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Origin and distribution of slightly biconical bowls with facetted or channeled rim from the end of bronze and the beginning of iron ages on the Balkan peninsula: Contribution to the study of ethnic and cultural movements in Southeast Europe at the end of bronze and the beginning of iron ages

dc.creatorBulatović, Aleksandar
dc.description.abstractZdele blagobikonične forme, čiji su obod, ili ceo gornji konus ukrašeni fasetama ili kanelurama, kao i zdele poluloptaste forme sa uvučenim obodom, identične ornamentike karakteristični su za nalazišta poznog bronzanog i ranog gvozdenog doba na teritoriji Balkanskog poluostrva. Ovaj rad posvećen je toj veoma indikativnoj formi posude, koja je obeležila intezivna etno-kulturna kretanja na Balkanu na prelazu iz II u I milenijum pre n.e. U prvom delu rada načinjena je tipologija tih zdela u cilju praćenja njihove geneze, evolucije i distribucije, a zatim su navedena indikativna nalazišta, od Moravske, na severu, do Grčke, na jugu. U završnici rada razmatrano je o poreklu, hronološkom opredeljenju i distribuciji tih zdela, kao i o eventualnim hronološkim i regionalnim razlikama između njihovih pojedinih tipova, odnosno
dc.description.abstractSlightly biconical shaped bowls, the upper cone (rim and shoulder) of which is decorated with horizontal and slanted facets or slanted channels, as well as semi-globular bowls of inverted rim decorated with horizontal facets or slanted channels are characteristic of the end of Bronze Age and mark the beginning of Iron Age in many cultural groups within the Balkan Peninsula. Problem of their origin, chronology and distribution is present in archaeological literature for a long time. Many authors perceived the significance of this ceramic shape for the chronological, ethnic and cultural interpretation of the Late Bronze, that is, of the Early Iron Ages within the territory of the Balkans. Pottery from the burned layers in Vardina and Vardaroftsa sites in the north of Greece, among which there were bowls with inverted, slanted channeled rim, was designated way back by W. Heurtley as Danubian pottery or Lausitz ware, connecting its origin with the Danube Basin. Anumber of conclusions have been reached upon the study of finds of slightly biconical bowls and bowls of inverted rim, decorated with channels or facets, from several indicative sites from Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages within the Balkan Peninsula and south part of the Middle Europe. It has been stated that the bowls appear first within the southwest Slovakia and northwest Hungary in the Br D period, to spread very fast, already in the Br D/Ha A1 period, from its home territory to the east, to the northeast Hungary and northwest Romania. Namely, this first spreading wave into these territories brought along only variety Ia bowls, which were further distributed to the south, during the Ha A1 period, to the central parts of the Balkan Peninsula and consequently it can be concluded that these bowls are somewhat older than other varieties. In the period Br D - Ha A1, in north Hungary, under the influence of Gava Culture, on one hand, and Čaka Culture, on the other, appear also variety IIa bowls (turban dish), distributed to the east with a new migration wave, in the same manner as was the case with the first migration wave, but also to the south, along the Bakonjska Range, to the present day Croatia and Slovenia, where, in the Ha A1/A2 periods, were stated exclusively variety IIa bowls. Representatives of the variety Ia bowls remained in the Pomoravlje region and Južna Morava Basin, as confirmed by a large number of these bowls and also by other ceramic shapes of that stylistic and typological pattern, prevailing within this region in the Ha A1/A2 periods. First variety IIa bowls (Mediana, Kržince) appear only during the second migration wave coming from the north of the Balkans to the central part of the Balkan Peninsula (Ha A2 period). These bowls, however, are particularly characteristic of Macedonia and lower Povardarje, where variety Ia bowls were not stated at all. The second migration wave representatives, with turban dish bowls (variety IIa), were much more aggressive as witnessed by many burned settlements from that period in the Vranjska-Bujanovačka Valleys and Povardarje. During Ha B-C periods, bowls of both types (particularly variety IIa) became inevitable part of ceramic inventory of nearly all cultural groups in the Balkan Peninsula, which could be explained by the spread of cultural influence of the new stylistic trend, though, however, it could be possible that migrations, which at the time were numerous and of greater or lesser intensity, were one of the spreading causes of this ceramic shape into the east, south and west parts of the Balkan Peninsula in the Ha B period. Representatives of the mentioned migrations, which were carried out in at least two larger migration waves, bringing along bowls to the Balkan Peninsula, are protagonists of historically known migrations from that period, known under names of Doric and Aegean migrations. The assumed direction of these migrations coincides mainly with the distribution direction of bowl types I and II. Migrations spreading the bowl types I and II started in the south part of the Middle Europe, but were initiated by the representatives of the Urnenfelder cultural complex from the Middle Europe, as observed in certain ceramic shapes, stated together with type I bowls and originating from cultures of the Urnenfelder complex, and in numerous metal finds, which were produced in Middle European workshops. It is of interest to point out that bowl movements could be followed up to the northwest shores of the Aegean Sea, but they are not stated in the south Trace and in Troy, thus imposing conclusion that their representatives did not reach Troy. Consequently, their possible participation in destruction of VIIb2 layer settlements is utterly uncertain. The migrations, however, started chain reaction of ethnic movements in the Balkans, causing many ethnic and cultural changes within this territory which will lead to creation of new cultural groups to mark the developed Iron Age. To what extent bowls of this type, particularly variety IIa, left deep trace in the Iron Age Cultures in the central Balkans, is shown in the fact that survivals of this variety remained within these regions even several centuries later, in late phases of the Ha C period (VI/V century BC).en
dc.publisherArheološki institut, Beograd
dc.subjectZdele kanelovanog ili fasetiranog obodasr
dc.subjectGava grupasr
dc.subjectČaka grupasr
dc.subjectGava groupen
dc.subjectČaka groupen
dc.subjectBowls with faceted or channeled rimen
dc.titlePoreklo i distribucija blagobikoničnih zdela fasetiranog ili kanelovanog oboda sa kraja bronzanog i početka gvozdenog doba na balkanskom poluostrvu - prilog proučavanju etno-kulturnih kretanja na centralnom Balkanu krajem bronzanog i početkom gvozdenog dobasr
dc.titleOrigin and distribution of slightly biconical bowls with facetted or channeled rim from the end of bronze and the beginning of iron ages on the Balkan peninsula: Contribution to the study of ethnic and cultural movements in Southeast Europe at the end of bronze and the beginning of iron agesen
dc.citation.other(59): 89-108

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