomorphologic character of this terrain, early Neolithic settlements can be described as being agricultural-livestock husbandry and livestock husbandry-hunting based. The first settlements were located on gently inclined terrains relatively close to water sources, at altitudes of 180 to 300 m. The second category of settlements were formed on uplands, offering a better view of the terrain, 230 to over 450 metres above sea level. These were probably short-term or seasonal settlements since such territories were usually unsuitable for habitation during the winter months. The poor geomorphology of the land, the magma-rock substratum and ill-drained soil, in combination with primitive agriculture, guaranteed greater soil erosion, which would destroy the economic worth of the soil. With the disappearance of the early- Neolithic population from this region, human habitation did not reoccur until several millennia later, during the middle Bronze age.
Keywords:topografija / Starčevo-Kereš-Kriš / rani neolit / naselja / Istočna Srbija / Crni Timok / topography / Starčevo-Kereš-Kriš / settlement / Eastern Serbia / early Neolithic / Crni Timok
Source:Starinar, 2010, 60, 19-36
- Arheološki institut, Beograd