Antonović, Dragana

Link to this page

Authority KeyName Variants
orcid::0000-0002-6534-1258
  • Antonović, Dragana (25)
Projects
Serbian archaeology: cultural identity, integration factors, technological processes and the role of the central Balkans in the development of European prehistory HIDDEN FOODS: Plant foods in Palaeolithic and Mesolithic societies of SE Europe and Italy
Cultural changes and population movements in the early Prehistory of the central Balkans NOMIS Foundation
Allen Discovery Center grant from the Paul Allen Foundation British Academy [SG-42170, LRG-45589]
Cardiff University Croatian Science Foundation grant [IP-2016-06-1450]
Croatian Science Foundation [IP-2019-04-6115] Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFGGerman Research Foundation (DFG) [FOR2237]
DFGGerman Research Foundation (DFG)European Commission [AL 287 / 14-1] Elixir-Italy
ERC starting grant ADNABIOARC [263441] European Research CouncilEuropean Research Council (ERC)European Commission [ERC CoG 724703]
European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Grant [752626] French State of the IdEx Program Bordeaux [ANR-10-IDEX-03-02]
H2020 European Research Council [639286] High Risk Research in Archaeology grant of the National Science Foundation [BCS-0442096, 40967]
Howard Hughes Medical InstituteHoward Hughes Medical Institute HPC"CINECA program
Human Frontier Science Program fellowshipHuman Frontier Science Program [LT001095/2014-L] SUBSILIENCE: Subsistence and human resilience to sudden climatic events in Europe during MIS3
Romanization, urbanization and transformation of urban centres of civil, military and residential character in Roman provinces on territory of Serbia Bioarchaeology of Ancient Europe: People, Animals and Plants in the Prehistory of Serbia
Irish Research CouncilIrish Research Council for Science, Engineering and Technology [GOIPG/2013/36] McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research in Cambridge
MEN-UEFISCDI grant, Partnerships in Priority Areas Program - PN IIConsiliul National al Cercetarii Stiintifice (CNCS)Unitatea Executiva pentru Finantarea Invatamantului Superior, a Cercetarii, Dezvoltarii si Inovarii (UEFISCDI) [PN-II-PT-PCCA-2013-4-2302] NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF GENERAL MEDICAL SCIENCESUnited States Department of Health & Human ServicesNational Institutes of Health (NIH) - USANIH National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) [R01GM100233] Funding Source: NIH RePORTER
National Science FoundationNational Science Foundation (NSF) [BCS-0235465] NOMIS Stiftung

Author's Bibliography

Neanderthals on the Lower Danube: Middle Palaeolithic evidence in the Danube Gorges of the Balkans

Borić, Dušan; Cristiani, Emanuela; Hopkins, Rachel; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Gerometta, Katarina; French, Charly A., I; Mutri, Giuseppina; Calić, Jelena; Dimitrijević, Vesna; Marin-Arroyo, Ana B.; Jones, Jennifer R.; Stevens, Rhiannon; Masciana, Alana; Uno, Kevin; Richter, Kristine Korzow; Antonović, Dragana; Wehr, Karol; Lane, Christine; White, Dustin

(Wiley, Hoboken, 2022)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Borić, Dušan
AU  - Cristiani, Emanuela
AU  - Hopkins, Rachel
AU  - Schwenninger, Jean-Luc
AU  - Gerometta, Katarina
AU  - French, Charly A., I
AU  - Mutri, Giuseppina
AU  - Calić, Jelena
AU  - Dimitrijević, Vesna
AU  - Marin-Arroyo, Ana B.
AU  - Jones, Jennifer R.
AU  - Stevens, Rhiannon
AU  - Masciana, Alana
AU  - Uno, Kevin
AU  - Richter, Kristine Korzow
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
AU  - Wehr, Karol
AU  - Lane, Christine
AU  - White, Dustin
PY  - 2022
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/391
AB  - The article presents evidence about the Middle Palaeolithic and Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition interval in the karst area of the Danube Gorges in the Lower Danube Basin. We review the extant data and present new evidence from two recently investigated sites found on the Serbian side of the Danube River - Tabula Traiana and Dubocka-Kozja caves. The two sites have yielded layers dating to both the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic and have been investigated by the application of modern standards of excavation and recovery along with a suite of state-of-the-art analytical procedures. The presentation focuses on micromorphological analyses of the caves' sediments, characterisation of cryptotephra, a suite of new radiometric dates (accelerator mass spectrometry and optically stimulated luminescence) as well as proteomics (zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry) and stable isotope data in discerning patterns of human occupation of these locales over the long term.
PB  - Wiley, Hoboken
T2  - Journal of Quaternary Science
T1  - Neanderthals on the Lower Danube: Middle Palaeolithic evidence in the Danube Gorges of the Balkans
EP  - 180
IS  - 2
SP  - 142
VL  - 37
DO  - 10.1002/jqs.3354
UR  - conv_332
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Borić, Dušan and Cristiani, Emanuela and Hopkins, Rachel and Schwenninger, Jean-Luc and Gerometta, Katarina and French, Charly A., I and Mutri, Giuseppina and Calić, Jelena and Dimitrijević, Vesna and Marin-Arroyo, Ana B. and Jones, Jennifer R. and Stevens, Rhiannon and Masciana, Alana and Uno, Kevin and Richter, Kristine Korzow and Antonović, Dragana and Wehr, Karol and Lane, Christine and White, Dustin",
year = "2022",
abstract = "The article presents evidence about the Middle Palaeolithic and Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition interval in the karst area of the Danube Gorges in the Lower Danube Basin. We review the extant data and present new evidence from two recently investigated sites found on the Serbian side of the Danube River - Tabula Traiana and Dubocka-Kozja caves. The two sites have yielded layers dating to both the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic and have been investigated by the application of modern standards of excavation and recovery along with a suite of state-of-the-art analytical procedures. The presentation focuses on micromorphological analyses of the caves' sediments, characterisation of cryptotephra, a suite of new radiometric dates (accelerator mass spectrometry and optically stimulated luminescence) as well as proteomics (zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry) and stable isotope data in discerning patterns of human occupation of these locales over the long term.",
publisher = "Wiley, Hoboken",
journal = "Journal of Quaternary Science",
title = "Neanderthals on the Lower Danube: Middle Palaeolithic evidence in the Danube Gorges of the Balkans",
pages = "180-142",
number = "2",
volume = "37",
doi = "10.1002/jqs.3354",
url = "conv_332"
}
Borić, D., Cristiani, E., Hopkins, R., Schwenninger, J., Gerometta, K., French, C. A., I., Mutri, G., Calić, J., Dimitrijević, V., Marin-Arroyo, A. B., Jones, J. R., Stevens, R., Masciana, A., Uno, K., Richter, K. K., Antonović, D., Wehr, K., Lane, C.,& White, D.. (2022). Neanderthals on the Lower Danube: Middle Palaeolithic evidence in the Danube Gorges of the Balkans. in Journal of Quaternary Science
Wiley, Hoboken., 37(2), 142-180.
https://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.3354
conv_332
Borić D, Cristiani E, Hopkins R, Schwenninger J, Gerometta K, French CAI, Mutri G, Calić J, Dimitrijević V, Marin-Arroyo AB, Jones JR, Stevens R, Masciana A, Uno K, Richter KK, Antonović D, Wehr K, Lane C, White D. Neanderthals on the Lower Danube: Middle Palaeolithic evidence in the Danube Gorges of the Balkans. in Journal of Quaternary Science. 2022;37(2):142-180.
doi:10.1002/jqs.3354
conv_332 .
Borić, Dušan, Cristiani, Emanuela, Hopkins, Rachel, Schwenninger, Jean-Luc, Gerometta, Katarina, French, Charly A., I, Mutri, Giuseppina, Calić, Jelena, Dimitrijević, Vesna, Marin-Arroyo, Ana B., Jones, Jennifer R., Stevens, Rhiannon, Masciana, Alana, Uno, Kevin, Richter, Kristine Korzow, Antonović, Dragana, Wehr, Karol, Lane, Christine, White, Dustin, "Neanderthals on the Lower Danube: Middle Palaeolithic evidence in the Danube Gorges of the Balkans" in Journal of Quaternary Science, 37, no. 2 (2022):142-180,
https://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.3354 .,
conv_332 .
21

Tracking the transition to agriculture in Southern Europe through ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus

Ottoni, Claudio; Borić, Dušan; Cheronet, Olivia; Sparacello, Vitale; Dori, Irene; Coppa, Alfredo; Antonović, Dragana; Vujević, Dario; Price, Douglas T.; Pinhasi, Ron; Cristiani, Emanuela

(Natl Acad Sciences, Washington, 2021)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Ottoni, Claudio
AU  - Borić, Dušan
AU  - Cheronet, Olivia
AU  - Sparacello, Vitale
AU  - Dori, Irene
AU  - Coppa, Alfredo
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
AU  - Vujević, Dario
AU  - Price, Douglas T.
AU  - Pinhasi, Ron
AU  - Cristiani, Emanuela
PY  - 2021
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/372
AB  - Archaeological dental calculus, or mineralized plaque, is a key tool to track the evolution of oral microbiota across time in response to processes that impacted our culture and biology, such as the rise of farming during the Neolithic. However, the extent to which the human oral flora changed from prehistory until present has remained elusive due to the scarcity of data on the microbiomes of prehistoric humans. Here, we present our reconstruction of oral microbiomes via shotgun metagenomics of dental calculus in 44 ancient foragers and farmers from two regions playing a pivotal role in the spread of farming across Europe-the Balkans and the Italian Peninsula. We show that the introduction of farming in Southern Europe did not alter significantly the oral microbiomes of local forager groups, and it was in particular associated with a higher abundance of the species Olsenella sp. oral taxon 807. The human oral environment in prehistory was dominated by a microbial species, Anaerolineaceae bacterium oral taxon 439, that diversified geographically. A Near Eastern lineage of this bacterial commensal dispersed with Neolithic farmers and replaced the variant present in the local foragers. Our findings also illustrate that major taxonomic shifts in human oral microbiome composition occurred after the Neolithic and that the functional profile of modern humans evolved in recent times to develop peculiar mechanisms of antibiotic resistance that were previously absent.
PB  - Natl Acad Sciences, Washington
T2  - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
T1  - Tracking the transition to agriculture in Southern Europe through ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus
IS  - 32
VL  - 118
DO  - 10.1073/pnas.2102116118
UR  - conv_316
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Ottoni, Claudio and Borić, Dušan and Cheronet, Olivia and Sparacello, Vitale and Dori, Irene and Coppa, Alfredo and Antonović, Dragana and Vujević, Dario and Price, Douglas T. and Pinhasi, Ron and Cristiani, Emanuela",
year = "2021",
abstract = "Archaeological dental calculus, or mineralized plaque, is a key tool to track the evolution of oral microbiota across time in response to processes that impacted our culture and biology, such as the rise of farming during the Neolithic. However, the extent to which the human oral flora changed from prehistory until present has remained elusive due to the scarcity of data on the microbiomes of prehistoric humans. Here, we present our reconstruction of oral microbiomes via shotgun metagenomics of dental calculus in 44 ancient foragers and farmers from two regions playing a pivotal role in the spread of farming across Europe-the Balkans and the Italian Peninsula. We show that the introduction of farming in Southern Europe did not alter significantly the oral microbiomes of local forager groups, and it was in particular associated with a higher abundance of the species Olsenella sp. oral taxon 807. The human oral environment in prehistory was dominated by a microbial species, Anaerolineaceae bacterium oral taxon 439, that diversified geographically. A Near Eastern lineage of this bacterial commensal dispersed with Neolithic farmers and replaced the variant present in the local foragers. Our findings also illustrate that major taxonomic shifts in human oral microbiome composition occurred after the Neolithic and that the functional profile of modern humans evolved in recent times to develop peculiar mechanisms of antibiotic resistance that were previously absent.",
publisher = "Natl Acad Sciences, Washington",
journal = "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America",
title = "Tracking the transition to agriculture in Southern Europe through ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus",
number = "32",
volume = "118",
doi = "10.1073/pnas.2102116118",
url = "conv_316"
}
Ottoni, C., Borić, D., Cheronet, O., Sparacello, V., Dori, I., Coppa, A., Antonović, D., Vujević, D., Price, D. T., Pinhasi, R.,& Cristiani, E.. (2021). Tracking the transition to agriculture in Southern Europe through ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Natl Acad Sciences, Washington., 118(32).
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2102116118
conv_316
Ottoni C, Borić D, Cheronet O, Sparacello V, Dori I, Coppa A, Antonović D, Vujević D, Price DT, Pinhasi R, Cristiani E. Tracking the transition to agriculture in Southern Europe through ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2021;118(32).
doi:10.1073/pnas.2102116118
conv_316 .
Ottoni, Claudio, Borić, Dušan, Cheronet, Olivia, Sparacello, Vitale, Dori, Irene, Coppa, Alfredo, Antonović, Dragana, Vujević, Dario, Price, Douglas T., Pinhasi, Ron, Cristiani, Emanuela, "Tracking the transition to agriculture in Southern Europe through ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus" in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118, no. 32 (2021),
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2102116118 .,
conv_316 .
150
7
4

Wild cereal grain consumption among Early Holocene foragers of the Balkans predates the arrival of agriculture

Cristiani, Emanuela; Radini, Anita; Zupancich, Andrea; Gismondi, Angelo; D'Agostino, Alessia; Ottoni, Claudio; Carra, Marialetizia; Vukojičić, Snežana; Constantinescu, Mihai; Antonović, Dragana; Price, Douglas T.; Borić, Dušan

(Elife Sciences Publ Ltd, Cambridge, 2021)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Cristiani, Emanuela
AU  - Radini, Anita
AU  - Zupancich, Andrea
AU  - Gismondi, Angelo
AU  - D'Agostino, Alessia
AU  - Ottoni, Claudio
AU  - Carra, Marialetizia
AU  - Vukojičić, Snežana
AU  - Constantinescu, Mihai
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
AU  - Price, Douglas T.
AU  - Borić, Dušan
PY  - 2021
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/374
AB  - Forager focus on wild cereal plants has been documented in the core zone of domestication in southwestern Asia, while evidence for forager use of wild grass grains remains sporadic elsewhere. In this paper, we present starch grain and phytolith analyses of dental calculus from 60 Mesolithic and Early Neolithic individuals from five sites in the Danube Gorges of the central Balkans. This zone was inhabited by likely complex Holocene foragers for several millennia before the appearance of the first farmers similar to 6200 cal BC. We also analyzed forager ground stone tools (GSTs) for evidence of plant processing. Our results based on the study of dental calculus show that certain species of Poaceae (species of the genus Aegi(ops) were used since the Early Mesolithic, while GSTs exhibit traces of a developed grass grain processing technology. The adoption of domesticated plants in this region after similar to 6500 cal BC might have been eased by the existing familiarity with wild cereals.
PB  - Elife Sciences Publ Ltd, Cambridge
T2  - ELIFE
T1  - Wild cereal grain consumption among Early Holocene foragers of the Balkans predates the arrival of agriculture
VL  - 10
DO  - 10.7554/eLife.72976
UR  - conv_330
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Cristiani, Emanuela and Radini, Anita and Zupancich, Andrea and Gismondi, Angelo and D'Agostino, Alessia and Ottoni, Claudio and Carra, Marialetizia and Vukojičić, Snežana and Constantinescu, Mihai and Antonović, Dragana and Price, Douglas T. and Borić, Dušan",
year = "2021",
abstract = "Forager focus on wild cereal plants has been documented in the core zone of domestication in southwestern Asia, while evidence for forager use of wild grass grains remains sporadic elsewhere. In this paper, we present starch grain and phytolith analyses of dental calculus from 60 Mesolithic and Early Neolithic individuals from five sites in the Danube Gorges of the central Balkans. This zone was inhabited by likely complex Holocene foragers for several millennia before the appearance of the first farmers similar to 6200 cal BC. We also analyzed forager ground stone tools (GSTs) for evidence of plant processing. Our results based on the study of dental calculus show that certain species of Poaceae (species of the genus Aegi(ops) were used since the Early Mesolithic, while GSTs exhibit traces of a developed grass grain processing technology. The adoption of domesticated plants in this region after similar to 6500 cal BC might have been eased by the existing familiarity with wild cereals.",
publisher = "Elife Sciences Publ Ltd, Cambridge",
journal = "ELIFE",
title = "Wild cereal grain consumption among Early Holocene foragers of the Balkans predates the arrival of agriculture",
volume = "10",
doi = "10.7554/eLife.72976",
url = "conv_330"
}
Cristiani, E., Radini, A., Zupancich, A., Gismondi, A., D'Agostino, A., Ottoni, C., Carra, M., Vukojičić, S., Constantinescu, M., Antonović, D., Price, D. T.,& Borić, D.. (2021). Wild cereal grain consumption among Early Holocene foragers of the Balkans predates the arrival of agriculture. in ELIFE
Elife Sciences Publ Ltd, Cambridge., 10.
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.72976
conv_330
Cristiani E, Radini A, Zupancich A, Gismondi A, D'Agostino A, Ottoni C, Carra M, Vukojičić S, Constantinescu M, Antonović D, Price DT, Borić D. Wild cereal grain consumption among Early Holocene foragers of the Balkans predates the arrival of agriculture. in ELIFE. 2021;10.
doi:10.7554/eLife.72976
conv_330 .
Cristiani, Emanuela, Radini, Anita, Zupancich, Andrea, Gismondi, Angelo, D'Agostino, Alessia, Ottoni, Claudio, Carra, Marialetizia, Vukojičić, Snežana, Constantinescu, Mihai, Antonović, Dragana, Price, Douglas T., Borić, Dušan, "Wild cereal grain consumption among Early Holocene foragers of the Balkans predates the arrival of agriculture" in ELIFE, 10 (2021),
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.72976 .,
conv_330 .
60

Functional differentiation and possible regional specialisation of the Vinca culture settlements: Viewpoint from osseous and lithic industries

Vitezović, Selena; Antonović, Dragana

(Elsevier Ltd, Oxford, 2020)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Vitezović, Selena
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
PY  - 2020
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/352
AB  - Late Neolithic/Early Eneolithic Vina culture is marked by permanent, long-living settlements, increased production of different craft goods and early metallurgical activities. Economic activities were rich and diverse, and included not only strictly subsistence related ones, but also production of luxurious, prestige, "special" objects, such as figurines, personal ornaments, and many more. Furthermore, some studies also suggest that we may note the beginning of craft specialisation in the widest sense within the Vina. culture. On a regional scale, differences in economic activities may be observed among different settlements and also in presence/absence of some artefact types. This may reflect a certain level of functional differentiation and possibly specialisation between different settlements, as noted, for example, among the Neolithic communities in Greece. In this paper, we will focus on the analyses of everyday lithic and osseous tools, in order to examine the differences in everyday activities, raw material management and craft production among different settlements. Through comparative analysis, we will examine the possible presence of a functional differentiation between different Vina culture settlements and its extent.
PB  - Elsevier Ltd, Oxford
T2  - Quaternary International
T1  - Functional differentiation and possible regional specialisation of the Vinca culture settlements: Viewpoint from osseous and lithic industries
EP  - 48
SP  - 39
VL  - 539
DO  - 10.1016/j.quaint.2018.12.029
UR  - conv_317
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Vitezović, Selena and Antonović, Dragana",
year = "2020",
abstract = "Late Neolithic/Early Eneolithic Vina culture is marked by permanent, long-living settlements, increased production of different craft goods and early metallurgical activities. Economic activities were rich and diverse, and included not only strictly subsistence related ones, but also production of luxurious, prestige, "special" objects, such as figurines, personal ornaments, and many more. Furthermore, some studies also suggest that we may note the beginning of craft specialisation in the widest sense within the Vina. culture. On a regional scale, differences in economic activities may be observed among different settlements and also in presence/absence of some artefact types. This may reflect a certain level of functional differentiation and possibly specialisation between different settlements, as noted, for example, among the Neolithic communities in Greece. In this paper, we will focus on the analyses of everyday lithic and osseous tools, in order to examine the differences in everyday activities, raw material management and craft production among different settlements. Through comparative analysis, we will examine the possible presence of a functional differentiation between different Vina culture settlements and its extent.",
publisher = "Elsevier Ltd, Oxford",
journal = "Quaternary International",
title = "Functional differentiation and possible regional specialisation of the Vinca culture settlements: Viewpoint from osseous and lithic industries",
pages = "48-39",
volume = "539",
doi = "10.1016/j.quaint.2018.12.029",
url = "conv_317"
}
Vitezović, S.,& Antonović, D.. (2020). Functional differentiation and possible regional specialisation of the Vinca culture settlements: Viewpoint from osseous and lithic industries. in Quaternary International
Elsevier Ltd, Oxford., 539, 39-48.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2018.12.029
conv_317
Vitezović S, Antonović D. Functional differentiation and possible regional specialisation of the Vinca culture settlements: Viewpoint from osseous and lithic industries. in Quaternary International. 2020;539:39-48.
doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2018.12.029
conv_317 .
Vitezović, Selena, Antonović, Dragana, "Functional differentiation and possible regional specialisation of the Vinca culture settlements: Viewpoint from osseous and lithic industries" in Quaternary International, 539 (2020):39-48,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2018.12.029 .,
conv_317 .
1
1
1

Vojislav Filipović, Aleksandar Bulatović, Aleksandar Kapuran: Papers in honor of Rastko Vasić 80th birthday, Institute of Archaeology, Belgrade, 2019

Antonović, Dragana

(Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd, 2019)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
PY  - 2019
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/314
PB  - Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd
T2  - Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva
T1  - Vojislav Filipović, Aleksandar Bulatović, Aleksandar Kapuran: Papers in honor of Rastko Vasić 80th birthday, Institute of Archaeology, Belgrade, 2019
EP  - 358
IS  - 35
SP  - 355
UR  - conv_250
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Antonović, Dragana",
year = "2019",
publisher = "Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd",
journal = "Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva",
title = "Vojislav Filipović, Aleksandar Bulatović, Aleksandar Kapuran: Papers in honor of Rastko Vasić 80th birthday, Institute of Archaeology, Belgrade, 2019",
pages = "358-355",
number = "35",
url = "conv_250"
}
Antonović, D.. (2019). Vojislav Filipović, Aleksandar Bulatović, Aleksandar Kapuran: Papers in honor of Rastko Vasić 80th birthday, Institute of Archaeology, Belgrade, 2019. in Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva
Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd.(35), 355-358.
conv_250
Antonović D. Vojislav Filipović, Aleksandar Bulatović, Aleksandar Kapuran: Papers in honor of Rastko Vasić 80th birthday, Institute of Archaeology, Belgrade, 2019. in Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva. 2019;(35):355-358.
conv_250 .
Antonović, Dragana, "Vojislav Filipović, Aleksandar Bulatović, Aleksandar Kapuran: Papers in honor of Rastko Vasić 80th birthday, Institute of Archaeology, Belgrade, 2019" in Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva, no. 35 (2019):355-358,
conv_250 .

Craftsmanship on the Middle Danube Limes

Jeremić, Gordana; Antonović, Dragana; Vitezović, Selena

(Belgrade : Institute of Archaeology, 2018)

TY  - CHAP
AU  - Jeremić, Gordana
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
AU  - Vitezović, Selena
PY  - 2018
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/397
AB  - The Roman army required large quantities of different objects for daily-use and it
was an important consumer and producer of diverse craft goods, such as everyday
tools, clothing items, vessels for storage, cooking and consumption, luxury personal
items, and many more.
The Limes regions in Pannonia Inferior and Moesia Superior had an important role in
the economic and political life of these provinces, because of the permanent presence
of the Roman army and state administration, and also thanks to the convenient geographical
position and numerous natural resources. Along with the establishment of
the Roman government in the Pannonia Inferior and Moesia Superior, diverse goods
from different parts of the Empire began to arrive, and craft production by Roman
standards was established in the borderland areas as well. At the same time, autochthonous,
traditional techniques of production were not neglected. In this paper, we will
offer a brief overview of the archaeological and epigraphic evidence for craft production
of objects made from clay, stone and bone raw materials, related to the Limes on the
present-day territory of Serbia (Roman provinces of Pannonia and Moesia Superior).
PB  - Belgrade : Institute of Archaeology
T2  - Vivere Militare Est : From Populus to Emperors - Living on the Frontier
T1  - Craftsmanship on the Middle Danube Limes
EP  - 168
SP  - 131
VL  - 1
ER  - 
@inbook{
author = "Jeremić, Gordana and Antonović, Dragana and Vitezović, Selena",
year = "2018",
abstract = "The Roman army required large quantities of different objects for daily-use and it
was an important consumer and producer of diverse craft goods, such as everyday
tools, clothing items, vessels for storage, cooking and consumption, luxury personal
items, and many more.
The Limes regions in Pannonia Inferior and Moesia Superior had an important role in
the economic and political life of these provinces, because of the permanent presence
of the Roman army and state administration, and also thanks to the convenient geographical
position and numerous natural resources. Along with the establishment of
the Roman government in the Pannonia Inferior and Moesia Superior, diverse goods
from different parts of the Empire began to arrive, and craft production by Roman
standards was established in the borderland areas as well. At the same time, autochthonous,
traditional techniques of production were not neglected. In this paper, we will
offer a brief overview of the archaeological and epigraphic evidence for craft production
of objects made from clay, stone and bone raw materials, related to the Limes on the
present-day territory of Serbia (Roman provinces of Pannonia and Moesia Superior).",
publisher = "Belgrade : Institute of Archaeology",
journal = "Vivere Militare Est : From Populus to Emperors - Living on the Frontier",
booktitle = "Craftsmanship on the Middle Danube Limes",
pages = "168-131",
volume = "1"
}
Jeremić, G., Antonović, D.,& Vitezović, S.. (2018). Craftsmanship on the Middle Danube Limes. in Vivere Militare Est : From Populus to Emperors - Living on the Frontier
Belgrade : Institute of Archaeology., 1, 131-168.
Jeremić G, Antonović D, Vitezović S. Craftsmanship on the Middle Danube Limes. in Vivere Militare Est : From Populus to Emperors - Living on the Frontier. 2018;1:131-168..
Jeremić, Gordana, Antonović, Dragana, Vitezović, Selena, "Craftsmanship on the Middle Danube Limes" in Vivere Militare Est : From Populus to Emperors - Living on the Frontier, 1 (2018):131-168.

The genomic history of southeastern Europe

Mathieson, Iain; Alpaslan-Roodenberg, Songul; Posth, Cosimo; Szecsenyi-Nagy, Anna; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Olalde, Inigo; Broomandkhoshbacht, Nasreen; Candilio, Francesca; Cheronet, Olivia; Fernandes, Daniel; Ferry, Matthew; Gamarra, Beatriz; Gonzalez Fortes, Gloria; Haak, Wolfgang; Harney, Eadaoin; Jones, Eppie; Keating, Denise; Krause-Kyora, Ben; Kucukkalipci, Isil; Michel, Megan; Mittnik, Alissa; Naegele, Kathrin; Novak, Mario; Oppenheimer, Jonas; Patterson, Nick; Pfrengle, Saskia; Sirak, Kendra; Stewardson, Kristin; Vai, Stefania; Alexandrov, Stefan; Alt, Kurt W.; Andreescu, Radian; Antonović, Dragana; Ash, Abigail; Atanassova, Nadezhda; Bacvarov, Krum; Gusztav, Mende Balazs; Bocherens, Herve; Bolus, Michael; Boroneant, Adina; Boyadzhiev, Yavor; Budnik, Alicja; Burmaz, Josip; Chohadzhiev, Stefan; Conard, Nicholas J.; Cottiaux, Richard; Cuka, Maja; Cupillard, Christophe; Drucker, Dorothee G.; Elenski, Nedko; Francken, Michael; Galabova, Borislava; Ganetsovski, Georgi; Gely, Bernard; Hajdu, Tamas; Handzhyiska, Veneta; Harvati, Katerina; Higham, Thomas; Iliev, Stanislav; Janković, Ivor; Karavanic, Ivor; Kennett, Douglas J.; Komso, Darko; Kozak, Alexandra; Labuda, Damian; Lari, Martina; Lazar, Catalin; Leppek, Maleen; Leshtakov, Krassimir; Lo Vetro, Domenico; Los, Dzeni; Lozanov, Ivaylo; Malina, Maria; Martini, Fabio; McSweeney, Kath; Meller, Harald; Mendusic, Marko; Mirea, Pavel; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Petrova, Vanya; Price, Douglas T.; Simalcsik, Angela; Sineo, Luca; Slaus, Mario; Slavchev, Vladimir; Stanev, Petar; Starovic, Andrej; Szeniczey, Tamas; Talamo, Sahra; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Thevenet, Corinne; Valchev, Ivan; Valentin, Frederique; Vasilyev, Sergey; Veljanovska, Fanica; Venelinova, Svetlana; Veselovskaya, Elizaveta; Viola, Bence; Virag, Cristian; Zaninovic, Josko; Zaeuner, Steve; Stockhammer, Philipp W.; Catalano, Giulio; Krauss, Raiko; Caramelli, David; Zarina, Gunita; Gaydarska, Bisserka; Lillie, Malcolm; Nikitin, Alexey G.; Potekhina, Inna; Papathanasiou, Anastasia; Borić, Dušan; Bonsall, Clive; Krause, Johannes; Pinhasi, Ron; Reich, David

(Nature Portfolio, Berlin, 2018)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Mathieson, Iain
AU  - Alpaslan-Roodenberg, Songul
AU  - Posth, Cosimo
AU  - Szecsenyi-Nagy, Anna
AU  - Rohland, Nadin
AU  - Mallick, Swapan
AU  - Olalde, Inigo
AU  - Broomandkhoshbacht, Nasreen
AU  - Candilio, Francesca
AU  - Cheronet, Olivia
AU  - Fernandes, Daniel
AU  - Ferry, Matthew
AU  - Gamarra, Beatriz
AU  - Gonzalez Fortes, Gloria
AU  - Haak, Wolfgang
AU  - Harney, Eadaoin
AU  - Jones, Eppie
AU  - Keating, Denise
AU  - Krause-Kyora, Ben
AU  - Kucukkalipci, Isil
AU  - Michel, Megan
AU  - Mittnik, Alissa
AU  - Naegele, Kathrin
AU  - Novak, Mario
AU  - Oppenheimer, Jonas
AU  - Patterson, Nick
AU  - Pfrengle, Saskia
AU  - Sirak, Kendra
AU  - Stewardson, Kristin
AU  - Vai, Stefania
AU  - Alexandrov, Stefan
AU  - Alt, Kurt W.
AU  - Andreescu, Radian
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
AU  - Ash, Abigail
AU  - Atanassova, Nadezhda
AU  - Bacvarov, Krum
AU  - Gusztav, Mende Balazs
AU  - Bocherens, Herve
AU  - Bolus, Michael
AU  - Boroneant, Adina
AU  - Boyadzhiev, Yavor
AU  - Budnik, Alicja
AU  - Burmaz, Josip
AU  - Chohadzhiev, Stefan
AU  - Conard, Nicholas J.
AU  - Cottiaux, Richard
AU  - Cuka, Maja
AU  - Cupillard, Christophe
AU  - Drucker, Dorothee G.
AU  - Elenski, Nedko
AU  - Francken, Michael
AU  - Galabova, Borislava
AU  - Ganetsovski, Georgi
AU  - Gely, Bernard
AU  - Hajdu, Tamas
AU  - Handzhyiska, Veneta
AU  - Harvati, Katerina
AU  - Higham, Thomas
AU  - Iliev, Stanislav
AU  - Janković, Ivor
AU  - Karavanic, Ivor
AU  - Kennett, Douglas J.
AU  - Komso, Darko
AU  - Kozak, Alexandra
AU  - Labuda, Damian
AU  - Lari, Martina
AU  - Lazar, Catalin
AU  - Leppek, Maleen
AU  - Leshtakov, Krassimir
AU  - Lo Vetro, Domenico
AU  - Los, Dzeni
AU  - Lozanov, Ivaylo
AU  - Malina, Maria
AU  - Martini, Fabio
AU  - McSweeney, Kath
AU  - Meller, Harald
AU  - Mendusic, Marko
AU  - Mirea, Pavel
AU  - Moiseyev, Vyacheslav
AU  - Petrova, Vanya
AU  - Price, Douglas T.
AU  - Simalcsik, Angela
AU  - Sineo, Luca
AU  - Slaus, Mario
AU  - Slavchev, Vladimir
AU  - Stanev, Petar
AU  - Starovic, Andrej
AU  - Szeniczey, Tamas
AU  - Talamo, Sahra
AU  - Teschler-Nicola, Maria
AU  - Thevenet, Corinne
AU  - Valchev, Ivan
AU  - Valentin, Frederique
AU  - Vasilyev, Sergey
AU  - Veljanovska, Fanica
AU  - Venelinova, Svetlana
AU  - Veselovskaya, Elizaveta
AU  - Viola, Bence
AU  - Virag, Cristian
AU  - Zaninovic, Josko
AU  - Zaeuner, Steve
AU  - Stockhammer, Philipp W.
AU  - Catalano, Giulio
AU  - Krauss, Raiko
AU  - Caramelli, David
AU  - Zarina, Gunita
AU  - Gaydarska, Bisserka
AU  - Lillie, Malcolm
AU  - Nikitin, Alexey G.
AU  - Potekhina, Inna
AU  - Papathanasiou, Anastasia
AU  - Borić, Dušan
AU  - Bonsall, Clive
AU  - Krause, Johannes
AU  - Pinhasi, Ron
AU  - Reich, David
PY  - 2018
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/280
AB  - Farming was first introduced to Europe in the mid-seventh millennium bc, and was associated with migrants from Anatolia who settled in the southeast before spreading throughout Europe. Here, to understand the dynamics of this process, we analysed genome-wide ancient DNA data from 225 individuals who lived in southeastern Europe and surrounding regions between 12000 and 500 bc. We document a west-east cline of ancestry in indigenous hunter-gatherers and, in eastern Europe, the early stages in the formation of Bronze Age steppe ancestry. We show that the first farmers of northern and western Europe dispersed through southeastern Europe with limited hunter-gatherer admixture, but that some early groups in the southeast mixed extensively with hunter-gatherers without the sex-biased admixture that prevailed later in the north and west. We also show that southeastern Europe continued to be a nexus between east and west after the arrival of farmers, with intermittent genetic contact with steppe populations occurring up to 2,000 years earlier than the migrations from the steppe that ultimately replaced much of the population of northern Europe.
PB  - Nature Portfolio, Berlin
T2  - Nature
T1  - The genomic history of southeastern Europe
EP  - +
IS  - 7695
SP  - 197
VL  - 555
DO  - 10.1038/nature25778
UR  - conv_360
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Mathieson, Iain and Alpaslan-Roodenberg, Songul and Posth, Cosimo and Szecsenyi-Nagy, Anna and Rohland, Nadin and Mallick, Swapan and Olalde, Inigo and Broomandkhoshbacht, Nasreen and Candilio, Francesca and Cheronet, Olivia and Fernandes, Daniel and Ferry, Matthew and Gamarra, Beatriz and Gonzalez Fortes, Gloria and Haak, Wolfgang and Harney, Eadaoin and Jones, Eppie and Keating, Denise and Krause-Kyora, Ben and Kucukkalipci, Isil and Michel, Megan and Mittnik, Alissa and Naegele, Kathrin and Novak, Mario and Oppenheimer, Jonas and Patterson, Nick and Pfrengle, Saskia and Sirak, Kendra and Stewardson, Kristin and Vai, Stefania and Alexandrov, Stefan and Alt, Kurt W. and Andreescu, Radian and Antonović, Dragana and Ash, Abigail and Atanassova, Nadezhda and Bacvarov, Krum and Gusztav, Mende Balazs and Bocherens, Herve and Bolus, Michael and Boroneant, Adina and Boyadzhiev, Yavor and Budnik, Alicja and Burmaz, Josip and Chohadzhiev, Stefan and Conard, Nicholas J. and Cottiaux, Richard and Cuka, Maja and Cupillard, Christophe and Drucker, Dorothee G. and Elenski, Nedko and Francken, Michael and Galabova, Borislava and Ganetsovski, Georgi and Gely, Bernard and Hajdu, Tamas and Handzhyiska, Veneta and Harvati, Katerina and Higham, Thomas and Iliev, Stanislav and Janković, Ivor and Karavanic, Ivor and Kennett, Douglas J. and Komso, Darko and Kozak, Alexandra and Labuda, Damian and Lari, Martina and Lazar, Catalin and Leppek, Maleen and Leshtakov, Krassimir and Lo Vetro, Domenico and Los, Dzeni and Lozanov, Ivaylo and Malina, Maria and Martini, Fabio and McSweeney, Kath and Meller, Harald and Mendusic, Marko and Mirea, Pavel and Moiseyev, Vyacheslav and Petrova, Vanya and Price, Douglas T. and Simalcsik, Angela and Sineo, Luca and Slaus, Mario and Slavchev, Vladimir and Stanev, Petar and Starovic, Andrej and Szeniczey, Tamas and Talamo, Sahra and Teschler-Nicola, Maria and Thevenet, Corinne and Valchev, Ivan and Valentin, Frederique and Vasilyev, Sergey and Veljanovska, Fanica and Venelinova, Svetlana and Veselovskaya, Elizaveta and Viola, Bence and Virag, Cristian and Zaninovic, Josko and Zaeuner, Steve and Stockhammer, Philipp W. and Catalano, Giulio and Krauss, Raiko and Caramelli, David and Zarina, Gunita and Gaydarska, Bisserka and Lillie, Malcolm and Nikitin, Alexey G. and Potekhina, Inna and Papathanasiou, Anastasia and Borić, Dušan and Bonsall, Clive and Krause, Johannes and Pinhasi, Ron and Reich, David",
year = "2018",
abstract = "Farming was first introduced to Europe in the mid-seventh millennium bc, and was associated with migrants from Anatolia who settled in the southeast before spreading throughout Europe. Here, to understand the dynamics of this process, we analysed genome-wide ancient DNA data from 225 individuals who lived in southeastern Europe and surrounding regions between 12000 and 500 bc. We document a west-east cline of ancestry in indigenous hunter-gatherers and, in eastern Europe, the early stages in the formation of Bronze Age steppe ancestry. We show that the first farmers of northern and western Europe dispersed through southeastern Europe with limited hunter-gatherer admixture, but that some early groups in the southeast mixed extensively with hunter-gatherers without the sex-biased admixture that prevailed later in the north and west. We also show that southeastern Europe continued to be a nexus between east and west after the arrival of farmers, with intermittent genetic contact with steppe populations occurring up to 2,000 years earlier than the migrations from the steppe that ultimately replaced much of the population of northern Europe.",
publisher = "Nature Portfolio, Berlin",
journal = "Nature",
title = "The genomic history of southeastern Europe",
pages = "+-197",
number = "7695",
volume = "555",
doi = "10.1038/nature25778",
url = "conv_360"
}
Mathieson, I., Alpaslan-Roodenberg, S., Posth, C., Szecsenyi-Nagy, A., Rohland, N., Mallick, S., Olalde, I., Broomandkhoshbacht, N., Candilio, F., Cheronet, O., Fernandes, D., Ferry, M., Gamarra, B., Gonzalez Fortes, G., Haak, W., Harney, E., Jones, E., Keating, D., Krause-Kyora, B., Kucukkalipci, I., Michel, M., Mittnik, A., Naegele, K., Novak, M., Oppenheimer, J., Patterson, N., Pfrengle, S., Sirak, K., Stewardson, K., Vai, S., Alexandrov, S., Alt, K. W., Andreescu, R., Antonović, D., Ash, A., Atanassova, N., Bacvarov, K., Gusztav, M. B., Bocherens, H., Bolus, M., Boroneant, A., Boyadzhiev, Y., Budnik, A., Burmaz, J., Chohadzhiev, S., Conard, N. J., Cottiaux, R., Cuka, M., Cupillard, C., Drucker, D. G., Elenski, N., Francken, M., Galabova, B., Ganetsovski, G., Gely, B., Hajdu, T., Handzhyiska, V., Harvati, K., Higham, T., Iliev, S., Janković, I., Karavanic, I., Kennett, D. J., Komso, D., Kozak, A., Labuda, D., Lari, M., Lazar, C., Leppek, M., Leshtakov, K., Lo Vetro, D., Los, D., Lozanov, I., Malina, M., Martini, F., McSweeney, K., Meller, H., Mendusic, M., Mirea, P., Moiseyev, V., Petrova, V., Price, D. T., Simalcsik, A., Sineo, L., Slaus, M., Slavchev, V., Stanev, P., Starovic, A., Szeniczey, T., Talamo, S., Teschler-Nicola, M., Thevenet, C., Valchev, I., Valentin, F., Vasilyev, S., Veljanovska, F., Venelinova, S., Veselovskaya, E., Viola, B., Virag, C., Zaninovic, J., Zaeuner, S., Stockhammer, P. W., Catalano, G., Krauss, R., Caramelli, D., Zarina, G., Gaydarska, B., Lillie, M., Nikitin, A. G., Potekhina, I., Papathanasiou, A., Borić, D., Bonsall, C., Krause, J., Pinhasi, R.,& Reich, D.. (2018). The genomic history of southeastern Europe. in Nature
Nature Portfolio, Berlin., 555(7695), 197-+.
https://doi.org/10.1038/nature25778
conv_360
Mathieson I, Alpaslan-Roodenberg S, Posth C, Szecsenyi-Nagy A, Rohland N, Mallick S, Olalde I, Broomandkhoshbacht N, Candilio F, Cheronet O, Fernandes D, Ferry M, Gamarra B, Gonzalez Fortes G, Haak W, Harney E, Jones E, Keating D, Krause-Kyora B, Kucukkalipci I, Michel M, Mittnik A, Naegele K, Novak M, Oppenheimer J, Patterson N, Pfrengle S, Sirak K, Stewardson K, Vai S, Alexandrov S, Alt KW, Andreescu R, Antonović D, Ash A, Atanassova N, Bacvarov K, Gusztav MB, Bocherens H, Bolus M, Boroneant A, Boyadzhiev Y, Budnik A, Burmaz J, Chohadzhiev S, Conard NJ, Cottiaux R, Cuka M, Cupillard C, Drucker DG, Elenski N, Francken M, Galabova B, Ganetsovski G, Gely B, Hajdu T, Handzhyiska V, Harvati K, Higham T, Iliev S, Janković I, Karavanic I, Kennett DJ, Komso D, Kozak A, Labuda D, Lari M, Lazar C, Leppek M, Leshtakov K, Lo Vetro D, Los D, Lozanov I, Malina M, Martini F, McSweeney K, Meller H, Mendusic M, Mirea P, Moiseyev V, Petrova V, Price DT, Simalcsik A, Sineo L, Slaus M, Slavchev V, Stanev P, Starovic A, Szeniczey T, Talamo S, Teschler-Nicola M, Thevenet C, Valchev I, Valentin F, Vasilyev S, Veljanovska F, Venelinova S, Veselovskaya E, Viola B, Virag C, Zaninovic J, Zaeuner S, Stockhammer PW, Catalano G, Krauss R, Caramelli D, Zarina G, Gaydarska B, Lillie M, Nikitin AG, Potekhina I, Papathanasiou A, Borić D, Bonsall C, Krause J, Pinhasi R, Reich D. The genomic history of southeastern Europe. in Nature. 2018;555(7695):197-+.
doi:10.1038/nature25778
conv_360 .
Mathieson, Iain, Alpaslan-Roodenberg, Songul, Posth, Cosimo, Szecsenyi-Nagy, Anna, Rohland, Nadin, Mallick, Swapan, Olalde, Inigo, Broomandkhoshbacht, Nasreen, Candilio, Francesca, Cheronet, Olivia, Fernandes, Daniel, Ferry, Matthew, Gamarra, Beatriz, Gonzalez Fortes, Gloria, Haak, Wolfgang, Harney, Eadaoin, Jones, Eppie, Keating, Denise, Krause-Kyora, Ben, Kucukkalipci, Isil, Michel, Megan, Mittnik, Alissa, Naegele, Kathrin, Novak, Mario, Oppenheimer, Jonas, Patterson, Nick, Pfrengle, Saskia, Sirak, Kendra, Stewardson, Kristin, Vai, Stefania, Alexandrov, Stefan, Alt, Kurt W., Andreescu, Radian, Antonović, Dragana, Ash, Abigail, Atanassova, Nadezhda, Bacvarov, Krum, Gusztav, Mende Balazs, Bocherens, Herve, Bolus, Michael, Boroneant, Adina, Boyadzhiev, Yavor, Budnik, Alicja, Burmaz, Josip, Chohadzhiev, Stefan, Conard, Nicholas J., Cottiaux, Richard, Cuka, Maja, Cupillard, Christophe, Drucker, Dorothee G., Elenski, Nedko, Francken, Michael, Galabova, Borislava, Ganetsovski, Georgi, Gely, Bernard, Hajdu, Tamas, Handzhyiska, Veneta, Harvati, Katerina, Higham, Thomas, Iliev, Stanislav, Janković, Ivor, Karavanic, Ivor, Kennett, Douglas J., Komso, Darko, Kozak, Alexandra, Labuda, Damian, Lari, Martina, Lazar, Catalin, Leppek, Maleen, Leshtakov, Krassimir, Lo Vetro, Domenico, Los, Dzeni, Lozanov, Ivaylo, Malina, Maria, Martini, Fabio, McSweeney, Kath, Meller, Harald, Mendusic, Marko, Mirea, Pavel, Moiseyev, Vyacheslav, Petrova, Vanya, Price, Douglas T., Simalcsik, Angela, Sineo, Luca, Slaus, Mario, Slavchev, Vladimir, Stanev, Petar, Starovic, Andrej, Szeniczey, Tamas, Talamo, Sahra, Teschler-Nicola, Maria, Thevenet, Corinne, Valchev, Ivan, Valentin, Frederique, Vasilyev, Sergey, Veljanovska, Fanica, Venelinova, Svetlana, Veselovskaya, Elizaveta, Viola, Bence, Virag, Cristian, Zaninovic, Josko, Zaeuner, Steve, Stockhammer, Philipp W., Catalano, Giulio, Krauss, Raiko, Caramelli, David, Zarina, Gunita, Gaydarska, Bisserka, Lillie, Malcolm, Nikitin, Alexey G., Potekhina, Inna, Papathanasiou, Anastasia, Borić, Dušan, Bonsall, Clive, Krause, Johannes, Pinhasi, Ron, Reich, David, "The genomic history of southeastern Europe" in Nature, 555, no. 7695 (2018):197-+,
https://doi.org/10.1038/nature25778 .,
conv_360 .
491
338
48
276

MESO 2015. The 9th International Conference on the Mesolithic in Europe, Belgrade, Serbia, September 14th-18th

Antonović, Dragana; Gurova, Maria

(2015)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
AU  - Gurova, Maria
PY  - 2015
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/232
T2  - Българско е-Списание за Археология
T1  - MESO 2015. The 9th International Conference on the Mesolithic in Europe, Belgrade, Serbia, September 14th-18th
EP  - 223
IS  - 2
SP  - 219
VL  - 5
UR  - conv_766
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Antonović, Dragana and Gurova, Maria",
year = "2015",
journal = "Българско е-Списание за Археология",
title = "MESO 2015. The 9th International Conference on the Mesolithic in Europe, Belgrade, Serbia, September 14th-18th",
pages = "223-219",
number = "2",
volume = "5",
url = "conv_766"
}
Antonović, D.,& Gurova, M.. (2015). MESO 2015. The 9th International Conference on the Mesolithic in Europe, Belgrade, Serbia, September 14th-18th. in Българско е-Списание за Археология, 5(2), 219-223.
conv_766
Antonović D, Gurova M. MESO 2015. The 9th International Conference on the Mesolithic in Europe, Belgrade, Serbia, September 14th-18th. in Българско е-Списание за Археология. 2015;5(2):219-223.
conv_766 .
Antonović, Dragana, Gurova, Maria, "MESO 2015. The 9th International Conference on the Mesolithic in Europe, Belgrade, Serbia, September 14th-18th" in Българско е-Списание за Археология, 5, no. 2 (2015):219-223,
conv_766 .

Kameno oruđe sa Malog Šturca - istraživanje 2011. i 2012. godine

Antonović, Dragana

(Narodni muzej, Beograd, 2013)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
PY  - 2013
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/182
AB  - Pretpostavku da se na lokalitetu Prljuša na Malom Šturcu nalazio veliki praistorijski rudnik bakra koji je bio eksploatisan u dužem periodu tokom eneolita i bronzanog doba, osim prostranih okana i podzemnih radova, potvrđuje i izuzetno veliki broj rudarskih batova i drugog kamenog oruđa. Tokom istraživanja 2011. i 2012. godine, detaljnim rekognosciranjem lokaliteta po kvadratnoj mreži 5 h 5 m, konstatovano je, na samoj površini, prisustvo oko 1.000 rudarskih batova. Sakupljeno je 68 kamenih alatki. Znatan broj polufabrikata bez tragova upotrebe, kao i alatki izrađenih od kamena sa samog nalazišta pokazao je da je kameno oruđe vrlo često proizvođeno i na samom rudištu. Prisustvo batova skoro na samom vrhu padine Prljuše potvrđuje praistorijsku eksploataciju bakarne rude na celom lokalitetu. Za sada nije primećena njihova povećana koncentracija na površini oko samih rudarskih okana.
AB  - More recent investigations of prehistoric copper mine at Mali Šturac have been conducted in 2011 and 2012. On that occasion detailed surveying of the site using 5 x 5 m grid resulted in discovery of around 1000 mining mallets and other stone tools just on the surface. We gathered 68 stone tools, mostly mining mallets. Considerable amount of semi-finished objects without traces of use as well as tools made of stone from the site confirmed that mallets and other stone tools were often made on the mining site. For the mallets had been used pieces of stones taken out of the rock mass but also large pebbles from the rivers and brooks. Piece of stone was worked by knapping and pecking to obtain the desired shape. Working technique was mostly rough and small number of strokes was applied. All mining mallets have transversal groove for attaching tool to the handle. Except the mallets few stone tools of different type have been found at the site Prljuša. One fragmented whetstone as well as few hammerstones, axes and anvils for crashing ore make an interesting segment of stone tool assemblage from Mali Šturac. They are of smaller size and distinguish at first glance from mining mallets because they do not have transversal groove. Few objects could be explained as unfinished axes but also as unused small mallets for crashing ore. Stone tools from Mali Šturac were made of sandstone, ignimbrite and quartz latite. All raw materials are of local origin and some of them are from the site Prljuša itself. Not any particular regularity in horizontal distribution of stone artifacts has been established, except that largest quantity was recorded in the middle and smaller in lower and upper section of the site. Occurrence of mallets near the very top confirms prehistoric exploitation of copper ore within the entire site. For the time being their higher concentration on the surface around mining shaft has not been encountered.
PB  - Narodni muzej, Beograd
T2  - Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija
T1  - Kameno oruđe sa Malog Šturca - istraživanje 2011. i 2012. godine
T1  - Stone tools from Mali Šturac: Investigations in 2011 and 2012
EP  - 76
IS  - 21-1
SP  - 61
UR  - conv_202
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Antonović, Dragana",
year = "2013",
abstract = "Pretpostavku da se na lokalitetu Prljuša na Malom Šturcu nalazio veliki praistorijski rudnik bakra koji je bio eksploatisan u dužem periodu tokom eneolita i bronzanog doba, osim prostranih okana i podzemnih radova, potvrđuje i izuzetno veliki broj rudarskih batova i drugog kamenog oruđa. Tokom istraživanja 2011. i 2012. godine, detaljnim rekognosciranjem lokaliteta po kvadratnoj mreži 5 h 5 m, konstatovano je, na samoj površini, prisustvo oko 1.000 rudarskih batova. Sakupljeno je 68 kamenih alatki. Znatan broj polufabrikata bez tragova upotrebe, kao i alatki izrađenih od kamena sa samog nalazišta pokazao je da je kameno oruđe vrlo često proizvođeno i na samom rudištu. Prisustvo batova skoro na samom vrhu padine Prljuše potvrđuje praistorijsku eksploataciju bakarne rude na celom lokalitetu. Za sada nije primećena njihova povećana koncentracija na površini oko samih rudarskih okana., More recent investigations of prehistoric copper mine at Mali Šturac have been conducted in 2011 and 2012. On that occasion detailed surveying of the site using 5 x 5 m grid resulted in discovery of around 1000 mining mallets and other stone tools just on the surface. We gathered 68 stone tools, mostly mining mallets. Considerable amount of semi-finished objects without traces of use as well as tools made of stone from the site confirmed that mallets and other stone tools were often made on the mining site. For the mallets had been used pieces of stones taken out of the rock mass but also large pebbles from the rivers and brooks. Piece of stone was worked by knapping and pecking to obtain the desired shape. Working technique was mostly rough and small number of strokes was applied. All mining mallets have transversal groove for attaching tool to the handle. Except the mallets few stone tools of different type have been found at the site Prljuša. One fragmented whetstone as well as few hammerstones, axes and anvils for crashing ore make an interesting segment of stone tool assemblage from Mali Šturac. They are of smaller size and distinguish at first glance from mining mallets because they do not have transversal groove. Few objects could be explained as unfinished axes but also as unused small mallets for crashing ore. Stone tools from Mali Šturac were made of sandstone, ignimbrite and quartz latite. All raw materials are of local origin and some of them are from the site Prljuša itself. Not any particular regularity in horizontal distribution of stone artifacts has been established, except that largest quantity was recorded in the middle and smaller in lower and upper section of the site. Occurrence of mallets near the very top confirms prehistoric exploitation of copper ore within the entire site. For the time being their higher concentration on the surface around mining shaft has not been encountered.",
publisher = "Narodni muzej, Beograd",
journal = "Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija",
title = "Kameno oruđe sa Malog Šturca - istraživanje 2011. i 2012. godine, Stone tools from Mali Šturac: Investigations in 2011 and 2012",
pages = "76-61",
number = "21-1",
url = "conv_202"
}
Antonović, D.. (2013). Kameno oruđe sa Malog Šturca - istraživanje 2011. i 2012. godine. in Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija
Narodni muzej, Beograd.(21-1), 61-76.
conv_202
Antonović D. Kameno oruđe sa Malog Šturca - istraživanje 2011. i 2012. godine. in Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija. 2013;(21-1):61-76.
conv_202 .
Antonović, Dragana, "Kameno oruđe sa Malog Šturca - istraživanje 2011. i 2012. godine" in Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija, no. 21-1 (2013):61-76,
conv_202 .

O neolitskoj autentičnosti nalaza iz Belice

Antonović, Dragana; Perić, Slaviša

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2012)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
AU  - Perić, Slaviša
PY  - 2012
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/168
AB  - Nekoliko kamenih i koštanih predmeta iz Belice (lokaliteti Pojate-Pojilo i Livade) i Lozovika (lokalitet Repuška), kod Jagodine, bili su tokom 2004. i 2010. godine podvrgnuti mikroskopskom ispitivanju. Tragovi obrade konstatovani na njima ukazuju na upotrebu brusnog alata sa velikim brojem obrtaja u njihovoj izradi. U radu je dat kritički osvrt na uslove nalaza predmeta sa lokaliteta Pojate-Pojilo u Belici, kao i na sam način izrade objekata 'neolitske umetničke plastike' iz okoline Jagodine. Arheološka istraživanja koja su na neolitskom lokalitetu u Belici izvedena avgusta 2003. godine nisu dala nijedan nalaz takve vrste. Na osnovu svega je zaključeno da pomenuti predmeti ne mogu biti ni neolitske niti praistorijske provenijencije.
AB  - The objects of 'Neolithic plastic art' from Belica, made from baked clay, stone and bone, have been arriving at the Regional Museum in Jagodina since 1991. These are accidental finds which never caught the attention of experts, even though one of them, a figurine from black rock which arrived at the museum in 1992, has been a part of a permanent exhibition. Almost two decades after its arrival at the museum, the archaeologist Dr Milorad Stojić would place it among the most substantial finds of Neolithic figural plastic, identifying it as the Proto-Starčevo culture, dated to 6000 years BC and named it the 'Great Mother', linking her to the Neolithic cult of fertility (Stojić 2011, 344) Asignificantly greater number of objects from Belica since 2001, first as accidental finds by Života Milanović, an associate of the Regional Museum in Jagodina, arrived to Dr Milorad Stojić who undertook a one-day protective intervention at the site of Pojate-Pojilo in Belica village, the exact area from which previously collected finds originated. Ashort excavation, which was 'less than two full hours of work' (according to the Report of the excavation), was carried out in January 2002. On that occasion a pit, which was only 10 cm deep and located on the surface of the village dirt road, was investigated (fig. 1). The excavation, together with the appropriate technical documentation, has not yet been published. The discovered pit was located in the middle of the dirt road which was used by agricultural machinery and which had, on several occasions prior to the exploration in 2002, been repaired by heavy construction machinery. In the years following 2003, two more groups of finds of art objects from the Early Neolithic were discovered in Belica and Lozovik (Stojić 2008, 73). In the Livade site in Belica, which is 500 m from the site of Pojate-Pojilo, four objects made of stone were found. In Lozovik, in the Repuška site, three figurines made of deer bone were discovered. In both sites the finds of the aforementioned objects were followed, according to the author, by finds of Proto- Starčevo ceramics. More detailed descriptions of the locations, conditions of discovery and subsequent finds do not exist. In August 2003, within the usual activities of the project Permanent Archaeological Workshop - Central Pomoravlje in Neolithisation of South East Europe, under the supervision of S. Perić, in the Pojate-Pojilo site in Belica, some sondage excavation was performed. One of the reasons this precise location was chosen for exploration was that stone plastic finds are attributed to it, for which there are no suitable analogies within the Middle or Late Neolithic Starčevo culture. Two sondages of 5 x 5 m (fig. 2) were explored. The results of the exploration were modest, which was in accordance with expectations based on several visits made to all three Neolithic sites in Belica village. One smaller Late Neolithic settlement from the Proto-Starčevo period existed on this location. In conclusion, it should be mentioned that none of the finds from this exploration could be connected to the accidental finds of stone plastic from the village road even though, during the time of the exploration, daily surface prospecting of this and the two neighbouring Neolithic sites was carried out. A detailed inspection of the profile, which is cut by the village road where it is believed that there was a Neolithic pit of about 1m in depth, was also performed. The village road, as we originally found it, worn out and uneven, with around twenty centimeter deep tracks made by tractor wheels and with no clods of turf on it, didn’t leave the impression that an only 10 cm deep bottom of a pit could be preserved (fig. 3). The objects discovered in the pit explored in 2002 include: 60 stone, 9 ceramic and 11 bone and deer horn objects. Within this number are also included the objects found in 2001 in the immediate vicinity of the pit (Stojić 2011, 341-342). The most numerous are anthropomorphic figurines, and besides them there are several examples of sacrificial altars, conical objects (pintadera), axe figurines and one rectangular plate. Ceramic figurines from Belica, which in their form resemble the Palaeolithic Venus figurines, were made from insufficiently refined soil, which is a practice completely opposite to the one noticed on the figurines from the other Neolithic sites of the Central Balkans. The soil from which they were made resembles that used for making rough ceramics or for building houses (daub). Therefore, our doubt that we are dealing here with figurines which resulted from the mechanical treatment of already baked soil, and not with objects which got their final form in raw clay prior to baking, is not surprising. The same is true with bone objects in which subsequent work is visible on a piece of bone which remained in the ground for a number of centuries. By courtesy of Dr Milorad Stojić, an archaeologist to whom Života Milanović, the sole discoverer of these objects, was bringing finds from Belica, and who was digging the pit with the group of art objects finds, the authors of this paper had an opportunity to thoroughly microscopically examine several stone and bone objects from Belica (the Pojate-Pojilo and Livade sites) and from Lozovik (the Repuška site). Specifically, we are talking about five stone and four bone objects (fig. 4). The examination of traces of the treatment on the surface of these objects clearly showed that we are dealing with objects which had been mechanically treated by grinding tools spinning at a large number of rotations per minute. The results of this kind of treatment are fine, narrow, uninterrupted parallel grooves (fig. 5-10). After manual treatment with a grindstone of natural sandstone or by using only sand, only short grooves, which are significantly wider and not perfectly parallel, remain (fig. 11). With bone objects the situation is slightly different. Bones from the archaeological stratum were used, on which a subsequent treatment was performed which removed the darker coloured patina. Microscopic evidence of the working of the bone also shows the use of a grinding tool spinning at a large number of rotations (fig. 9-10). The case of the 'Serpentine figurine' is particularly interesting. On a simply crafted awl, which can be dated to the Neolithic period and beyond, a spirally carved embellishment was added (fig. 13). The difference in colour between the spiral detail and the rest of the awl indicates a large time interval between the making of the awl and the addition of the decoration. A fortunate circumstance in the story about the 'Neolithic art objects' from Belica is that they have not been accepted in Serbian archaeology. If we exclude the works of M. Stojić, the finds from Belica, glorified for their beauty, symbolism and originality, have not yet found their place in archaeological literature. There are no texts which even mention them as analogies for some other cult or art creations from the Neolithic. For this reason, this critical approach also happened at the right moment. If Serbian archaeology had not made any comments about the finds from Belica, for which there is some doubt as to whether they actually are of Neolithic origin, perhaps the damage caused by it would have been deeper and more noticeable. The question as to whether we could then talk about the Serbian 'Neolithic deception from Belica' is one whose answer the authors of this paper did not want to wait for with their arms folded.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - O neolitskoj autentičnosti nalaza iz Belice
T1  - About neolithic authenticity of finds from Belica
EP  - 268
IS  - 62
SP  - 257
DO  - 10.2298/STA1262257A
UR  - conv_651
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Antonović, Dragana and Perić, Slaviša",
year = "2012",
abstract = "Nekoliko kamenih i koštanih predmeta iz Belice (lokaliteti Pojate-Pojilo i Livade) i Lozovika (lokalitet Repuška), kod Jagodine, bili su tokom 2004. i 2010. godine podvrgnuti mikroskopskom ispitivanju. Tragovi obrade konstatovani na njima ukazuju na upotrebu brusnog alata sa velikim brojem obrtaja u njihovoj izradi. U radu je dat kritički osvrt na uslove nalaza predmeta sa lokaliteta Pojate-Pojilo u Belici, kao i na sam način izrade objekata 'neolitske umetničke plastike' iz okoline Jagodine. Arheološka istraživanja koja su na neolitskom lokalitetu u Belici izvedena avgusta 2003. godine nisu dala nijedan nalaz takve vrste. Na osnovu svega je zaključeno da pomenuti predmeti ne mogu biti ni neolitske niti praistorijske provenijencije., The objects of 'Neolithic plastic art' from Belica, made from baked clay, stone and bone, have been arriving at the Regional Museum in Jagodina since 1991. These are accidental finds which never caught the attention of experts, even though one of them, a figurine from black rock which arrived at the museum in 1992, has been a part of a permanent exhibition. Almost two decades after its arrival at the museum, the archaeologist Dr Milorad Stojić would place it among the most substantial finds of Neolithic figural plastic, identifying it as the Proto-Starčevo culture, dated to 6000 years BC and named it the 'Great Mother', linking her to the Neolithic cult of fertility (Stojić 2011, 344) Asignificantly greater number of objects from Belica since 2001, first as accidental finds by Života Milanović, an associate of the Regional Museum in Jagodina, arrived to Dr Milorad Stojić who undertook a one-day protective intervention at the site of Pojate-Pojilo in Belica village, the exact area from which previously collected finds originated. Ashort excavation, which was 'less than two full hours of work' (according to the Report of the excavation), was carried out in January 2002. On that occasion a pit, which was only 10 cm deep and located on the surface of the village dirt road, was investigated (fig. 1). The excavation, together with the appropriate technical documentation, has not yet been published. The discovered pit was located in the middle of the dirt road which was used by agricultural machinery and which had, on several occasions prior to the exploration in 2002, been repaired by heavy construction machinery. In the years following 2003, two more groups of finds of art objects from the Early Neolithic were discovered in Belica and Lozovik (Stojić 2008, 73). In the Livade site in Belica, which is 500 m from the site of Pojate-Pojilo, four objects made of stone were found. In Lozovik, in the Repuška site, three figurines made of deer bone were discovered. In both sites the finds of the aforementioned objects were followed, according to the author, by finds of Proto- Starčevo ceramics. More detailed descriptions of the locations, conditions of discovery and subsequent finds do not exist. In August 2003, within the usual activities of the project Permanent Archaeological Workshop - Central Pomoravlje in Neolithisation of South East Europe, under the supervision of S. Perić, in the Pojate-Pojilo site in Belica, some sondage excavation was performed. One of the reasons this precise location was chosen for exploration was that stone plastic finds are attributed to it, for which there are no suitable analogies within the Middle or Late Neolithic Starčevo culture. Two sondages of 5 x 5 m (fig. 2) were explored. The results of the exploration were modest, which was in accordance with expectations based on several visits made to all three Neolithic sites in Belica village. One smaller Late Neolithic settlement from the Proto-Starčevo period existed on this location. In conclusion, it should be mentioned that none of the finds from this exploration could be connected to the accidental finds of stone plastic from the village road even though, during the time of the exploration, daily surface prospecting of this and the two neighbouring Neolithic sites was carried out. A detailed inspection of the profile, which is cut by the village road where it is believed that there was a Neolithic pit of about 1m in depth, was also performed. The village road, as we originally found it, worn out and uneven, with around twenty centimeter deep tracks made by tractor wheels and with no clods of turf on it, didn’t leave the impression that an only 10 cm deep bottom of a pit could be preserved (fig. 3). The objects discovered in the pit explored in 2002 include: 60 stone, 9 ceramic and 11 bone and deer horn objects. Within this number are also included the objects found in 2001 in the immediate vicinity of the pit (Stojić 2011, 341-342). The most numerous are anthropomorphic figurines, and besides them there are several examples of sacrificial altars, conical objects (pintadera), axe figurines and one rectangular plate. Ceramic figurines from Belica, which in their form resemble the Palaeolithic Venus figurines, were made from insufficiently refined soil, which is a practice completely opposite to the one noticed on the figurines from the other Neolithic sites of the Central Balkans. The soil from which they were made resembles that used for making rough ceramics or for building houses (daub). Therefore, our doubt that we are dealing here with figurines which resulted from the mechanical treatment of already baked soil, and not with objects which got their final form in raw clay prior to baking, is not surprising. The same is true with bone objects in which subsequent work is visible on a piece of bone which remained in the ground for a number of centuries. By courtesy of Dr Milorad Stojić, an archaeologist to whom Života Milanović, the sole discoverer of these objects, was bringing finds from Belica, and who was digging the pit with the group of art objects finds, the authors of this paper had an opportunity to thoroughly microscopically examine several stone and bone objects from Belica (the Pojate-Pojilo and Livade sites) and from Lozovik (the Repuška site). Specifically, we are talking about five stone and four bone objects (fig. 4). The examination of traces of the treatment on the surface of these objects clearly showed that we are dealing with objects which had been mechanically treated by grinding tools spinning at a large number of rotations per minute. The results of this kind of treatment are fine, narrow, uninterrupted parallel grooves (fig. 5-10). After manual treatment with a grindstone of natural sandstone or by using only sand, only short grooves, which are significantly wider and not perfectly parallel, remain (fig. 11). With bone objects the situation is slightly different. Bones from the archaeological stratum were used, on which a subsequent treatment was performed which removed the darker coloured patina. Microscopic evidence of the working of the bone also shows the use of a grinding tool spinning at a large number of rotations (fig. 9-10). The case of the 'Serpentine figurine' is particularly interesting. On a simply crafted awl, which can be dated to the Neolithic period and beyond, a spirally carved embellishment was added (fig. 13). The difference in colour between the spiral detail and the rest of the awl indicates a large time interval between the making of the awl and the addition of the decoration. A fortunate circumstance in the story about the 'Neolithic art objects' from Belica is that they have not been accepted in Serbian archaeology. If we exclude the works of M. Stojić, the finds from Belica, glorified for their beauty, symbolism and originality, have not yet found their place in archaeological literature. There are no texts which even mention them as analogies for some other cult or art creations from the Neolithic. For this reason, this critical approach also happened at the right moment. If Serbian archaeology had not made any comments about the finds from Belica, for which there is some doubt as to whether they actually are of Neolithic origin, perhaps the damage caused by it would have been deeper and more noticeable. The question as to whether we could then talk about the Serbian 'Neolithic deception from Belica' is one whose answer the authors of this paper did not want to wait for with their arms folded.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "O neolitskoj autentičnosti nalaza iz Belice, About neolithic authenticity of finds from Belica",
pages = "268-257",
number = "62",
doi = "10.2298/STA1262257A",
url = "conv_651"
}
Antonović, D.,& Perić, S.. (2012). O neolitskoj autentičnosti nalaza iz Belice. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(62), 257-268.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1262257A
conv_651
Antonović D, Perić S. O neolitskoj autentičnosti nalaza iz Belice. in Starinar. 2012;(62):257-268.
doi:10.2298/STA1262257A
conv_651 .
Antonović, Dragana, Perić, Slaviša, "O neolitskoj autentičnosti nalaza iz Belice" in Starinar, no. 62 (2012):257-268,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1262257A .,
conv_651 .

Eneolitski rudnik Prljuša - Mali Šturac arheološka i geofizička istraživanja

Antonović, Dragana; Vukadinović, Momir

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2012)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
AU  - Vukadinović, Momir
PY  - 2012
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/162
AB  - Ime Malog Šturca odavno je poznato u arheologiji kao naziv eneolitskog rudnika bakra. Do njegovog otkrića došlo je još davne 1980. godine tokom rekognosciranja planine Rudnik u okviru jednog novog projekta. Arheološka istraživanja vršena su od 1981. do 1989. godine. Tada su otkrivene ulazne platforme u šest praistorijskih rudarskih okana. Dalje iskopavanje detektovanih okana nikada nije izvršeno. Malobrojan arheološki materijal prikupljen tokom iskopavanja sastojao se od većeg broja rudarskih batova, ulomaka rudarskih alatki od jelenskog roga i malih fragmenata keramike iz kasnog eneolita ili ranog bronzanog doba. Kako je u međuvremenu, tokom proteklih decenija, učinjen znatan pomak u proučavanju početaka metalurgije na tlu Srbije, pitanje porekla rude bakra od koje se topio prvi metal na ovom tlu postalo je vrlo aktuelno. Do sada je na ovim prostorima pouzdano dokumentovan samo jedan rudnik iz vremena vinčanske kulture - Rudna Glava u istočnoj Srbiji. Nema sumnje da je u to vreme, ali i kasnije, s obzirom na intenzivnu metaluršku aktivnost, bilo više aktivnih rudnika na teritoriji Srbije i da je Mali Šturac bio jedan od njih. Lokalitet Prljuša nalazi se na jugozapadnoj padini Malog Šturca. Reč je o ne baš tipičnom 'gvozdenom šeširu' - površini bez vegetacije, skoro elipsoidno izduženoj pravcem jugozapad-severoistok. Lokalitet ima površinu oko 2,5 ha i prostire se od 882 m u podnožju do 994,41 m nadmorske visine pri vrhu padine. Reč je o veoma strmoj padini sa nagibom od 28º do 37º. Tokom istraživanja 2011. godine na delu padine iznad linije koju čine okna 4, 5 i 6, otkrivena 1987. godine, konstatovano je 13 kompleksa starih rudarskih radova. Prema izgledu rudarskih radova (ulazi nepravilnog oblika) i velikom broju kamenih batova sa žlebom, na koje se nailazi na površini do samog vrha padine, pretpostavljamo da je reč o eneolitskim i bronzanodobnim oknima. Geofizička istraživanja sprovedena 2011. godine u zoni, veličine 400 m², iznad Okna 4 i Okna 6 dala su neke korisne podatke i zaključke. Metodom sopstvenog potencijala, duž pet profila pojedinač ne dužine od po 50 m, detektovana su mesta odnosno zone orudnjenja malahita na osnovu izrazito negativnih vrednosti (sl. 3). Prema dobijenim rezultatima može se zaključiti da se anomalije najverovatnije stvaraju isključivo u zoni praistorijskih okana koja su tokom vremena zapunjena i u koje je ušla atmosferska voda, koja je stvorila neophodan uslov za elektrohemijsko generisanje sopstvenog potencijala. Geoelektrično skeniranje izvedeno na profilima 1, 4 i 5 jasnije je definisalo anomalijske zone dobijene metodom sopstvenog potencijala (sl. 4). Na osnovu dobijenih rezultata pomoću ove dve metode sačinjena je međusobna korelacija i veza sa otkrivenim praistorijskim oknima 4 i 6 (sl. 6), a prema tome i detektovanje starih rudarskih radova u celoj zoni obuhvaćenoj geofizičkim istraživanjima. Tako je izvršena rekonstrukcija rudarskih radova u zoni Okna 6. Na profilu 1, po stacionaži od 38. metra do kraja profila, sa dubinom zaleganja od oko 5 m, detektovana zona orudnjenja (malahit) prostire se ka istoku, nalazi se približno na koti 936 m i ima skoro horizontalni položaj. Početak zone orudnjenja na 38. metru poklapa se sa ulazom u Okno 6, koji je 1987. godine otkriven na istočnom kraju ulazne platforme. Zato se može očekivati da se od ulaza rudarski kanal horizontalno nastavlja ka istoku narednih deset metara, a da se zatim naglo vertikalno spušta u dubinu. Kraj mu za sada nije detektovan, pošto taj deo hodnika nije obuhvać en geofizičkim snimanjem. Na profilu 1, na stacionaži od 18. do 19. metra detektovano je prisustvo orudnjenja koje ima skoro vertikalni prostorni položaj i u neposrednoj je vezi sa Oknom 4 otkrivenim arheološkim iskopavanjem 1987. godine. Ulaz u Okno 4 zasut je siparom i danas se više ne vidi. Prema rezultatima geofizičkog ispitivanja očekujemo da se okno vertikalno spušta oko tri metra od površine tla, a da zatim prelazi u skoro horizontalnu prostranu podzemnu galeriju. Zapravo, moguće je da je reč ili o većoj galeriji ili o ukrštanju dva vertikalna hodnika koja se spuštaju dublje od 10 m ispod površine tla. Geofizičko ispitivanje sa dubinskim zahvatom većim od 10 m dalo bi u ovom slučaju razrešenje velike anomalije konstatovane na profilu 1 u delu koji se povezuje sa Oknom 4 iz 1987. godine. Ako se rezultati koji su dobijeni za profil 1 i njihova korelacija sa rezultatima arheoloških ispitivanja iz 1987. godine primene na sliku dobijenu geofizičkim snimanjem za profile 4 i 5, onda se može reći da je postojalo bar šest rudarskih okana čiji su se ulazi nalazili na udaljenosti od 6 m i 8 m severno od okana 4 i 6. Neki od ovih radova išli su do dubine od 4 m (2D geoelektrični presek profila 4: 4-15. metra, 27-29. metra, 34-43. metra; 2D geoelektrič ni presek profila 5: 25-27. metra; sl. 4), a neki su imali dubinu veću od 10 m (2D geoelektrični presek profila 5: 16-18. metra, 37-42. metra; sl. 4). Primenom seizmičkog profilisanja metodom SGRP potvrđeno je, mada ne potpuno precizno, najverovatnije postojanje rudarskih okana na mestima gde se pojavljuju anomalijske zone po parametrima sopstvenog potencijala i specifične električne otpornosti. O intenzivnoj rudarskoj aktivnosti na Prljuši svedoče brojni vidljivi stari rudarski radovi. Veličina ulaza u podzemne galerije kod nekih od njih navela je nekadašnje istraživače na pretpostavku da se radi o oknima iz perioda mlađih od praistorije, moguće čak iz srednjeg veka. Međutim, činjenica da je na Prljuši vađen malahit, karbonatna ruda, kao i veliki broj kamenih rudarskih batova koji se nalaze svuda po površini lokaliteta, a posebno oko okana, govori u prilog tome da je cela Prljuša bila jedan veliki praistorijski rudnik. U gornjim delovima eksploatacija je vršena tokom kasnog eneolita i ranog bronzanog doba, što je potvrđeno karakterističnim nalazima iz Okna 6. Pretpostavljamo da je u donjim delovima padine, sada prekrivenim debelim slojem sipara, i pre ovog vremena mogla biti vršena eksploatacija rude. Zato bi svakako trebalo da se nastave geofizička ispitivanja na celoj padini. U gornjem delu, iznad rudarskih radova otkrivenih tokom osamdesetih godina dvadesetog veka, ispitivanje geofizičkim metodama trebalo bi izvesti u zoni većine potencijalnih okana koja su detektovana 2011. godine. U donjem delu padine bi takođe trebalo izvršiti ispitivanja ove vrste, pošto postoji mogućnost da se ispod debelih naslaga sipara kriju stari rudarski radovi i arheološ ki objekti. Prema dobijenim rezultatima dosadašnjih geofizičkih istraživanja na lokalitetu Prljuša zaključeno je da bi u sklopu budućih radova primena metoda sopstvenog potencijala (SP) i električnog skeniranja (EK) u varijantama 2D i 3D bila najsvrsishodnija i najekonomičnija. Merenjem pomoću metode sopstvenog potencijala prekrio bi se veći prostor lokaliteta, a samo na mestima sa negativnim anomalijskim vrednostima bi se električnim skeniranjem potvrdilo prisustvo rudarskih radova iz praistorije.
AB  - The Eneolithic copper mine at Mali Šturac was discovered in 1980 and subsequently investigated to a smaller extent from 1981 to 1987. In 2010 the investigations at Prljuša were reactivated with the aim of defining how much and how long the mine had been exploited during prehistory. Pilot geophysical studies were followed by more extensive explorations in 2011. They focused on a zone related to Shafts 4 and 6, discovered in 1987. The geophysical explorations have comprised the methods of selfpotential - SP, electrical scanning - ES and seismic profiling with one geophone - SGRP. The explorations covered a surface of 400 m² including five sections, each 50 m long, with 2 m intervals between them. These investigations identified underground channels in Shaft 4 and Shaft 6. Three meters below Shaft 4, a large underground gallery was found and in the continuation of the entrance of Shaft 6, a 10 m long horizontal channel was detected. Northwards from Shaft 4 and Shaft 6, at a distance of 6-8 m, at least six mining shafts were detected. However, they are not visible on the surface because their entrances are filled with loose material. The investigations carried out in 2011 proved that geophysical investigations are an efficient method for studying old mining works and, therefore, it has been decided to continue with this type of exploration.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Eneolitski rudnik Prljuša - Mali Šturac arheološka i geofizička istraživanja
T1  - Eneolithic mine Prljuša: Mali Šturac archaeological and geophysical investigations
EP  - 106
IS  - 62
SP  - 95
DO  - 10.2298/STA1262095A
UR  - conv_685
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Antonović, Dragana and Vukadinović, Momir",
year = "2012",
abstract = "Ime Malog Šturca odavno je poznato u arheologiji kao naziv eneolitskog rudnika bakra. Do njegovog otkrića došlo je još davne 1980. godine tokom rekognosciranja planine Rudnik u okviru jednog novog projekta. Arheološka istraživanja vršena su od 1981. do 1989. godine. Tada su otkrivene ulazne platforme u šest praistorijskih rudarskih okana. Dalje iskopavanje detektovanih okana nikada nije izvršeno. Malobrojan arheološki materijal prikupljen tokom iskopavanja sastojao se od većeg broja rudarskih batova, ulomaka rudarskih alatki od jelenskog roga i malih fragmenata keramike iz kasnog eneolita ili ranog bronzanog doba. Kako je u međuvremenu, tokom proteklih decenija, učinjen znatan pomak u proučavanju početaka metalurgije na tlu Srbije, pitanje porekla rude bakra od koje se topio prvi metal na ovom tlu postalo je vrlo aktuelno. Do sada je na ovim prostorima pouzdano dokumentovan samo jedan rudnik iz vremena vinčanske kulture - Rudna Glava u istočnoj Srbiji. Nema sumnje da je u to vreme, ali i kasnije, s obzirom na intenzivnu metaluršku aktivnost, bilo više aktivnih rudnika na teritoriji Srbije i da je Mali Šturac bio jedan od njih. Lokalitet Prljuša nalazi se na jugozapadnoj padini Malog Šturca. Reč je o ne baš tipičnom 'gvozdenom šeširu' - površini bez vegetacije, skoro elipsoidno izduženoj pravcem jugozapad-severoistok. Lokalitet ima površinu oko 2,5 ha i prostire se od 882 m u podnožju do 994,41 m nadmorske visine pri vrhu padine. Reč je o veoma strmoj padini sa nagibom od 28º do 37º. Tokom istraživanja 2011. godine na delu padine iznad linije koju čine okna 4, 5 i 6, otkrivena 1987. godine, konstatovano je 13 kompleksa starih rudarskih radova. Prema izgledu rudarskih radova (ulazi nepravilnog oblika) i velikom broju kamenih batova sa žlebom, na koje se nailazi na površini do samog vrha padine, pretpostavljamo da je reč o eneolitskim i bronzanodobnim oknima. Geofizička istraživanja sprovedena 2011. godine u zoni, veličine 400 m², iznad Okna 4 i Okna 6 dala su neke korisne podatke i zaključke. Metodom sopstvenog potencijala, duž pet profila pojedinač ne dužine od po 50 m, detektovana su mesta odnosno zone orudnjenja malahita na osnovu izrazito negativnih vrednosti (sl. 3). Prema dobijenim rezultatima može se zaključiti da se anomalije najverovatnije stvaraju isključivo u zoni praistorijskih okana koja su tokom vremena zapunjena i u koje je ušla atmosferska voda, koja je stvorila neophodan uslov za elektrohemijsko generisanje sopstvenog potencijala. Geoelektrično skeniranje izvedeno na profilima 1, 4 i 5 jasnije je definisalo anomalijske zone dobijene metodom sopstvenog potencijala (sl. 4). Na osnovu dobijenih rezultata pomoću ove dve metode sačinjena je međusobna korelacija i veza sa otkrivenim praistorijskim oknima 4 i 6 (sl. 6), a prema tome i detektovanje starih rudarskih radova u celoj zoni obuhvaćenoj geofizičkim istraživanjima. Tako je izvršena rekonstrukcija rudarskih radova u zoni Okna 6. Na profilu 1, po stacionaži od 38. metra do kraja profila, sa dubinom zaleganja od oko 5 m, detektovana zona orudnjenja (malahit) prostire se ka istoku, nalazi se približno na koti 936 m i ima skoro horizontalni položaj. Početak zone orudnjenja na 38. metru poklapa se sa ulazom u Okno 6, koji je 1987. godine otkriven na istočnom kraju ulazne platforme. Zato se može očekivati da se od ulaza rudarski kanal horizontalno nastavlja ka istoku narednih deset metara, a da se zatim naglo vertikalno spušta u dubinu. Kraj mu za sada nije detektovan, pošto taj deo hodnika nije obuhvać en geofizičkim snimanjem. Na profilu 1, na stacionaži od 18. do 19. metra detektovano je prisustvo orudnjenja koje ima skoro vertikalni prostorni položaj i u neposrednoj je vezi sa Oknom 4 otkrivenim arheološkim iskopavanjem 1987. godine. Ulaz u Okno 4 zasut je siparom i danas se više ne vidi. Prema rezultatima geofizičkog ispitivanja očekujemo da se okno vertikalno spušta oko tri metra od površine tla, a da zatim prelazi u skoro horizontalnu prostranu podzemnu galeriju. Zapravo, moguće je da je reč ili o većoj galeriji ili o ukrštanju dva vertikalna hodnika koja se spuštaju dublje od 10 m ispod površine tla. Geofizičko ispitivanje sa dubinskim zahvatom većim od 10 m dalo bi u ovom slučaju razrešenje velike anomalije konstatovane na profilu 1 u delu koji se povezuje sa Oknom 4 iz 1987. godine. Ako se rezultati koji su dobijeni za profil 1 i njihova korelacija sa rezultatima arheoloških ispitivanja iz 1987. godine primene na sliku dobijenu geofizičkim snimanjem za profile 4 i 5, onda se može reći da je postojalo bar šest rudarskih okana čiji su se ulazi nalazili na udaljenosti od 6 m i 8 m severno od okana 4 i 6. Neki od ovih radova išli su do dubine od 4 m (2D geoelektrični presek profila 4: 4-15. metra, 27-29. metra, 34-43. metra; 2D geoelektrič ni presek profila 5: 25-27. metra; sl. 4), a neki su imali dubinu veću od 10 m (2D geoelektrični presek profila 5: 16-18. metra, 37-42. metra; sl. 4). Primenom seizmičkog profilisanja metodom SGRP potvrđeno je, mada ne potpuno precizno, najverovatnije postojanje rudarskih okana na mestima gde se pojavljuju anomalijske zone po parametrima sopstvenog potencijala i specifične električne otpornosti. O intenzivnoj rudarskoj aktivnosti na Prljuši svedoče brojni vidljivi stari rudarski radovi. Veličina ulaza u podzemne galerije kod nekih od njih navela je nekadašnje istraživače na pretpostavku da se radi o oknima iz perioda mlađih od praistorije, moguće čak iz srednjeg veka. Međutim, činjenica da je na Prljuši vađen malahit, karbonatna ruda, kao i veliki broj kamenih rudarskih batova koji se nalaze svuda po površini lokaliteta, a posebno oko okana, govori u prilog tome da je cela Prljuša bila jedan veliki praistorijski rudnik. U gornjim delovima eksploatacija je vršena tokom kasnog eneolita i ranog bronzanog doba, što je potvrđeno karakterističnim nalazima iz Okna 6. Pretpostavljamo da je u donjim delovima padine, sada prekrivenim debelim slojem sipara, i pre ovog vremena mogla biti vršena eksploatacija rude. Zato bi svakako trebalo da se nastave geofizička ispitivanja na celoj padini. U gornjem delu, iznad rudarskih radova otkrivenih tokom osamdesetih godina dvadesetog veka, ispitivanje geofizičkim metodama trebalo bi izvesti u zoni većine potencijalnih okana koja su detektovana 2011. godine. U donjem delu padine bi takođe trebalo izvršiti ispitivanja ove vrste, pošto postoji mogućnost da se ispod debelih naslaga sipara kriju stari rudarski radovi i arheološ ki objekti. Prema dobijenim rezultatima dosadašnjih geofizičkih istraživanja na lokalitetu Prljuša zaključeno je da bi u sklopu budućih radova primena metoda sopstvenog potencijala (SP) i električnog skeniranja (EK) u varijantama 2D i 3D bila najsvrsishodnija i najekonomičnija. Merenjem pomoću metode sopstvenog potencijala prekrio bi se veći prostor lokaliteta, a samo na mestima sa negativnim anomalijskim vrednostima bi se električnim skeniranjem potvrdilo prisustvo rudarskih radova iz praistorije., The Eneolithic copper mine at Mali Šturac was discovered in 1980 and subsequently investigated to a smaller extent from 1981 to 1987. In 2010 the investigations at Prljuša were reactivated with the aim of defining how much and how long the mine had been exploited during prehistory. Pilot geophysical studies were followed by more extensive explorations in 2011. They focused on a zone related to Shafts 4 and 6, discovered in 1987. The geophysical explorations have comprised the methods of selfpotential - SP, electrical scanning - ES and seismic profiling with one geophone - SGRP. The explorations covered a surface of 400 m² including five sections, each 50 m long, with 2 m intervals between them. These investigations identified underground channels in Shaft 4 and Shaft 6. Three meters below Shaft 4, a large underground gallery was found and in the continuation of the entrance of Shaft 6, a 10 m long horizontal channel was detected. Northwards from Shaft 4 and Shaft 6, at a distance of 6-8 m, at least six mining shafts were detected. However, they are not visible on the surface because their entrances are filled with loose material. The investigations carried out in 2011 proved that geophysical investigations are an efficient method for studying old mining works and, therefore, it has been decided to continue with this type of exploration.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Eneolitski rudnik Prljuša - Mali Šturac arheološka i geofizička istraživanja, Eneolithic mine Prljuša: Mali Šturac archaeological and geophysical investigations",
pages = "106-95",
number = "62",
doi = "10.2298/STA1262095A",
url = "conv_685"
}
Antonović, D.,& Vukadinović, M.. (2012). Eneolitski rudnik Prljuša - Mali Šturac arheološka i geofizička istraživanja. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(62), 95-106.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1262095A
conv_685
Antonović D, Vukadinović M. Eneolitski rudnik Prljuša - Mali Šturac arheološka i geofizička istraživanja. in Starinar. 2012;(62):95-106.
doi:10.2298/STA1262095A
conv_685 .
Antonović, Dragana, Vukadinović, Momir, "Eneolitski rudnik Prljuša - Mali Šturac arheološka i geofizička istraživanja" in Starinar, no. 62 (2012):95-106,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1262095A .,
conv_685 .
1

Stone tools from locality Crkvine in Stubline

Antonović, Dragana; Šarić, Josip

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2011)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
AU  - Šarić, Josip
PY  - 2011
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/148
AB  - Stone artifacts from excavations in Crkvine in 2008. originate from two
   stratigraphic units, both chronologically defined as the final stage of the
   Vinča culture: 1. distruction layer above and 2. from the floor of House
   1/2008. None of the stone artifact types showed any specific regularity in
   vertical distribution. However, in the southern part of the Structure/House 1
   there is higher abundance in horizontal distribution of both types of tools.
   Abundance of cores, blades for rejuvenation of the cores and unretouched
   blades among the chipped artifacts suggest that, most probably, this object
   was a working place where the artifacts were made (Fig. 9/1). Ground stone
   artifacts - all rought-out and final products, whole and fragmented pieces,
   ground-edge and abrasive tools, are equally distributed in the House 1/2008
   as well as in the distruction layer above it. Only non-determined fragments
   and pieces of raw material, both defined as products of making stone tools,
   are far more numerous in the distruction layer above the House 1/2008. Higher
   concentrations of finds are situated in the House 1/2008, especially in its
   southern part, on the floor and above it, while the number of finds out of
   the House significantly decreases (Fig. 9/2). Such distribution of ground
   stone artifacts indicates that the production of stone artifacts was done
   within the household (large number of flakes of „light white stone“, presence
   of grindstone and whetstone), as well as that there occurred active
   preparation of food within the Vinča’s objects (querns and pounders within
   the houses). Findings of numerous quartzite, chert and jasper pebbles out of
   the House 1/2008, 2 metres away from the northeastern angle of the House
   (pottery group 1), could not be connected with production of chipped and
   ground stone artifacts. There are no any traces of treatment and utilization
   on the pebbles, and the pebbles themselves do not belong to raw material of
   good quality due to small dimensions and numerous natural fractures. We
   suppose that the pebbles present waste material and that the Pottery group 1
   represented a dump place next to the house. It is possible that this stone
   material was crushed and added in clay used for making pottery vassels. This
   conclusion is done on the basis of two facts: within the Pottery group 1there
   were found numerous ceramic fragments that could not be used for
   reconstruction of any vessel, and ceramics from the locality Crkvine was
   baked from soil with lot of fine grained quartzite. Taking into consideration
   that only the small part of the setlement (practically one hose) was
   excavated in 2008, it is still too early to make general conclusions about
   the mentioned distribution of the stone findings. Moreover, in this part of
   the locality, the Vinča layers are disturbed by a necropole from 17-18.
   centuries, and maybe that could made increasing of stone findings
   distribution abouve and around the graves, in southern part of the House
   1/2008. Obsereved as whole, with all defined basic types of chipped
   artifacts, this collection does not provide observation of possible local
   characteristics which could specifically and obviously indicate big
   diferences between material of the Late Vinča and older neolithic period.
   Number of samples is too small with prevailed unretouched flakes and blades
   which represent more than a half of the findings, while the retouched samples
   show an average degree of production quality. The artifacts do not exhibit
   unusual and for previous periods unknown technological procedures in making
   tools. The retouched artifacts fit to the already defined typological frame
   which, at the end of the Neolithic, unequivocally announce gradual
   degradation and slow extinction of the technology which has labelled the
   largest period of prehistory and established the fundament of civilization.
   The largest significance of this small collection is obvious in the presence
   of white and grayish-green chert artifacts, which indicate the same primary
   sources of raw material. These sources were most probably used by population
   of the locality Kremenite njive in Barajevo and Šalitrena pećina in the
   vicinity of the Brežđe village, near Valjevo. Typology and raw material
   structure from Trench 5/2008 in Crkvine in a whole are in accordance with the
   general image of the ground stone industry in the final stage of the Vinča
   culture. Among the tools prevailed abrasive artifacts (grindstones,
   whetstone, pounders and querns), while ground-edge tools are significantly
   rare appearing only as adze or as extremely rare occurrences of chisle.
   Non-defined fragments are most abundant , at first place the flakes made of
   „ligth white stone“ representing half-fabricates of the polished stone
   industry. This implies that the production of tools from this raw material
   was local in character, possibly even organized within households. The
   habitants of this Late Vinča settlement, according to the raw material used
   for their massive tools, most probably have undertaken stone exploitation
   from quarries. Striving to select appropriate row material for making high
   quality querns, they discovered a greywacke deposit and used the same raw
   material for making other abrasive tools as well. The presence of other rock
   types indicates that alluvium material in the vicinity of the locality was
   possibly used, as well. The presence of abundant „light white stone“
   artifacts confirms that the raw material was exploited from a narrow local
   area. Utilization of this type of raw material cannot be connected with the „
   ligth white stone“ found on contemporaneous localities in the vicinity:
   magnesite was used in Vinča, diatomite on Ilića brdo, tuff in Crkvine near
   Mali Borak. It is most likely that each settlement exploited deposits of the
   given stone type in its immediate vicinity. The Late Vinča settlement in
   Crkvine had a surface of more than 16 ha, however, only a small area (in 2008
   two trenches of total surface of 89 m²) was so far archaeologicaly
   investigated. Accordingly, the conclusions about raw material exploitation,
   production and usage of stone tools are considered preliminary. Metal is not
   registered in Crkvine, but we assume that its existence was known to the
   habitants of this settlement, and that they even used it. It is confirmed by
   a finding from the structure 1/2008. It is represented by ceramic figurines
   who carry perforated hamer-axes of the the Pločnik type made from copper, as
   well as by the fact that small metallic tools for ephemeral usage appear in
   even in Early Neolithic settlements. If the stone tools were used only as
   cheaper replacements of those made of metals, than the careless behaviour of
   the habitants from the Vinča settlement in Crkvine towards the „out-of-date“
   types of tools and the production of good quality grind tools, probably used
   in additional mechanical treatments of metallic tools are not unusual.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Stone tools from locality Crkvine in Stubline
EP  - 79
IS  - 61
SP  - 61
DO  - 10.2298/STA1161061A
UR  - conv_733
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Antonović, Dragana and Šarić, Josip",
year = "2011",
abstract = "Stone artifacts from excavations in Crkvine in 2008. originate from two
   stratigraphic units, both chronologically defined as the final stage of the
   Vinča culture: 1. distruction layer above and 2. from the floor of House
   1/2008. None of the stone artifact types showed any specific regularity in
   vertical distribution. However, in the southern part of the Structure/House 1
   there is higher abundance in horizontal distribution of both types of tools.
   Abundance of cores, blades for rejuvenation of the cores and unretouched
   blades among the chipped artifacts suggest that, most probably, this object
   was a working place where the artifacts were made (Fig. 9/1). Ground stone
   artifacts - all rought-out and final products, whole and fragmented pieces,
   ground-edge and abrasive tools, are equally distributed in the House 1/2008
   as well as in the distruction layer above it. Only non-determined fragments
   and pieces of raw material, both defined as products of making stone tools,
   are far more numerous in the distruction layer above the House 1/2008. Higher
   concentrations of finds are situated in the House 1/2008, especially in its
   southern part, on the floor and above it, while the number of finds out of
   the House significantly decreases (Fig. 9/2). Such distribution of ground
   stone artifacts indicates that the production of stone artifacts was done
   within the household (large number of flakes of „light white stone“, presence
   of grindstone and whetstone), as well as that there occurred active
   preparation of food within the Vinča’s objects (querns and pounders within
   the houses). Findings of numerous quartzite, chert and jasper pebbles out of
   the House 1/2008, 2 metres away from the northeastern angle of the House
   (pottery group 1), could not be connected with production of chipped and
   ground stone artifacts. There are no any traces of treatment and utilization
   on the pebbles, and the pebbles themselves do not belong to raw material of
   good quality due to small dimensions and numerous natural fractures. We
   suppose that the pebbles present waste material and that the Pottery group 1
   represented a dump place next to the house. It is possible that this stone
   material was crushed and added in clay used for making pottery vassels. This
   conclusion is done on the basis of two facts: within the Pottery group 1there
   were found numerous ceramic fragments that could not be used for
   reconstruction of any vessel, and ceramics from the locality Crkvine was
   baked from soil with lot of fine grained quartzite. Taking into consideration
   that only the small part of the setlement (practically one hose) was
   excavated in 2008, it is still too early to make general conclusions about
   the mentioned distribution of the stone findings. Moreover, in this part of
   the locality, the Vinča layers are disturbed by a necropole from 17-18.
   centuries, and maybe that could made increasing of stone findings
   distribution abouve and around the graves, in southern part of the House
   1/2008. Obsereved as whole, with all defined basic types of chipped
   artifacts, this collection does not provide observation of possible local
   characteristics which could specifically and obviously indicate big
   diferences between material of the Late Vinča and older neolithic period.
   Number of samples is too small with prevailed unretouched flakes and blades
   which represent more than a half of the findings, while the retouched samples
   show an average degree of production quality. The artifacts do not exhibit
   unusual and for previous periods unknown technological procedures in making
   tools. The retouched artifacts fit to the already defined typological frame
   which, at the end of the Neolithic, unequivocally announce gradual
   degradation and slow extinction of the technology which has labelled the
   largest period of prehistory and established the fundament of civilization.
   The largest significance of this small collection is obvious in the presence
   of white and grayish-green chert artifacts, which indicate the same primary
   sources of raw material. These sources were most probably used by population
   of the locality Kremenite njive in Barajevo and Šalitrena pećina in the
   vicinity of the Brežđe village, near Valjevo. Typology and raw material
   structure from Trench 5/2008 in Crkvine in a whole are in accordance with the
   general image of the ground stone industry in the final stage of the Vinča
   culture. Among the tools prevailed abrasive artifacts (grindstones,
   whetstone, pounders and querns), while ground-edge tools are significantly
   rare appearing only as adze or as extremely rare occurrences of chisle.
   Non-defined fragments are most abundant , at first place the flakes made of
   „ligth white stone“ representing half-fabricates of the polished stone
   industry. This implies that the production of tools from this raw material
   was local in character, possibly even organized within households. The
   habitants of this Late Vinča settlement, according to the raw material used
   for their massive tools, most probably have undertaken stone exploitation
   from quarries. Striving to select appropriate row material for making high
   quality querns, they discovered a greywacke deposit and used the same raw
   material for making other abrasive tools as well. The presence of other rock
   types indicates that alluvium material in the vicinity of the locality was
   possibly used, as well. The presence of abundant „light white stone“
   artifacts confirms that the raw material was exploited from a narrow local
   area. Utilization of this type of raw material cannot be connected with the „
   ligth white stone“ found on contemporaneous localities in the vicinity:
   magnesite was used in Vinča, diatomite on Ilića brdo, tuff in Crkvine near
   Mali Borak. It is most likely that each settlement exploited deposits of the
   given stone type in its immediate vicinity. The Late Vinča settlement in
   Crkvine had a surface of more than 16 ha, however, only a small area (in 2008
   two trenches of total surface of 89 m²) was so far archaeologicaly
   investigated. Accordingly, the conclusions about raw material exploitation,
   production and usage of stone tools are considered preliminary. Metal is not
   registered in Crkvine, but we assume that its existence was known to the
   habitants of this settlement, and that they even used it. It is confirmed by
   a finding from the structure 1/2008. It is represented by ceramic figurines
   who carry perforated hamer-axes of the the Pločnik type made from copper, as
   well as by the fact that small metallic tools for ephemeral usage appear in
   even in Early Neolithic settlements. If the stone tools were used only as
   cheaper replacements of those made of metals, than the careless behaviour of
   the habitants from the Vinča settlement in Crkvine towards the „out-of-date“
   types of tools and the production of good quality grind tools, probably used
   in additional mechanical treatments of metallic tools are not unusual.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Stone tools from locality Crkvine in Stubline",
pages = "79-61",
number = "61",
doi = "10.2298/STA1161061A",
url = "conv_733"
}
Antonović, D.,& Šarić, J.. (2011). Stone tools from locality Crkvine in Stubline. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(61), 61-79.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1161061A
conv_733
Antonović D, Šarić J. Stone tools from locality Crkvine in Stubline. in Starinar. 2011;(61):61-79.
doi:10.2298/STA1161061A
conv_733 .
Antonović, Dragana, Šarić, Josip, "Stone tools from locality Crkvine in Stubline" in Starinar, no. 61 (2011):61-79,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1161061A .,
conv_733 .
3

Tipologija perforiranog kamenog oruđa iz Srbije - nalazi iz praistorijske zbirke Narodnog muzeja u Beogradu

Antonović, Dragana; Đorđević, Aca V.

(Narodni muzej, Beograd, 2011)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
AU  - Đorđević, Aca V.
PY  - 2011
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/132
AB  - Perforirano kameno oruđe i oružje je široko rasprostranjeno u Srbiji. Najveći broj njih su u muzejske zbirke dospeli kao slučajni nalazi bez arheološkog konteksta. Ovaj tekst predstavlja početak u rešavanju pitanja kulturno-hronološke pripadnosti i namene ovih nalaza, a jedini način da se nato odgovori je da se brojno kameno perforirano oruđe i oružje, nađeno širom Srbije, publikuje čime bi se omogućilo stvaranje opšte slike o njemu. U radu su obrađeni predmeti iz Praistorijske zbirke Narodnog muzeja u Beogradu. Njihova tipologija omogućila je da se utvrdi da su postojali standardi u izradi kamenih perforiranih artefakata, te i kulturno-hronološko definisanje. Bušeno kameno oruđe i oružje svakako treba posmatrati u sklopu evropskog i prednjoazijskog eneolita i bronzanog doba. Ono je kulturna pojava koja se u tom periodu registruje na širokom prostoru, od Persije do severne i zapadne Evrope, kao i bakarno i bronzano oruđe i oružje, i verovatno je imalo veliki značaj za ljude tog vremena našta ukazuju vrhunska obrada i kvalitetni kamen od koga su pravljeni.
AB  - The perforated stone tools and weapons are widely distributed throughout Serbia. Most of them reached museum collections as chance finds without archaeological context. This text marks the beginning of solving the questions of cultural-chronological provenance and purpose of these finds and the only way to answer these questions is to publish numerous perforated stone tools and weapons discovered throughout Serbia and thus make available general picture of their character. In this work we studied perforated stone tools and weapons from the Prehistory Collection in the National Museum in Belgrade. There is 124 specimens in total, 52 complete and 72 fragmented objects. All perforated stone tools could be classified in two main groups regarding position of shaft in relation to the ground edge: 1. perforated adzes and 2. perforated hammer-axes. First group includes tools with axis of shaft vertical to the ground edge and second group includes tools with axis parallel to the ground edge. Within these two groups various types were distinguished according to their shape: for perforated adzes there are five types (Fig. 1) and for perforated hammer- axes there are nine types (Fig. 2-9). The establishing of typology of perforated stone tools and weapons made possible establishing of standards in production of these artifacts and thus their cultural and chronological identification is possible according to that typology. This type of artifacts appeared in the territory of Serbia in the end of early phase of the Vinča culture (Vinča-Tordoš II) and continued until the end of Bronze Age. The relationship between metal and stone perforated tools and weapons is obvious but it is still not known what preceded what and what is imitation and what is original and whether metal tools preceded stone ones or whether stone tools are imitations of the metal ones or vice versa. The perforated stone tools and weapons should be considered in the context of European or Near East Eneolithic and Bronze Age. It is the cultural phenomenon, which has been registered during that period within large area from Persia to the north and west Europe as well as copper and bronze tools and weapons and it probably had considerable significance for the people of that time as it is suggested by excellent manufacture and high quality stone of which they were made.
PB  - Narodni muzej, Beograd
T2  - Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija
T1  - Tipologija perforiranog kamenog oruđa iz Srbije - nalazi iz praistorijske zbirke Narodnog muzeja u Beogradu
T1  - Typology of perforated stone tools from Serbia: Finds from prehistory collection in National museum in Belgrade
EP  - 69
IS  - 20-1
SP  - 47
UR  - conv_194
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Antonović, Dragana and Đorđević, Aca V.",
year = "2011",
abstract = "Perforirano kameno oruđe i oružje je široko rasprostranjeno u Srbiji. Najveći broj njih su u muzejske zbirke dospeli kao slučajni nalazi bez arheološkog konteksta. Ovaj tekst predstavlja početak u rešavanju pitanja kulturno-hronološke pripadnosti i namene ovih nalaza, a jedini način da se nato odgovori je da se brojno kameno perforirano oruđe i oružje, nađeno širom Srbije, publikuje čime bi se omogućilo stvaranje opšte slike o njemu. U radu su obrađeni predmeti iz Praistorijske zbirke Narodnog muzeja u Beogradu. Njihova tipologija omogućila je da se utvrdi da su postojali standardi u izradi kamenih perforiranih artefakata, te i kulturno-hronološko definisanje. Bušeno kameno oruđe i oružje svakako treba posmatrati u sklopu evropskog i prednjoazijskog eneolita i bronzanog doba. Ono je kulturna pojava koja se u tom periodu registruje na širokom prostoru, od Persije do severne i zapadne Evrope, kao i bakarno i bronzano oruđe i oružje, i verovatno je imalo veliki značaj za ljude tog vremena našta ukazuju vrhunska obrada i kvalitetni kamen od koga su pravljeni., The perforated stone tools and weapons are widely distributed throughout Serbia. Most of them reached museum collections as chance finds without archaeological context. This text marks the beginning of solving the questions of cultural-chronological provenance and purpose of these finds and the only way to answer these questions is to publish numerous perforated stone tools and weapons discovered throughout Serbia and thus make available general picture of their character. In this work we studied perforated stone tools and weapons from the Prehistory Collection in the National Museum in Belgrade. There is 124 specimens in total, 52 complete and 72 fragmented objects. All perforated stone tools could be classified in two main groups regarding position of shaft in relation to the ground edge: 1. perforated adzes and 2. perforated hammer-axes. First group includes tools with axis of shaft vertical to the ground edge and second group includes tools with axis parallel to the ground edge. Within these two groups various types were distinguished according to their shape: for perforated adzes there are five types (Fig. 1) and for perforated hammer- axes there are nine types (Fig. 2-9). The establishing of typology of perforated stone tools and weapons made possible establishing of standards in production of these artifacts and thus their cultural and chronological identification is possible according to that typology. This type of artifacts appeared in the territory of Serbia in the end of early phase of the Vinča culture (Vinča-Tordoš II) and continued until the end of Bronze Age. The relationship between metal and stone perforated tools and weapons is obvious but it is still not known what preceded what and what is imitation and what is original and whether metal tools preceded stone ones or whether stone tools are imitations of the metal ones or vice versa. The perforated stone tools and weapons should be considered in the context of European or Near East Eneolithic and Bronze Age. It is the cultural phenomenon, which has been registered during that period within large area from Persia to the north and west Europe as well as copper and bronze tools and weapons and it probably had considerable significance for the people of that time as it is suggested by excellent manufacture and high quality stone of which they were made.",
publisher = "Narodni muzej, Beograd",
journal = "Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija",
title = "Tipologija perforiranog kamenog oruđa iz Srbije - nalazi iz praistorijske zbirke Narodnog muzeja u Beogradu, Typology of perforated stone tools from Serbia: Finds from prehistory collection in National museum in Belgrade",
pages = "69-47",
number = "20-1",
url = "conv_194"
}
Antonović, D.,& Đorđević, A. V.. (2011). Tipologija perforiranog kamenog oruđa iz Srbije - nalazi iz praistorijske zbirke Narodnog muzeja u Beogradu. in Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija
Narodni muzej, Beograd.(20-1), 47-69.
conv_194
Antonović D, Đorđević AV. Tipologija perforiranog kamenog oruđa iz Srbije - nalazi iz praistorijske zbirke Narodnog muzeja u Beogradu. in Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija. 2011;(20-1):47-69.
conv_194 .
Antonović, Dragana, Đorđević, Aca V., "Tipologija perforiranog kamenog oruđa iz Srbije - nalazi iz praistorijske zbirke Narodnog muzeja u Beogradu" in Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija, no. 20-1 (2011):47-69,
conv_194 .

Prehistoric copper tools from the territory of Serbia

Antonović, Dragana

(Univerzitet u Beogradu - Tehnički fakultet u Boru, Beograd, 2009)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
PY  - 2009
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/115
AB  - Around four hundreds prehistoric copper tools and weapons have been recorded in the territory of Serbia so far. They had been in use for a rather long period of time - from the end of the early phase of the Vinča culture until the Middle Bronze Age and some types of these objects even until the very beginning of the Iron Age. The copper alloyed with small quantities of arsenic, lead and tin started to appear already by the end of the Eneolithic indicating the attempts of prehistoric metallurgist to improve technical characteristics of the copper. On the copper tools from the territory of Serbia could be followed the evolution of shapes starting from the specimens, which completely imitated stone tools and which appeared in the beginning of the Early Eneolithic to the completely developed Bronze Age shapes, which confirm that prehistoric metallurgist entirely understood and accepted the advantages offered by metalworking. The analyses of metal composition have been performed on around 50% of prehistoric copper tools. Nevertheless, in spite of all relatively numerous analyses there is still no answer to the question concerning the primitive technology of copper ore processing and the metallurgical process of obtaining copper for the production of copper and sometime later the bronze artifacts.
PB  - Univerzitet u Beogradu - Tehnički fakultet u Boru, Beograd
T2  - Journal of Mining and Metallurgy B: Metallurgy
T1  - Prehistoric copper tools from the territory of Serbia
EP  - 174
IS  - 2
SP  - 165
VL  - 45
DO  - 10.2298/JMMB0902165A
UR  - conv_379
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Antonović, Dragana",
year = "2009",
abstract = "Around four hundreds prehistoric copper tools and weapons have been recorded in the territory of Serbia so far. They had been in use for a rather long period of time - from the end of the early phase of the Vinča culture until the Middle Bronze Age and some types of these objects even until the very beginning of the Iron Age. The copper alloyed with small quantities of arsenic, lead and tin started to appear already by the end of the Eneolithic indicating the attempts of prehistoric metallurgist to improve technical characteristics of the copper. On the copper tools from the territory of Serbia could be followed the evolution of shapes starting from the specimens, which completely imitated stone tools and which appeared in the beginning of the Early Eneolithic to the completely developed Bronze Age shapes, which confirm that prehistoric metallurgist entirely understood and accepted the advantages offered by metalworking. The analyses of metal composition have been performed on around 50% of prehistoric copper tools. Nevertheless, in spite of all relatively numerous analyses there is still no answer to the question concerning the primitive technology of copper ore processing and the metallurgical process of obtaining copper for the production of copper and sometime later the bronze artifacts.",
publisher = "Univerzitet u Beogradu - Tehnički fakultet u Boru, Beograd",
journal = "Journal of Mining and Metallurgy B: Metallurgy",
title = "Prehistoric copper tools from the territory of Serbia",
pages = "174-165",
number = "2",
volume = "45",
doi = "10.2298/JMMB0902165A",
url = "conv_379"
}
Antonović, D.. (2009). Prehistoric copper tools from the territory of Serbia. in Journal of Mining and Metallurgy B: Metallurgy
Univerzitet u Beogradu - Tehnički fakultet u Boru, Beograd., 45(2), 165-174.
https://doi.org/10.2298/JMMB0902165A
conv_379
Antonović D. Prehistoric copper tools from the territory of Serbia. in Journal of Mining and Metallurgy B: Metallurgy. 2009;45(2):165-174.
doi:10.2298/JMMB0902165A
conv_379 .
Antonović, Dragana, "Prehistoric copper tools from the territory of Serbia" in Journal of Mining and Metallurgy B: Metallurgy, 45, no. 2 (2009):165-174,
https://doi.org/10.2298/JMMB0902165A .,
conv_379 .
5
6
9

The nephrite amulet from Zmajevac (Cerovac, central Serbia)

Antonović, Dragana; Stojanović, Aleksandar

(Romisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Mainz, 2009)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
AU  - Stojanović, Aleksandar
PY  - 2009
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/118
AB  - The amulet of unique shape and manufacture in the region of Southeast Europe was found (as a chance surface find) at the Zmajevac site (Cerovac, Central Serbia) several years ago. It was identified as an amulet because of its exclusive appearance and the raw material (nephrite) used. This object constitutes a unique phenomenon in the Neolithic of Serbia. Its shape mostly resembles the amulets from Lepenski Vir and the ring from Divostin. The objects similar to the ring-amulets from Zmajevac, Divostin and Lepenski Vir do not have matching analogies in the Mesolithic or Neolithic period and none in the later prehistoric periods - a fact that rather speaks in favour of their Paleolithic models. The Paleolithic tradition reflected in the ring-amulets from Zmajevac, Divostin and Lepenski Vir makes these finds exceptionally important because they represent the link between the Paleolithic and the Neolithic in these regions.
PB  - Romisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Mainz
T2  - Archaologisches Korrespondenzblatt
T1  - The nephrite amulet from Zmajevac (Cerovac, central Serbia)
EP  - 191
IS  - 2
SP  - 183
VL  - 39
UR  - conv_380
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Antonović, Dragana and Stojanović, Aleksandar",
year = "2009",
abstract = "The amulet of unique shape and manufacture in the region of Southeast Europe was found (as a chance surface find) at the Zmajevac site (Cerovac, Central Serbia) several years ago. It was identified as an amulet because of its exclusive appearance and the raw material (nephrite) used. This object constitutes a unique phenomenon in the Neolithic of Serbia. Its shape mostly resembles the amulets from Lepenski Vir and the ring from Divostin. The objects similar to the ring-amulets from Zmajevac, Divostin and Lepenski Vir do not have matching analogies in the Mesolithic or Neolithic period and none in the later prehistoric periods - a fact that rather speaks in favour of their Paleolithic models. The Paleolithic tradition reflected in the ring-amulets from Zmajevac, Divostin and Lepenski Vir makes these finds exceptionally important because they represent the link between the Paleolithic and the Neolithic in these regions.",
publisher = "Romisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Mainz",
journal = "Archaologisches Korrespondenzblatt",
title = "The nephrite amulet from Zmajevac (Cerovac, central Serbia)",
pages = "191-183",
number = "2",
volume = "39",
url = "conv_380"
}
Antonović, D.,& Stojanović, A.. (2009). The nephrite amulet from Zmajevac (Cerovac, central Serbia). in Archaologisches Korrespondenzblatt
Romisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Mainz., 39(2), 183-191.
conv_380
Antonović D, Stojanović A. The nephrite amulet from Zmajevac (Cerovac, central Serbia). in Archaologisches Korrespondenzblatt. 2009;39(2):183-191.
conv_380 .
Antonović, Dragana, Stojanović, Aleksandar, "The nephrite amulet from Zmajevac (Cerovac, central Serbia)" in Archaologisches Korrespondenzblatt, 39, no. 2 (2009):183-191,
conv_380 .
1

Abrazivno oruđe u Neolitu Srbije

Antonović, Dragana

(Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd, 2008)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
PY  - 2008
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/97
AB  - Istraživanja neolitskih lokaliteta poslednjih decenija dala su veliki broj abrazivnog kamenog oruđa, koje je dugo bilo zapostavljeno u našoj arheologiji. Oruđe sa abrazivnim svojstvima imalo je važnu ulogu u svakodnevnom životu neolitske populacije. Korišćeno je u izradi velikog broja predmeta od kamena, kosti, roga, keramike, drveta, ali i prilikom pripremanja hrane. Dati su tipologija, upotreba i mesto u naselju, kao i zastupljenost na neolitskim lokalitetima u Srbiji: Glačalica, bruseva, rastirača i žrvnjeva. Pokazano je na koji način se pravi razlika između pojedinih tipova masivnog abrazivnog oruđa. Bez obzira na to što nalazi abrazivnih alatki predstavljaju arheološki 'neatraktivan' materijal, one su imale veoma važnu ulogu u neolitskoj svakodnevici, o čemu svedoče i raznoliki tragovi upotrebe na njima.
AB  - Abrasive tools from Neolithic sites, being massive and relatively unattractive, have been somewhat neglected in archaeological research in Serbia. Nevertheless, abrasive tools were an important segment in the daily life of Neolithic man, which is clearly shown by the various traces of their use. Abrasive tools encompass: grindstones (fig. 1/1-5; pl. I/1, 4), whetstones (fig. 2/1-4; pl. I/3), pounders (fig. 3/1-3), querns (fig. 4/1; pls. I/2, II/2) and mortars (fig. 4/2). The expansion of abrasive tools is evident during the later phase of Vinča Culture. For instance, at the site Ilića Brdo in Čučuge near Ub, abrasive tools formed some 56% of all polished stone tools, whereas in the strata dated to a later phase of Vinča Culture, at the site Belo Brdo at Vinča, the percentage rose to 70%. At the Belo Brdo site in Vinča there is a clear delineation in materials used: massive grindstones are made of sandstone, whereas querns are made of conglomerate rocks. That is why the grindstones have a smooth working surface, while the querns' surface is rough. A similar principle is valid in differentiating between grindstones and whetstones (made of fine-grained rocks). In Vinča excavations 2006-2007 some significant data concerning food processing was obtained. In Structure 01/06, which was used for foodstuff storage and for food preparation at the same time, three querns were found (pl. II/1) along with the remains of Triticum diccocum. Two querns were located in the central room, near the oven, whereas the third one was embedded in a sort of clay recipient thus foming a composite tool. The present state of investigation of abrasive tools from the Neolithic settlements in Serbia does not permit any decisive conclusions to be drawn concerning the organization of the production zones in particular, and very little more is to be said in regard to the economic structure and organization of the Neolithic settlements in Serbia in general.
PB  - Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd
T2  - Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva
T1  - Abrazivno oruđe u Neolitu Srbije
T1  - Abrasive tools in the Serbian Neolithic
EP  - 350
IS  - 24
SP  - 339
UR  - conv_244
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Antonović, Dragana",
year = "2008",
abstract = "Istraživanja neolitskih lokaliteta poslednjih decenija dala su veliki broj abrazivnog kamenog oruđa, koje je dugo bilo zapostavljeno u našoj arheologiji. Oruđe sa abrazivnim svojstvima imalo je važnu ulogu u svakodnevnom životu neolitske populacije. Korišćeno je u izradi velikog broja predmeta od kamena, kosti, roga, keramike, drveta, ali i prilikom pripremanja hrane. Dati su tipologija, upotreba i mesto u naselju, kao i zastupljenost na neolitskim lokalitetima u Srbiji: Glačalica, bruseva, rastirača i žrvnjeva. Pokazano je na koji način se pravi razlika između pojedinih tipova masivnog abrazivnog oruđa. Bez obzira na to što nalazi abrazivnih alatki predstavljaju arheološki 'neatraktivan' materijal, one su imale veoma važnu ulogu u neolitskoj svakodnevici, o čemu svedoče i raznoliki tragovi upotrebe na njima., Abrasive tools from Neolithic sites, being massive and relatively unattractive, have been somewhat neglected in archaeological research in Serbia. Nevertheless, abrasive tools were an important segment in the daily life of Neolithic man, which is clearly shown by the various traces of their use. Abrasive tools encompass: grindstones (fig. 1/1-5; pl. I/1, 4), whetstones (fig. 2/1-4; pl. I/3), pounders (fig. 3/1-3), querns (fig. 4/1; pls. I/2, II/2) and mortars (fig. 4/2). The expansion of abrasive tools is evident during the later phase of Vinča Culture. For instance, at the site Ilića Brdo in Čučuge near Ub, abrasive tools formed some 56% of all polished stone tools, whereas in the strata dated to a later phase of Vinča Culture, at the site Belo Brdo at Vinča, the percentage rose to 70%. At the Belo Brdo site in Vinča there is a clear delineation in materials used: massive grindstones are made of sandstone, whereas querns are made of conglomerate rocks. That is why the grindstones have a smooth working surface, while the querns' surface is rough. A similar principle is valid in differentiating between grindstones and whetstones (made of fine-grained rocks). In Vinča excavations 2006-2007 some significant data concerning food processing was obtained. In Structure 01/06, which was used for foodstuff storage and for food preparation at the same time, three querns were found (pl. II/1) along with the remains of Triticum diccocum. Two querns were located in the central room, near the oven, whereas the third one was embedded in a sort of clay recipient thus foming a composite tool. The present state of investigation of abrasive tools from the Neolithic settlements in Serbia does not permit any decisive conclusions to be drawn concerning the organization of the production zones in particular, and very little more is to be said in regard to the economic structure and organization of the Neolithic settlements in Serbia in general.",
publisher = "Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd",
journal = "Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva",
title = "Abrazivno oruđe u Neolitu Srbije, Abrasive tools in the Serbian Neolithic",
pages = "350-339",
number = "24",
url = "conv_244"
}
Antonović, D.. (2008). Abrazivno oruđe u Neolitu Srbije. in Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva
Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd.(24), 339-350.
conv_244
Antonović D. Abrazivno oruđe u Neolitu Srbije. in Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva. 2008;(24):339-350.
conv_244 .
Antonović, Dragana, "Abrazivno oruđe u Neolitu Srbije" in Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva, no. 24 (2008):339-350,
conv_244 .

Malachite finds in Vinča culture: Evidence of early copper metallurgy in Serbia

Antonović, Dragana

(Savez inženjera metalurgije Srbije, Beograd, 2006)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
PY  - 2006
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/81
AB  - Large ore deposits in the central Balkans resulted in early discovery of metallurgy by the Neolithic inhabitants. High quantity of malachite at some Vinča culture sites was explained as associated with the beginning of metallurgy. Malachite was found mostly in form of amorphous lumps so it is more likely that it was primarily used in primitive metallurgy and incidentally in production of stone objects for adornment.
PB  - Savez inženjera metalurgije Srbije, Beograd
T2  - Metalurgija
T1  - Malachite finds in Vinča culture: Evidence of early copper metallurgy in Serbia
EP  - 92
IS  - 2-3
SP  - 85
VL  - 12
UR  - conv_274
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Antonović, Dragana",
year = "2006",
abstract = "Large ore deposits in the central Balkans resulted in early discovery of metallurgy by the Neolithic inhabitants. High quantity of malachite at some Vinča culture sites was explained as associated with the beginning of metallurgy. Malachite was found mostly in form of amorphous lumps so it is more likely that it was primarily used in primitive metallurgy and incidentally in production of stone objects for adornment.",
publisher = "Savez inženjera metalurgije Srbije, Beograd",
journal = "Metalurgija",
title = "Malachite finds in Vinča culture: Evidence of early copper metallurgy in Serbia",
pages = "92-85",
number = "2-3",
volume = "12",
url = "conv_274"
}
Antonović, D.. (2006). Malachite finds in Vinča culture: Evidence of early copper metallurgy in Serbia. in Metalurgija
Savez inženjera metalurgije Srbije, Beograd., 12(2-3), 85-92.
conv_274
Antonović D. Malachite finds in Vinča culture: Evidence of early copper metallurgy in Serbia. in Metalurgija. 2006;12(2-3):85-92.
conv_274 .
Antonović, Dragana, "Malachite finds in Vinča culture: Evidence of early copper metallurgy in Serbia" in Metalurgija, 12, no. 2-3 (2006):85-92,
conv_274 .

Kamene sirovine u vinčanskoj kulturi - analiza materijala iz Vinče i Belovoda

Antonović, Dragana; Resimić-Šarić, Kristina; Cvetković, Vladica

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2005)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
AU  - Resimić-Šarić, Kristina
AU  - Cvetković, Vladica
PY  - 2005
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/69
AB  - Pitanje porekla sirovina i puteva kojima su se one kretale verovatno predstavlja jedno od najinteresantnijih proučavanja u oblasti praistorije. Kamene sirovine u najvećoj meri mogu da na opipljiv način pokažu konkretne dodire između udaljenih oblasti. Naša teritorija i praistorijske kulture na njoj, pre svega one neolitske i eneolitske, još uvek nisu istražene u toj meri da bi moglo da se govori o cirkulaciji sirovina u okviru samih kultura. Proučavanje mlađe faze vinčanske kulture, koja je u tehnološkom smislu više eneolitska nego neolitska pojava, predstavlja u poslednje vreme težište u izučavanju vinčanske kamene proizvodnje. Značajno je da se ispita kako se dekadencija jedne kulture odražava na iskorišćenost sirovina u takvim uslovima: da li smanjenje teritorije utiče na smanjenje kvaliteta kamenih sirovina zbog manje dostupnosti ležišta kvalitetnijeg kamena i da li se u većoj meri koriste manje kvalitetne "imitacije" kamena upotrebljavanog u starijim fazama vinčanske kulture. Na ova pitanja pokušano je da se odgovori upoređivanjem kamenih industrija sa dva lokaliteta, iz Vinče i Belovoda, sa kojih se kameni materijal ispituje petrografskim analizama. Glavni razlog analiziranja rezultata sa ova dva lokaliteta predstavlja specifičnost u razvoju njihovih industrija glačanog kamena. U Vinči, u mlađim slojevima registruje se svojevrsna devalvacija u izboru kamenih sirovina kao posledica teritorijalnog sužavanja same vinčanske kulture u njenim kasnim fazama. Sa tim je povezano i opadanje u kvalitetu obrade kamena koje počinje od gradačke faze i u kasno-vinčanskim slojevima postaje veoma upadljivo. Obe pojave iz mlađih slojeva Vinče mogu da se povežu i sa ulaženjem metalurgije u svakodnevni život vinčanske populacije. Iz tog razloga napravljena je paralela sa lokalitetom Belovode koje traje samo tokom starije faze vinčanske kulture i nesumnjivo je metalurško naselje. Nemarnost u obradi kamena ovde se prati već od rane vinčanske kulture, a izbor sirovina ukazuje na lokalne izvore teritorijalno povezane sa ležištima bakarne rude. Prilikom proučavanja porekla i cirkulacije kamenih sirovina tokom neolita i eneolita moraju se imati u vidu neki opšti momenti u razvoju proizvodnje i upotrebe kamenih predmeta. Na teritoriji današnje Srbije, u ranom i delom u srednjem neolitu evidentno je prisustvo mezolitske tradicije u odabiru sirovina i obradi kamena. Reč je o mikrolitskom oruđu i eksploataciji u tehnološkom smislu manje kvalitetnih sirovina (gorski kristal, kvarcit i opal) koji ukazuju na možda još uvek aktivan brzi lov lukom i strelom i povećanu potrebu za sirovinama za izradu lovnog oružja sa jednokratnom namenom. I pored svih ovih primera, na osnovu sadašnjeg nivoa istraženosti, ne može da se govori o eksploataciji tačno definisanih izvora kamena, već samo o orijentisanosti na istu vrstu stene/minerala, bez obzira odakle oni potiču, što ukazuje na neku vrstu organizovanog dobavljanja sirovina. Pomenuta uniformnost u izboru sirovina se prati u industriji okresanog kamena, dok u izradi oruđa, od glačanog kamena, kao potpuno novoj proizvodnji, nije zabeleženo nikakvo pravilo u odabiru sirovina. Prvi prelomni momenat u razvoju kamene industrije tokom neolita nastaje u klasičnoj fazi starčevačke i produžiće se tokom vinčanske kulture. U industriji glačanog kamena uvodi se uniformnost u izboru sirovina i izradi oruđa. Počinju da preovladavaju makroskopski identične finozrne sivozelene stene od kojih se prave isključivo sekire, tesle i dleta. Drugi prelomni momenat nastaje u gradačkoj fazi uvođenjem tzv. "lakog belog Kamena" u proizvodnju kamenog oruđa što je donelo nemarnost i površnost u obradi kamena, potvrđujući tezu da se degradacija i iščezavanje jedne kulture najpre primećuje u tehnološkim promenama. Određene zakonitosti u nabavljanju kamenih sirovina su sigurno postojale tokom neolita. Ono što je za sada nepoznato je kako je kamen dobavljan: da li su postojala tačno definisana ležišta i kamenolomi iz kojih je vađen, ili je nasumično sakupljana naizgled ista sirovina. U industriji glačanog kamena starčevačko-vinčanskog tehnokompleksa su makroskopskim putem do sada ustanovljene dve velike grupe stena koje dominiraju u materijalu i koje su grupisane samo na osnovu fizičko-tehničkih osobina: finozrne sivozelene i "lake bele stene". Upravo zato je rešeno da se ove dve široko definisane grupe stena preciznije odrede. Izvršene su mikroskopske analize na odabranom uzorku sa više lokaliteta u Srbiji, iz različitih faza neolita: Vinča, Belovode, Lepenski Vir, Donja Branjevina. U ovom radu dati su rezultati analiza materijala iz Vinče i sa Belovoda koji su odabrani zbog svoje kulturne i teritorijalne srodnosti. Petrografskom analizom sirovina sa lokaliteta Vinča i Belovode ustanovljeno je da su tokom cele vinčanske kulture u materijalu industrije glačanog kamena bile najzastupljenije finozrne sivozelene stene, koje po svojim mineraloško-petrografskim karakteristikama odgovaraju najčešće kornitima pegavim i zelenim škriljcima, ređe metaalevrolitima, dijabazima metamorfisnim u različitom stepenu. One vinčanskoj industriji glačanog kamena daju specifičan i prepoznatljiv izgled. Druge po zastupljenosti su bile tzv. "lake bele stene" u mlađevinčanskim slojevima, koje i postaju obeležje ovog perioda. Sirovine opredeljene u te dve grupe daju posebno obeležje vinčanskoj industriji glačanog kamena i najviše doprinose da uniformnost koja je primećena u kamenoj industriji vinčanske kulture, posebno na teritoriji centralne Srbije, postane tako očigledna. To nam, s jedne strane govori da je praistorijski čovek umeo da prepozna i smisleno odabere određeni materijal za izradu alatki, a s druge strane, ovakva ujednačenost može da ukaže i na postojanje ležišta odakle je vršena eksploatacija. Iako još uvek nema jasnih dokaza o ležištu/ležištima odakle analizirani materijal potiče, postoje izvesni pokazatelji koji bi mogli da ukažu na područje eksploatacije kamena. Najpre treba isključiti mogućnost da je sirovina organizovano sakupljana iz rečnog korita, iako se oba lokaliteta nalaze na rekama (Vinča na Dunavu, a Belovode na Mlavi). S obzirom na dimenzije alatki, koje su relativno velike smatra se da uglavnom nisu pravljene od rečnih oblutaka, od kojih se obično dobijaju sitniji artifakti. Petrografski kriterijumi omogućavaju da se, pre svega, nekoliko izdvojenih grupa stena, posmatraju u okviru jednog genetskog procesa. Tako korniti, pegavi škriljci i delom zeleni škriljci sa lokaliteta Vinča pokazuju izvestan kontinuitet i može se pretpostaviti da su prikupljeni iz različitih delova jednog kontaktno-metamorfnog oreola. "Lake bele stene" koje su u ovom slučaju predstavljene silifikovanim magnezitima, mogu se vezati za područja u kojima su rasprostranjeni serpentiniti, jer su neretko serpentinitski masivi prožeti magnezitskim žicama različite debljine (od nekoliko milimetara naviše). Albit-epidotski i epidotski škriljci sa lokaliteta Belovode, koji genetski pripadaju istoj grupi stena, takođe bi mogli da potiču sa jednog mesta, najverovatnije iz oblasti koje izgrađuju metamorfiti regionalnog metamorfizma. Za ove vrste sirovina, stanovnici neolitske Vinče i Belovoda najverovatnije nisu odlazili daleko od svojih naselja, s obzirom da se okolni teren karakteriše raznovrsnom geološkom građom i da je izgrađen upravo od ovakvih i sličnih stena. U blizini Vinče na Avali, nalaze se veliki i dobro otkriveni profili serpentinita, a takođe je razvijen i kontaktni oreol oko tercijarnih vulkanskih stena. U široj okolini Belovoda, na primer, na terenu kartiranom na listu V. Gradište (OGK 1:100.000), Bogdanović i Milojević (1985) u Tumaču za list V. Gradište opisuju kartirane kambrijumske jedinice (aktinolitske, hloritsko-epidotske sericitsko-hloritske škriljce) koje bi, prema odlikama sklopa i mineralnom sastavu, odgovarale sirovinama od kojih su izrađene analizirane glačane alatke sa samog lokaliteta. Analiza sirovina od kojih su pravljene glačane alatke na lokalitetima Vinča i Belovode samo su deo započetih petro-arheoloških istraživanja. Ona su ukazala na dalji pravac ispitivanja koji vodi ka terenskim radovima, pre svega u okolini samih lokaliteta. Najpre petrografskom, a po potrebi i drugim analizama primeraka donetih sa terena i komparacijom sa analizama alatki moglo bi se mnogo preciznije definisati područje odakle sirovine potiču.
AB  - This paper shows the results of petrographic analyses of raw materials used for making the ground stone industry implements in two Vinča culture sites Vinča and Belovode. The assemblages from the aforementioned sites feature a number of specific characteristics. In Vinča, in late strata, a kind of devaluation in the selection of stone raw materials is registered, which is closely related to the decline in quality of stone processing and may be a consequence of territorial narrowing of the Vinča culture per se in its later phases, and of introduction of metallurgy in everyday life. For this reason an analogy with the Belovode site was made, which subsists only throughout the early phase of the Vinča culture and is doubtlessly a metallurgic settlement. Petrographic analyses of the raw materials from which ground stone tools used to be made at the Vinča and Belovode sites are only a part of the commenced petro-archaeological research. They imply that further investigations should focuses on field work, principally in the vicinity of the sites themselves. Primarily by petrographic, and, as applicable, by other analyses of samples brought from the field work, and by comparison of the tools, it could be possible to define more precisely the territory from which the raw materials originated.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Kamene sirovine u vinčanskoj kulturi - analiza materijala iz Vinče i Belovoda
T1  - Stone raw materials in the Vinča culture: Petrographic analysis of assemblage from Vinča and Belovode
EP  - 66
IS  - 55
SP  - 53
DO  - 10.2298/STA0555053A
UR  - conv_687
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Antonović, Dragana and Resimić-Šarić, Kristina and Cvetković, Vladica",
year = "2005",
abstract = "Pitanje porekla sirovina i puteva kojima su se one kretale verovatno predstavlja jedno od najinteresantnijih proučavanja u oblasti praistorije. Kamene sirovine u najvećoj meri mogu da na opipljiv način pokažu konkretne dodire između udaljenih oblasti. Naša teritorija i praistorijske kulture na njoj, pre svega one neolitske i eneolitske, još uvek nisu istražene u toj meri da bi moglo da se govori o cirkulaciji sirovina u okviru samih kultura. Proučavanje mlađe faze vinčanske kulture, koja je u tehnološkom smislu više eneolitska nego neolitska pojava, predstavlja u poslednje vreme težište u izučavanju vinčanske kamene proizvodnje. Značajno je da se ispita kako se dekadencija jedne kulture odražava na iskorišćenost sirovina u takvim uslovima: da li smanjenje teritorije utiče na smanjenje kvaliteta kamenih sirovina zbog manje dostupnosti ležišta kvalitetnijeg kamena i da li se u većoj meri koriste manje kvalitetne "imitacije" kamena upotrebljavanog u starijim fazama vinčanske kulture. Na ova pitanja pokušano je da se odgovori upoređivanjem kamenih industrija sa dva lokaliteta, iz Vinče i Belovoda, sa kojih se kameni materijal ispituje petrografskim analizama. Glavni razlog analiziranja rezultata sa ova dva lokaliteta predstavlja specifičnost u razvoju njihovih industrija glačanog kamena. U Vinči, u mlađim slojevima registruje se svojevrsna devalvacija u izboru kamenih sirovina kao posledica teritorijalnog sužavanja same vinčanske kulture u njenim kasnim fazama. Sa tim je povezano i opadanje u kvalitetu obrade kamena koje počinje od gradačke faze i u kasno-vinčanskim slojevima postaje veoma upadljivo. Obe pojave iz mlađih slojeva Vinče mogu da se povežu i sa ulaženjem metalurgije u svakodnevni život vinčanske populacije. Iz tog razloga napravljena je paralela sa lokalitetom Belovode koje traje samo tokom starije faze vinčanske kulture i nesumnjivo je metalurško naselje. Nemarnost u obradi kamena ovde se prati već od rane vinčanske kulture, a izbor sirovina ukazuje na lokalne izvore teritorijalno povezane sa ležištima bakarne rude. Prilikom proučavanja porekla i cirkulacije kamenih sirovina tokom neolita i eneolita moraju se imati u vidu neki opšti momenti u razvoju proizvodnje i upotrebe kamenih predmeta. Na teritoriji današnje Srbije, u ranom i delom u srednjem neolitu evidentno je prisustvo mezolitske tradicije u odabiru sirovina i obradi kamena. Reč je o mikrolitskom oruđu i eksploataciji u tehnološkom smislu manje kvalitetnih sirovina (gorski kristal, kvarcit i opal) koji ukazuju na možda još uvek aktivan brzi lov lukom i strelom i povećanu potrebu za sirovinama za izradu lovnog oružja sa jednokratnom namenom. I pored svih ovih primera, na osnovu sadašnjeg nivoa istraženosti, ne može da se govori o eksploataciji tačno definisanih izvora kamena, već samo o orijentisanosti na istu vrstu stene/minerala, bez obzira odakle oni potiču, što ukazuje na neku vrstu organizovanog dobavljanja sirovina. Pomenuta uniformnost u izboru sirovina se prati u industriji okresanog kamena, dok u izradi oruđa, od glačanog kamena, kao potpuno novoj proizvodnji, nije zabeleženo nikakvo pravilo u odabiru sirovina. Prvi prelomni momenat u razvoju kamene industrije tokom neolita nastaje u klasičnoj fazi starčevačke i produžiće se tokom vinčanske kulture. U industriji glačanog kamena uvodi se uniformnost u izboru sirovina i izradi oruđa. Počinju da preovladavaju makroskopski identične finozrne sivozelene stene od kojih se prave isključivo sekire, tesle i dleta. Drugi prelomni momenat nastaje u gradačkoj fazi uvođenjem tzv. "lakog belog Kamena" u proizvodnju kamenog oruđa što je donelo nemarnost i površnost u obradi kamena, potvrđujući tezu da se degradacija i iščezavanje jedne kulture najpre primećuje u tehnološkim promenama. Određene zakonitosti u nabavljanju kamenih sirovina su sigurno postojale tokom neolita. Ono što je za sada nepoznato je kako je kamen dobavljan: da li su postojala tačno definisana ležišta i kamenolomi iz kojih je vađen, ili je nasumično sakupljana naizgled ista sirovina. U industriji glačanog kamena starčevačko-vinčanskog tehnokompleksa su makroskopskim putem do sada ustanovljene dve velike grupe stena koje dominiraju u materijalu i koje su grupisane samo na osnovu fizičko-tehničkih osobina: finozrne sivozelene i "lake bele stene". Upravo zato je rešeno da se ove dve široko definisane grupe stena preciznije odrede. Izvršene su mikroskopske analize na odabranom uzorku sa više lokaliteta u Srbiji, iz različitih faza neolita: Vinča, Belovode, Lepenski Vir, Donja Branjevina. U ovom radu dati su rezultati analiza materijala iz Vinče i sa Belovoda koji su odabrani zbog svoje kulturne i teritorijalne srodnosti. Petrografskom analizom sirovina sa lokaliteta Vinča i Belovode ustanovljeno je da su tokom cele vinčanske kulture u materijalu industrije glačanog kamena bile najzastupljenije finozrne sivozelene stene, koje po svojim mineraloško-petrografskim karakteristikama odgovaraju najčešće kornitima pegavim i zelenim škriljcima, ređe metaalevrolitima, dijabazima metamorfisnim u različitom stepenu. One vinčanskoj industriji glačanog kamena daju specifičan i prepoznatljiv izgled. Druge po zastupljenosti su bile tzv. "lake bele stene" u mlađevinčanskim slojevima, koje i postaju obeležje ovog perioda. Sirovine opredeljene u te dve grupe daju posebno obeležje vinčanskoj industriji glačanog kamena i najviše doprinose da uniformnost koja je primećena u kamenoj industriji vinčanske kulture, posebno na teritoriji centralne Srbije, postane tako očigledna. To nam, s jedne strane govori da je praistorijski čovek umeo da prepozna i smisleno odabere određeni materijal za izradu alatki, a s druge strane, ovakva ujednačenost može da ukaže i na postojanje ležišta odakle je vršena eksploatacija. Iako još uvek nema jasnih dokaza o ležištu/ležištima odakle analizirani materijal potiče, postoje izvesni pokazatelji koji bi mogli da ukažu na područje eksploatacije kamena. Najpre treba isključiti mogućnost da je sirovina organizovano sakupljana iz rečnog korita, iako se oba lokaliteta nalaze na rekama (Vinča na Dunavu, a Belovode na Mlavi). S obzirom na dimenzije alatki, koje su relativno velike smatra se da uglavnom nisu pravljene od rečnih oblutaka, od kojih se obično dobijaju sitniji artifakti. Petrografski kriterijumi omogućavaju da se, pre svega, nekoliko izdvojenih grupa stena, posmatraju u okviru jednog genetskog procesa. Tako korniti, pegavi škriljci i delom zeleni škriljci sa lokaliteta Vinča pokazuju izvestan kontinuitet i može se pretpostaviti da su prikupljeni iz različitih delova jednog kontaktno-metamorfnog oreola. "Lake bele stene" koje su u ovom slučaju predstavljene silifikovanim magnezitima, mogu se vezati za područja u kojima su rasprostranjeni serpentiniti, jer su neretko serpentinitski masivi prožeti magnezitskim žicama različite debljine (od nekoliko milimetara naviše). Albit-epidotski i epidotski škriljci sa lokaliteta Belovode, koji genetski pripadaju istoj grupi stena, takođe bi mogli da potiču sa jednog mesta, najverovatnije iz oblasti koje izgrađuju metamorfiti regionalnog metamorfizma. Za ove vrste sirovina, stanovnici neolitske Vinče i Belovoda najverovatnije nisu odlazili daleko od svojih naselja, s obzirom da se okolni teren karakteriše raznovrsnom geološkom građom i da je izgrađen upravo od ovakvih i sličnih stena. U blizini Vinče na Avali, nalaze se veliki i dobro otkriveni profili serpentinita, a takođe je razvijen i kontaktni oreol oko tercijarnih vulkanskih stena. U široj okolini Belovoda, na primer, na terenu kartiranom na listu V. Gradište (OGK 1:100.000), Bogdanović i Milojević (1985) u Tumaču za list V. Gradište opisuju kartirane kambrijumske jedinice (aktinolitske, hloritsko-epidotske sericitsko-hloritske škriljce) koje bi, prema odlikama sklopa i mineralnom sastavu, odgovarale sirovinama od kojih su izrađene analizirane glačane alatke sa samog lokaliteta. Analiza sirovina od kojih su pravljene glačane alatke na lokalitetima Vinča i Belovode samo su deo započetih petro-arheoloških istraživanja. Ona su ukazala na dalji pravac ispitivanja koji vodi ka terenskim radovima, pre svega u okolini samih lokaliteta. Najpre petrografskom, a po potrebi i drugim analizama primeraka donetih sa terena i komparacijom sa analizama alatki moglo bi se mnogo preciznije definisati područje odakle sirovine potiču., This paper shows the results of petrographic analyses of raw materials used for making the ground stone industry implements in two Vinča culture sites Vinča and Belovode. The assemblages from the aforementioned sites feature a number of specific characteristics. In Vinča, in late strata, a kind of devaluation in the selection of stone raw materials is registered, which is closely related to the decline in quality of stone processing and may be a consequence of territorial narrowing of the Vinča culture per se in its later phases, and of introduction of metallurgy in everyday life. For this reason an analogy with the Belovode site was made, which subsists only throughout the early phase of the Vinča culture and is doubtlessly a metallurgic settlement. Petrographic analyses of the raw materials from which ground stone tools used to be made at the Vinča and Belovode sites are only a part of the commenced petro-archaeological research. They imply that further investigations should focuses on field work, principally in the vicinity of the sites themselves. Primarily by petrographic, and, as applicable, by other analyses of samples brought from the field work, and by comparison of the tools, it could be possible to define more precisely the territory from which the raw materials originated.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Kamene sirovine u vinčanskoj kulturi - analiza materijala iz Vinče i Belovoda, Stone raw materials in the Vinča culture: Petrographic analysis of assemblage from Vinča and Belovode",
pages = "66-53",
number = "55",
doi = "10.2298/STA0555053A",
url = "conv_687"
}
Antonović, D., Resimić-Šarić, K.,& Cvetković, V.. (2005). Kamene sirovine u vinčanskoj kulturi - analiza materijala iz Vinče i Belovoda. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(55), 53-66.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA0555053A
conv_687
Antonović D, Resimić-Šarić K, Cvetković V. Kamene sirovine u vinčanskoj kulturi - analiza materijala iz Vinče i Belovoda. in Starinar. 2005;(55):53-66.
doi:10.2298/STA0555053A
conv_687 .
Antonović, Dragana, Resimić-Šarić, Kristina, Cvetković, Vladica, "Kamene sirovine u vinčanskoj kulturi - analiza materijala iz Vinče i Belovoda" in Starinar, no. 55 (2005):53-66,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA0555053A .,
conv_687 .
4

Neolitsko zemljoradničko oruđe i njegov značaj u počecima poljoprivrede na tlu Srbije

Antonović, Dragana

(Narodni muzej, Beograd, 2005)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
PY  - 2005
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/67
AB  - Ustaljivanje zemljoradnje i stočarstva na evropskom tlu vezuje se za proces neolitizacije. Po svim dosadašnjim proučavanjima, neolitizacija i neolit predstavljaju import koji je dospeo na evropski kontinent putem nekoliko mogućih mehanizama difuzije: migracijom, kolonizacijom u manjim grupama infiltracijom, postupnim osvajanjem pograničnih teritorija i kontaktima radi razmene (Zvelebil 2001). Sasvim je moguće da se na evropskom tlu odvijao proces paralelan sa neolitizacijom na bliskom i srednjem istoku, a koji možemo nazvati mezolitizacijom. Neolitizacija je u ovom našem delu sveta proces specifičan za bliski i srednji istok, a karakterišu ga sedelački život i stalna naselja, uzgajanje žitarica i domestifikacija određenih vrsta životinja, pre svega ovce i koze. Taj proces započinje pre uvođenja keramike kao tehnološke inovacije u svakodnevni život (prekeramički neolit). Istovremeno na evropskom tlu odvija se poseban globalni proces (mezolitizacija) kao prirodni odgovor evropskog kontinenta na promenu klime nastalu u postglacijalnom periodu. U tom procesu evropsko tlo, u kulturnom smislu, postaje jedinstveno. Stvaraju se stalna staništa kao rezultat izobilja hrane na jednom mestu zbog povoljnijih klimatskih uslova. Sa stalnim staništima povezana je pojava formalnih prostora za sahranu kako u naselju tako i odvojenih organizovanih nekropola van areala staništa. Ustaljuje se običaj posipanja pokojnika okerom i prilaganje oruđa-oružja i nakita u grobove. U industriji okresanog kamena dolazi do mikrolitizacije oruđa, a to znači da postaje povećana upotreba luka i strela - lakog oružja za brži lov. Ishrana se dosta oslanja na akvatične resurse, pa su mnogo više zastupljeni ribolov i sakupljanje školjki i puževa. Pripitomljava se pas. Pojavljuje se glačano oruđe za sečenje drveća, ali ne radi stvaranja oranica, već za drvo kao građu.
AB  - Neolithic agricultural tools (hoes, axes, hammer axes, pickaxe, plowshares planters, saws, trashing tools, millstones and rubbers) have been found in small quantity at the sites in our country and hence it is very difficult to discuss this type of tools and the level of agriculture in the Neolithic economy. There are many possible reasons for such small amount of these tools but two most probable keep coming to our mind: one is that such tools had been left in the fields and never had been brought into the settlement and other that this type of tools had been mostly made of wood. This could explain the fact that there are so few tools, which could be related to agriculture at our Neolithic sites and so many tools revealing the traces of use resulting from woodworking. Wood, considering that it is more flexible than stone, bone and antler proved to be more suitable material for production of tools used in agriculture as it is suggested by some experimental testing (Krasnov 1971: 2123). Therefore we think that it is utterly wrong to associate large number of stone tools with cutting edge discovered at our Neolithic sites with primary Neolithic agriculture. In favor of this speaks the fact that most of these tools reveal the traces of use resulting from woodworking. More comprehensive investigation of the beginnings of agriculture in this territory is of utmost importance just because these areas were among the first after Greece and Bulgaria on the path of influence (or colonization) by the bearers of Neolithic progress from the Near East and Anatolia. One of rather important links in that investigation are the very tools of stone, bone and antler as objects, which could illustrate the prehistoric economy and which had been so far neglected as less attractive objects in the museum collections and as inferior chronological indicators.
PB  - Narodni muzej, Beograd
T2  - Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija
T1  - Neolitsko zemljoradničko oruđe i njegov značaj u počecima poljoprivrede na tlu Srbije
T1  - Neolithic agricultural tools and its significance in the beginning of farming in the territory of Serbia
EP  - 67
IS  - 1
SP  - 47
VL  - 18
UR  - conv_181
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Antonović, Dragana",
year = "2005",
abstract = "Ustaljivanje zemljoradnje i stočarstva na evropskom tlu vezuje se za proces neolitizacije. Po svim dosadašnjim proučavanjima, neolitizacija i neolit predstavljaju import koji je dospeo na evropski kontinent putem nekoliko mogućih mehanizama difuzije: migracijom, kolonizacijom u manjim grupama infiltracijom, postupnim osvajanjem pograničnih teritorija i kontaktima radi razmene (Zvelebil 2001). Sasvim je moguće da se na evropskom tlu odvijao proces paralelan sa neolitizacijom na bliskom i srednjem istoku, a koji možemo nazvati mezolitizacijom. Neolitizacija je u ovom našem delu sveta proces specifičan za bliski i srednji istok, a karakterišu ga sedelački život i stalna naselja, uzgajanje žitarica i domestifikacija određenih vrsta životinja, pre svega ovce i koze. Taj proces započinje pre uvođenja keramike kao tehnološke inovacije u svakodnevni život (prekeramički neolit). Istovremeno na evropskom tlu odvija se poseban globalni proces (mezolitizacija) kao prirodni odgovor evropskog kontinenta na promenu klime nastalu u postglacijalnom periodu. U tom procesu evropsko tlo, u kulturnom smislu, postaje jedinstveno. Stvaraju se stalna staništa kao rezultat izobilja hrane na jednom mestu zbog povoljnijih klimatskih uslova. Sa stalnim staništima povezana je pojava formalnih prostora za sahranu kako u naselju tako i odvojenih organizovanih nekropola van areala staništa. Ustaljuje se običaj posipanja pokojnika okerom i prilaganje oruđa-oružja i nakita u grobove. U industriji okresanog kamena dolazi do mikrolitizacije oruđa, a to znači da postaje povećana upotreba luka i strela - lakog oružja za brži lov. Ishrana se dosta oslanja na akvatične resurse, pa su mnogo više zastupljeni ribolov i sakupljanje školjki i puževa. Pripitomljava se pas. Pojavljuje se glačano oruđe za sečenje drveća, ali ne radi stvaranja oranica, već za drvo kao građu., Neolithic agricultural tools (hoes, axes, hammer axes, pickaxe, plowshares planters, saws, trashing tools, millstones and rubbers) have been found in small quantity at the sites in our country and hence it is very difficult to discuss this type of tools and the level of agriculture in the Neolithic economy. There are many possible reasons for such small amount of these tools but two most probable keep coming to our mind: one is that such tools had been left in the fields and never had been brought into the settlement and other that this type of tools had been mostly made of wood. This could explain the fact that there are so few tools, which could be related to agriculture at our Neolithic sites and so many tools revealing the traces of use resulting from woodworking. Wood, considering that it is more flexible than stone, bone and antler proved to be more suitable material for production of tools used in agriculture as it is suggested by some experimental testing (Krasnov 1971: 2123). Therefore we think that it is utterly wrong to associate large number of stone tools with cutting edge discovered at our Neolithic sites with primary Neolithic agriculture. In favor of this speaks the fact that most of these tools reveal the traces of use resulting from woodworking. More comprehensive investigation of the beginnings of agriculture in this territory is of utmost importance just because these areas were among the first after Greece and Bulgaria on the path of influence (or colonization) by the bearers of Neolithic progress from the Near East and Anatolia. One of rather important links in that investigation are the very tools of stone, bone and antler as objects, which could illustrate the prehistoric economy and which had been so far neglected as less attractive objects in the museum collections and as inferior chronological indicators.",
publisher = "Narodni muzej, Beograd",
journal = "Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija",
title = "Neolitsko zemljoradničko oruđe i njegov značaj u počecima poljoprivrede na tlu Srbije, Neolithic agricultural tools and its significance in the beginning of farming in the territory of Serbia",
pages = "67-47",
number = "1",
volume = "18",
url = "conv_181"
}
Antonović, D.. (2005). Neolitsko zemljoradničko oruđe i njegov značaj u počecima poljoprivrede na tlu Srbije. in Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija
Narodni muzej, Beograd., 18(1), 47-67.
conv_181
Antonović D. Neolitsko zemljoradničko oruđe i njegov značaj u počecima poljoprivrede na tlu Srbije. in Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija. 2005;18(1):47-67.
conv_181 .
Antonović, Dragana, "Neolitsko zemljoradničko oruđe i njegov značaj u počecima poljoprivrede na tlu Srbije" in Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija, 18, no. 1 (2005):47-67,
conv_181 .

Mezolitska i neolitska kamena industrija Đerdapa

Antonović, Dragana

(Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd, 2003)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
PY  - 2003
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/55
AB  - Rad prikazuje nove rezultate u proučavanju proizvodnje mezolitskih i neolitskih kamenih predmeta sa lokaliteta na srpskoj strani Đerdapa. Đerdapska ranoholocenska kamena industrija sastoji se od dve komponente lokalne i "uvozne". Lokalna varijanta se sasvim samostalno razvija, u uslovima sedelačkog života u mezolitu, odgovarajući osnovnim potrebama stanovnika ove oblasti (lov, ribolov). "Uvoznu" varijantu čine alatke sa sečicom (sekire, tesle i dleta) koje su po oblicima i sirovinama istovetne sa neolitskim oruđem iz centralne Srbije. Ove dve industrije pojavljuju se paralelno u ranoholocenskim slojevima đerdapskih lokaliteta.
AB  - In the course of archaeological researches in the Iron Gates, the stone tools have been analyzed from Mesolithic and Early Neolithic (VIII-VI millennium BC) horizons at the following sites: Padina, Lepenski Vir, Vlasac, Hajdučka Vodenica, Ajmana, Velesnica, Knjepište and Ušće Kameničkog Potoka. All implements were studied from two main aspects: petrographical and functional-typological. The Iron Gates early Holocene stone industry is composed of two elements: local and 'imported'. The local variant developed quite independently, against a background of sedentary settlement satisfying the essential needs of inhabitants in this region. This led to the production of mallet-scepters, mallet-weights with grooves, pebble-axes grindstones/polishers and hammer stones. Judging by their shape and considerable dimensions, these implements were probably used in game hunting and for killing large fish. On the other hand, because of the blunt cutting edges of the pebble axes and the massiveness of the tools themselves, it may be assumed that they were not used in woodworking or agriculture. In essence the local variant is based on the pebble, its natural shape being only finished. In parallel with this autochthonous stone industry, there occur in the Iron Gates early Holocene sites tools typical of the Starčevo and Vinča cultures - the 'imported' variant. The occurrence of ground-edge implements made of rocks gray-greenish in colour (whether hornfelses or local rocks of the same physical-technical characteristics) indicates the import of this technology, and occasionally the import of the artifacts themselves into the Iron Gates area. The common appearance of two variants of the stone industry different in character, is perhaps further evidence of the parallelism of the Iron Gates late Mesolithic with the developed Neolithic of the neighboring areas, which is otherwise indicated by absolute dates. In some sites artifacts of the local industry are more abundant, while in others there are more 'imported' artifacts (fig. 10). This is not a chronological gradation, but merely an example illustrating the extent to which some Iron Gates early Holocene settlements accepted Neolithic products from outside. In this respect, Lepenski Vir and Padina - Sector III appear to a higher degree as a neolithized settlements based on hunting and gathering supported by intensive fishing. In contrast, Velesnica is far behind Lepenski Vir and according to the ground stone material, was a highly developed fisher's settlement. The Iron Gates stone industry is the unique example in the central Balkan prehistory where is visible, in stone tools, the metamorphosis of technology caused by gradual change of mode of subsistence, in which fishing had the most important role. This metamorphosis can be recognized in big stone tools for fishing (mal-let-weights and mallet-scepters) originated from smaller artifacts used in manufacturing of chipped stone artifacts. From anvils and hammerstones became much bigger objects like mallet-weights and mallet-scepters used for killing big animals and fishes, which gradually turned into cult objects. The cult significance of stone tools is much more visible at Hajdučka Vodenica. At the necropolis of Hajdučka Vodenica were found tools for gathering food and woodworking: mallet-scepters mallet-weights hammerstones, anvils, quern-altars, axes and adzes. All artifacts were very carefully manufactured and some of them were ornamented with engravings. It is interesting to notice that at Hajdučka Vodenica were found only artefacts of macrocrystalline rocks and objects of chipped stone industry were not recorded at all. Stone artifacts and stone as a raw material had a special place in the Lepenski Vir culture. This conclusion does not refer to artifacts of chipped stone industry nor to stone of microcrystalline structure (like various forms of silica). Chipped stone industry had a complete profane character in the Lepenski Vir culture. It seems that stone and stone artifacts for inhabitants of the Lepenski Vir culture represented personification of advantages they had got from new subsistence advantages which they had to admire and respect. They made tools for fishing and hunting of pebble and with those tools they killed big fishes and animals - those hunted as well as those domesticated. The population of the Lepenski Vir culture gradually became conscious of the great importance of the river on which banks they lived. That importance they expressed by putting objects made of pebble and a pebble itself as a products of the river and certainly the most important raw material in the center of the cult.
PB  - Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd
T2  - Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva
T1  - Mezolitska i neolitska kamena industrija Đerdapa
T1  - The Mesolithic and Neolithic stone industry of the Iron Gates
EP  - 35
IS  - 19
SP  - 9
VL  - 20
UR  - conv_217
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Antonović, Dragana",
year = "2003",
abstract = "Rad prikazuje nove rezultate u proučavanju proizvodnje mezolitskih i neolitskih kamenih predmeta sa lokaliteta na srpskoj strani Đerdapa. Đerdapska ranoholocenska kamena industrija sastoji se od dve komponente lokalne i "uvozne". Lokalna varijanta se sasvim samostalno razvija, u uslovima sedelačkog života u mezolitu, odgovarajući osnovnim potrebama stanovnika ove oblasti (lov, ribolov). "Uvoznu" varijantu čine alatke sa sečicom (sekire, tesle i dleta) koje su po oblicima i sirovinama istovetne sa neolitskim oruđem iz centralne Srbije. Ove dve industrije pojavljuju se paralelno u ranoholocenskim slojevima đerdapskih lokaliteta., In the course of archaeological researches in the Iron Gates, the stone tools have been analyzed from Mesolithic and Early Neolithic (VIII-VI millennium BC) horizons at the following sites: Padina, Lepenski Vir, Vlasac, Hajdučka Vodenica, Ajmana, Velesnica, Knjepište and Ušće Kameničkog Potoka. All implements were studied from two main aspects: petrographical and functional-typological. The Iron Gates early Holocene stone industry is composed of two elements: local and 'imported'. The local variant developed quite independently, against a background of sedentary settlement satisfying the essential needs of inhabitants in this region. This led to the production of mallet-scepters, mallet-weights with grooves, pebble-axes grindstones/polishers and hammer stones. Judging by their shape and considerable dimensions, these implements were probably used in game hunting and for killing large fish. On the other hand, because of the blunt cutting edges of the pebble axes and the massiveness of the tools themselves, it may be assumed that they were not used in woodworking or agriculture. In essence the local variant is based on the pebble, its natural shape being only finished. In parallel with this autochthonous stone industry, there occur in the Iron Gates early Holocene sites tools typical of the Starčevo and Vinča cultures - the 'imported' variant. The occurrence of ground-edge implements made of rocks gray-greenish in colour (whether hornfelses or local rocks of the same physical-technical characteristics) indicates the import of this technology, and occasionally the import of the artifacts themselves into the Iron Gates area. The common appearance of two variants of the stone industry different in character, is perhaps further evidence of the parallelism of the Iron Gates late Mesolithic with the developed Neolithic of the neighboring areas, which is otherwise indicated by absolute dates. In some sites artifacts of the local industry are more abundant, while in others there are more 'imported' artifacts (fig. 10). This is not a chronological gradation, but merely an example illustrating the extent to which some Iron Gates early Holocene settlements accepted Neolithic products from outside. In this respect, Lepenski Vir and Padina - Sector III appear to a higher degree as a neolithized settlements based on hunting and gathering supported by intensive fishing. In contrast, Velesnica is far behind Lepenski Vir and according to the ground stone material, was a highly developed fisher's settlement. The Iron Gates stone industry is the unique example in the central Balkan prehistory where is visible, in stone tools, the metamorphosis of technology caused by gradual change of mode of subsistence, in which fishing had the most important role. This metamorphosis can be recognized in big stone tools for fishing (mal-let-weights and mallet-scepters) originated from smaller artifacts used in manufacturing of chipped stone artifacts. From anvils and hammerstones became much bigger objects like mallet-weights and mallet-scepters used for killing big animals and fishes, which gradually turned into cult objects. The cult significance of stone tools is much more visible at Hajdučka Vodenica. At the necropolis of Hajdučka Vodenica were found tools for gathering food and woodworking: mallet-scepters mallet-weights hammerstones, anvils, quern-altars, axes and adzes. All artifacts were very carefully manufactured and some of them were ornamented with engravings. It is interesting to notice that at Hajdučka Vodenica were found only artefacts of macrocrystalline rocks and objects of chipped stone industry were not recorded at all. Stone artifacts and stone as a raw material had a special place in the Lepenski Vir culture. This conclusion does not refer to artifacts of chipped stone industry nor to stone of microcrystalline structure (like various forms of silica). Chipped stone industry had a complete profane character in the Lepenski Vir culture. It seems that stone and stone artifacts for inhabitants of the Lepenski Vir culture represented personification of advantages they had got from new subsistence advantages which they had to admire and respect. They made tools for fishing and hunting of pebble and with those tools they killed big fishes and animals - those hunted as well as those domesticated. The population of the Lepenski Vir culture gradually became conscious of the great importance of the river on which banks they lived. That importance they expressed by putting objects made of pebble and a pebble itself as a products of the river and certainly the most important raw material in the center of the cult.",
publisher = "Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd",
journal = "Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva",
title = "Mezolitska i neolitska kamena industrija Đerdapa, The Mesolithic and Neolithic stone industry of the Iron Gates",
pages = "35-9",
number = "19",
volume = "20",
url = "conv_217"
}
Antonović, D.. (2003). Mezolitska i neolitska kamena industrija Đerdapa. in Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva
Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd., 20(19), 9-35.
conv_217
Antonović D. Mezolitska i neolitska kamena industrija Đerdapa. in Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva. 2003;20(19):9-35.
conv_217 .
Antonović, Dragana, "Mezolitska i neolitska kamena industrija Đerdapa" in Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva, 20, no. 19 (2003):9-35,
conv_217 .

Prerada bakra u Vinči - novi prilozi tezi o metalurškom karakteru Vinčanske kulture

Antonović, Dragana

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2002)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
PY  - 2002
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/49
AB  - Poslednjih godina sve su učestaliji nalazi koji neumitno i sigurno potvrđuju metalurški aspekt Vinčanske kulture od samih njenih početaka. Pored već dobro poznatog otkrića Vinčanskog rudnika bakra na Rudnoj Glavi, tu su i nova otkrića na Belovodama i Pločniku koja su upoznavanje sa metalom pomerila skoro do samog početka Vinčanske kulture. Teza o metalurškom karakteru Vinčanske kulture stara je bezmalo ceo vek, a postavio je prvi i najveći istraživač Vinče Miloje M. Vasić. On je Vinču smatrao pre svega centrom za preradu žive i olova, a zbog pogrešnog datovanja Vinče u pozno minojski period prerada bakra je za njega predstavljala potpuno očekivanu delatnost kojoj nije posvetio redove u svojoj monografiji. Nasuprot publikovanim radovima Vasić u svojim dnevnicima veoma uredno notira svaki nalaz malahita odnosno oksidiranog metala, dajući tačne podatke u kom su broju nađeni, često navodi njihove dimenzije, a ponekad i tačno mesto nalaza ako su nađeni na podovima kuća ili u jamama (tabela 1–3). Otkrićem rudnika bakra na Rudnoj Glavi i nakon istraživanja na Divostinu, Selevcu, Pločniku i Belovodama poslednjih godina, teza da je Vinča bila jedan od metalurških centara Vinčanske kulture ponovo postaje aktuelna. Međutim, sada se akcenat stavlja na preradu bakra. Direktan povod za razmatranje mogućnosti prerade bakra u Vinči bio je veliki broj grumenova i ukrasnih predmeta od malahita prikupljenih tokom Vasićevih iskopavanja Vinče, a koji se danas čuvaju u Narodnom muzeju i u Arheološkoj zbirci Filozofskog fakulteta u Beogradu. U materijalu preovlađuju amorfni grumenovi malahita, ali je zabeležen i izvestan broj predmeta od ovog minerala (sl. 1: a–i). Nalazi podjednako potiču iz starije i iz mlađe Vinčanskih slojeva (tabela 3). Malahit je nalažen u svim slojevima Vinče i kako se čini na osnovu opisa u dnevnicima sa iskopavanja, izgleda da je bio ravnomerno zastupljen na svim dubinama (grafikon 1–2). Predmeti od malahita do sada su nađeni, osim u Vinči, još i na Selevcu, Divostinu (sl. 1: l–o), Gornjoj Tuzli, Belovodama (sl. 1: j–k) i Čoki. Nalazi malahita u obliku neobrađenih grumenova su znatno brojniji Zabeleženi su u Vinči, Pločniku, Opovu, Fafosu, Divostinu, Selevcu, Gornjoj Tuzli, a po broju nalaza prednjači svakako Belovode, gde su često nalaženi i termički tretirani grumenovi, mada se ne precizira da li su oni nađeni u sloju požara ili je u pitanju prerada rude. Ukrasni predmeti od malahita koristili su se i pre Vinčanske kulture na teritoriji koju je ona pokrivala na Lepenskom Viru u naselju III, Divostinu I i Zmajevcu kod Smederevske Palanke. Ove usamljene slučajeve svakako ne treba dovoditi u vezu sa poznavanjem metalurgije, jer je malahit korišćen isključivo kao ukrasni kamen, ali to svakako svedoči da su se nosioci Starčevačke kulture već bili upoznali sa ležištima bakarne rude. Ono što svakako svedoči o poznavanju prerade bakra jesu nalazi bakarnih predmeta zabeleženi na Vinčanskim lokalitetima. Najviše ih je nađeno u Gornjoj Tuzli (sl. 2: c–i), ako izuzmemo nalaze ostava iz Pločnika čije je datovanje još uvek pod znakom pitanja. U Pločniku je, kao sigurno stratificirano i datovano zabeleženo jedno masivno bakarno dleto (sl. 2: b), nađeno u intaktnom sloju sa početka gradačke faze Nakon novijih istraživanja u Pločniku, čini se i da se 4 ostave, ranije otkrivene, mogu opredeliti u gradačku fazu Vinčanske kulture, pa se tako one pokazuju kao najznačajniji nalaz izrađevina od bakra iz Vinčanske kulture – iz sva 4 depoa potiče ukupno 45 masivnih bakarnih alatki. Na ostalim lokalitetima bakar, u obliku gotovih predmeta ili grumenova, zabeležen je na Divostinu, Selevcu, Grivcu, Belovodama, Ratini kod Kraljeva, Gomolavi i Velikoj Gradini u Staparima kod Užica. Nakon svega nameće se pitanje gde se vršila proizvodnja bakra od koga su bili napravljeni predmeti zabeleženi na Vinčanskim lokalitetima. Jasno definisano radioničko-topioničarsko mesto u Vinčanskoj kulturi do sada nije konstatovano. Međutim, tako izgleda samo na prvi pogled. Potencijalna mesta prerade bakra već su opisana u nekim publikovanim radovima – konkretno reč je o lokalitetima Pločnik, Fafos Selevac i Belovode. Vasić je takođe u već pomenutim svojim dnevnicima sa iskopavanja Vinče opisao situacije koje nedvosmisleno upućuju na topioničarsku delatnost u ovom neolitskom naselju. Tako Vasić beleži kako su često nalaženi na kotama od 6,2 do 7,0 m "komadi malahita u grudvi sa garom" i "komadi zelenkaste šljake dobijeni pri jakoj vatri". Tokom 1913. godine otkriveno je, na jednom manjem prostoru, na dubinama od 8,10 do 8,97 m, više plitkih jama izduženog elipsoidnog oblika u tlocrtu (sl. 3). Zidovi ovih udubljenja su od neravnomerno zapečene zemlje, a na njihovom dnu je po pravilu nalažen gar i pepeo. Osim ovih udubljenja na istom prostoru su, na dubinama 8,89 i 8,97 m otkrivene 2 jame sa širim dnom od otvora (sl. 4). Jedna jama imala je pri dnu otvor skoro pravougaonog oblika površine takođe od crveno zapečene zemlje, a koju Vasić tumači kao topioničarsku peć. U Timni su halkolitske peći imale skoro identičan oblik kao ove u Vinči (sl 6).Ovakva vrsta nalaza zabeležena je i na drugim Vinčanskim lokalitetima. Najsličnija situacija onoj u Vinči, sa udubljenjem sa zapečenom zemljom zabeležena je na Pločniku (sl. 5), a na Fafosu I, u jamama 16 i 38, nađeno je obilje malahita u obliku grumenova i praha, izmešanog sa slojevima gorenja Situacije i nalazi slični ovim upravo opisanim dobro su poznati u svetu i zabeleženi su na lokalitetima sa najranijim oblicima primitivne prerade bakra – u rudno-topioničarskim kompleksima Timna na Sinaju i Činflion u Španiji pri čemu su nalazi sa ovog poslednjeg istovetni sa onim iz Vinče, Pločnika i Fafosa. Takozvani termički tretirani grumenovi malahita zabeleženi su u većim količinama i na Belovodama, pa s pravom možemo da zaključimo da Belovode sigurno predstavljaju još jedno mesto prerade bakra u Vinčanskoj kulturi. U direktnu vezu sa topioničarskom delatnošću možemo da dovedemo i nalaz dna grubog suda iz Vinče, sa kote 4,2 m, do pola napunjeno sprašenim malahitom Ovako sprašena ruda koristila se u primitivnoj tehnologiji dobijanja bakra Eksperimenti koji su izvođeni sa rudom iz Timne zahtevali su rudu usitnjenu u zrna ispod 4 mm veličine, dok je u eksperimentu sa rudom iz Rudne Glave ona bila sprašena u zrna veličine do 100 mm. Na nekim lokalitetima (Pločnik Grivac, Gornja Tuzla) zabeleženi su indirektni dokazi topioničarske aktivnosti kao što su sudovi i kalupi za livenje metala (sl. 7).U prilog ranog upoznavanja prerade bakra govori i činjenica da su nosioci Vinčanske kulture, po svemu sudeći bili dobri poznavaoci rudnog bogatstva na svojoj teritoriji. O tome svedoči i odlično poznavanje kvalitetnih sirovina korišćenih za izradu kamenih predmeta u Vinčanskoj kulturi. Kako je teritorija koju je pokrivala Vinčanska kultura izuzetno bogata ležištima bakarne rude (sl. 8), bez sumnje je da su se Vinčanci vrlo rano upoznali sa njima i započeli njihovu eksploataciju. Malahit i azurit, hidrokarbonati bakra nastali raspadanjem i transformisanjem svih bakarnih ruda, a koji se javljaju kao česti nalazi na Vinčanskim lokalitetima, su vrlo rašireni na teritoriji centralnog Balkana. Za sada ipak ne možemo da kažemo išta konkretnije o poreklu bakarne rude koja je korišćena u primitivnoj metalurgiji na Vinčanskim lokalitetima zbog izuzetno malog broja egzaktnih analiza. Prema poslednjim i najsavremenijim ispitivanjima uzoraka malahita rude, šljake i metalnih predmeta sa nekih Vinčanskih lokaliteta (Selevac Pločnik, Gomolava, Rudna Glava) došlo se samo do jednog sigurnog zaključka, a to je da za sada nije poznat izvor rude korišćene tokom najranijeg metalurškog perioda na našem prostoru. Nakon svega iznetog evidentno je da je metalurgija, odnosno prerada bakarne rude i dobijanje bakra, prisutna u Vinčanskoj kulturi od samih njenih početaka. Ova tvrdnja se, nakon rezultata istraživanja u Pločniku i na Belovodama, kao i novim uvidom i tumačenjem materijala i dnevnika sa Vinče, ne čini spornom. Mnogo važnije pitanje koje se sada postavlja je kada su se nosioci Vinčanske kulture upoznali sa novom tehnologijom i da li je to upoznavanje metalurgije bilo autohtono ili inicirano spoljnim uticajima. U ovom pravcu u svakom slučaju treba usmeriti buduća istraživanja Vinčanske kulture koja će baciti sasvim novo svetlo na karakter ove izuzetne neolitske kulture koja se, svakim novootkrivenim lokalitetom pokazuje kao kultura o kojoj još uvek malo znamo.
AB  - Abundant hand written documentation from excavations of Vinča (1908–1934) offers sufficient evidence that confirms the thesis established by investigator of Vinča M. M. Vasić himself that Vinča was metallurgical center. After comparing these data with the finds related to early copper processing on other sites of the central Balkans (Belovode, Pločnik, Gornja Tuzla, Fafos, Selevac) it could be assumed that Vinča culture was acquainted with metallurgy from its very outset. This assumption is supported by similar finds from other sides of the world (Tymna, Chinflon, Batán Grande) and even more so the results of experimental copper processing.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Prerada bakra u Vinči - novi prilozi tezi o metalurškom karakteru Vinčanske kulture
T1  - Copper processing in Vinča: New contributions to the thesis about metallurgical character of Vinča culture
EP  - 45
IS  - 52
SP  - 27
DO  - 10.2298/STA0252027A
UR  - conv_667
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Antonović, Dragana",
year = "2002",
abstract = "Poslednjih godina sve su učestaliji nalazi koji neumitno i sigurno potvrđuju metalurški aspekt Vinčanske kulture od samih njenih početaka. Pored već dobro poznatog otkrića Vinčanskog rudnika bakra na Rudnoj Glavi, tu su i nova otkrića na Belovodama i Pločniku koja su upoznavanje sa metalom pomerila skoro do samog početka Vinčanske kulture. Teza o metalurškom karakteru Vinčanske kulture stara je bezmalo ceo vek, a postavio je prvi i najveći istraživač Vinče Miloje M. Vasić. On je Vinču smatrao pre svega centrom za preradu žive i olova, a zbog pogrešnog datovanja Vinče u pozno minojski period prerada bakra je za njega predstavljala potpuno očekivanu delatnost kojoj nije posvetio redove u svojoj monografiji. Nasuprot publikovanim radovima Vasić u svojim dnevnicima veoma uredno notira svaki nalaz malahita odnosno oksidiranog metala, dajući tačne podatke u kom su broju nađeni, često navodi njihove dimenzije, a ponekad i tačno mesto nalaza ako su nađeni na podovima kuća ili u jamama (tabela 1–3). Otkrićem rudnika bakra na Rudnoj Glavi i nakon istraživanja na Divostinu, Selevcu, Pločniku i Belovodama poslednjih godina, teza da je Vinča bila jedan od metalurških centara Vinčanske kulture ponovo postaje aktuelna. Međutim, sada se akcenat stavlja na preradu bakra. Direktan povod za razmatranje mogućnosti prerade bakra u Vinči bio je veliki broj grumenova i ukrasnih predmeta od malahita prikupljenih tokom Vasićevih iskopavanja Vinče, a koji se danas čuvaju u Narodnom muzeju i u Arheološkoj zbirci Filozofskog fakulteta u Beogradu. U materijalu preovlađuju amorfni grumenovi malahita, ali je zabeležen i izvestan broj predmeta od ovog minerala (sl. 1: a–i). Nalazi podjednako potiču iz starije i iz mlađe Vinčanskih slojeva (tabela 3). Malahit je nalažen u svim slojevima Vinče i kako se čini na osnovu opisa u dnevnicima sa iskopavanja, izgleda da je bio ravnomerno zastupljen na svim dubinama (grafikon 1–2). Predmeti od malahita do sada su nađeni, osim u Vinči, još i na Selevcu, Divostinu (sl. 1: l–o), Gornjoj Tuzli, Belovodama (sl. 1: j–k) i Čoki. Nalazi malahita u obliku neobrađenih grumenova su znatno brojniji Zabeleženi su u Vinči, Pločniku, Opovu, Fafosu, Divostinu, Selevcu, Gornjoj Tuzli, a po broju nalaza prednjači svakako Belovode, gde su često nalaženi i termički tretirani grumenovi, mada se ne precizira da li su oni nađeni u sloju požara ili je u pitanju prerada rude. Ukrasni predmeti od malahita koristili su se i pre Vinčanske kulture na teritoriji koju je ona pokrivala na Lepenskom Viru u naselju III, Divostinu I i Zmajevcu kod Smederevske Palanke. Ove usamljene slučajeve svakako ne treba dovoditi u vezu sa poznavanjem metalurgije, jer je malahit korišćen isključivo kao ukrasni kamen, ali to svakako svedoči da su se nosioci Starčevačke kulture već bili upoznali sa ležištima bakarne rude. Ono što svakako svedoči o poznavanju prerade bakra jesu nalazi bakarnih predmeta zabeleženi na Vinčanskim lokalitetima. Najviše ih je nađeno u Gornjoj Tuzli (sl. 2: c–i), ako izuzmemo nalaze ostava iz Pločnika čije je datovanje još uvek pod znakom pitanja. U Pločniku je, kao sigurno stratificirano i datovano zabeleženo jedno masivno bakarno dleto (sl. 2: b), nađeno u intaktnom sloju sa početka gradačke faze Nakon novijih istraživanja u Pločniku, čini se i da se 4 ostave, ranije otkrivene, mogu opredeliti u gradačku fazu Vinčanske kulture, pa se tako one pokazuju kao najznačajniji nalaz izrađevina od bakra iz Vinčanske kulture – iz sva 4 depoa potiče ukupno 45 masivnih bakarnih alatki. Na ostalim lokalitetima bakar, u obliku gotovih predmeta ili grumenova, zabeležen je na Divostinu, Selevcu, Grivcu, Belovodama, Ratini kod Kraljeva, Gomolavi i Velikoj Gradini u Staparima kod Užica. Nakon svega nameće se pitanje gde se vršila proizvodnja bakra od koga su bili napravljeni predmeti zabeleženi na Vinčanskim lokalitetima. Jasno definisano radioničko-topioničarsko mesto u Vinčanskoj kulturi do sada nije konstatovano. Međutim, tako izgleda samo na prvi pogled. Potencijalna mesta prerade bakra već su opisana u nekim publikovanim radovima – konkretno reč je o lokalitetima Pločnik, Fafos Selevac i Belovode. Vasić je takođe u već pomenutim svojim dnevnicima sa iskopavanja Vinče opisao situacije koje nedvosmisleno upućuju na topioničarsku delatnost u ovom neolitskom naselju. Tako Vasić beleži kako su često nalaženi na kotama od 6,2 do 7,0 m "komadi malahita u grudvi sa garom" i "komadi zelenkaste šljake dobijeni pri jakoj vatri". Tokom 1913. godine otkriveno je, na jednom manjem prostoru, na dubinama od 8,10 do 8,97 m, više plitkih jama izduženog elipsoidnog oblika u tlocrtu (sl. 3). Zidovi ovih udubljenja su od neravnomerno zapečene zemlje, a na njihovom dnu je po pravilu nalažen gar i pepeo. Osim ovih udubljenja na istom prostoru su, na dubinama 8,89 i 8,97 m otkrivene 2 jame sa širim dnom od otvora (sl. 4). Jedna jama imala je pri dnu otvor skoro pravougaonog oblika površine takođe od crveno zapečene zemlje, a koju Vasić tumači kao topioničarsku peć. U Timni su halkolitske peći imale skoro identičan oblik kao ove u Vinči (sl 6).Ovakva vrsta nalaza zabeležena je i na drugim Vinčanskim lokalitetima. Najsličnija situacija onoj u Vinči, sa udubljenjem sa zapečenom zemljom zabeležena je na Pločniku (sl. 5), a na Fafosu I, u jamama 16 i 38, nađeno je obilje malahita u obliku grumenova i praha, izmešanog sa slojevima gorenja Situacije i nalazi slični ovim upravo opisanim dobro su poznati u svetu i zabeleženi su na lokalitetima sa najranijim oblicima primitivne prerade bakra – u rudno-topioničarskim kompleksima Timna na Sinaju i Činflion u Španiji pri čemu su nalazi sa ovog poslednjeg istovetni sa onim iz Vinče, Pločnika i Fafosa. Takozvani termički tretirani grumenovi malahita zabeleženi su u većim količinama i na Belovodama, pa s pravom možemo da zaključimo da Belovode sigurno predstavljaju još jedno mesto prerade bakra u Vinčanskoj kulturi. U direktnu vezu sa topioničarskom delatnošću možemo da dovedemo i nalaz dna grubog suda iz Vinče, sa kote 4,2 m, do pola napunjeno sprašenim malahitom Ovako sprašena ruda koristila se u primitivnoj tehnologiji dobijanja bakra Eksperimenti koji su izvođeni sa rudom iz Timne zahtevali su rudu usitnjenu u zrna ispod 4 mm veličine, dok je u eksperimentu sa rudom iz Rudne Glave ona bila sprašena u zrna veličine do 100 mm. Na nekim lokalitetima (Pločnik Grivac, Gornja Tuzla) zabeleženi su indirektni dokazi topioničarske aktivnosti kao što su sudovi i kalupi za livenje metala (sl. 7).U prilog ranog upoznavanja prerade bakra govori i činjenica da su nosioci Vinčanske kulture, po svemu sudeći bili dobri poznavaoci rudnog bogatstva na svojoj teritoriji. O tome svedoči i odlično poznavanje kvalitetnih sirovina korišćenih za izradu kamenih predmeta u Vinčanskoj kulturi. Kako je teritorija koju je pokrivala Vinčanska kultura izuzetno bogata ležištima bakarne rude (sl. 8), bez sumnje je da su se Vinčanci vrlo rano upoznali sa njima i započeli njihovu eksploataciju. Malahit i azurit, hidrokarbonati bakra nastali raspadanjem i transformisanjem svih bakarnih ruda, a koji se javljaju kao česti nalazi na Vinčanskim lokalitetima, su vrlo rašireni na teritoriji centralnog Balkana. Za sada ipak ne možemo da kažemo išta konkretnije o poreklu bakarne rude koja je korišćena u primitivnoj metalurgiji na Vinčanskim lokalitetima zbog izuzetno malog broja egzaktnih analiza. Prema poslednjim i najsavremenijim ispitivanjima uzoraka malahita rude, šljake i metalnih predmeta sa nekih Vinčanskih lokaliteta (Selevac Pločnik, Gomolava, Rudna Glava) došlo se samo do jednog sigurnog zaključka, a to je da za sada nije poznat izvor rude korišćene tokom najranijeg metalurškog perioda na našem prostoru. Nakon svega iznetog evidentno je da je metalurgija, odnosno prerada bakarne rude i dobijanje bakra, prisutna u Vinčanskoj kulturi od samih njenih početaka. Ova tvrdnja se, nakon rezultata istraživanja u Pločniku i na Belovodama, kao i novim uvidom i tumačenjem materijala i dnevnika sa Vinče, ne čini spornom. Mnogo važnije pitanje koje se sada postavlja je kada su se nosioci Vinčanske kulture upoznali sa novom tehnologijom i da li je to upoznavanje metalurgije bilo autohtono ili inicirano spoljnim uticajima. U ovom pravcu u svakom slučaju treba usmeriti buduća istraživanja Vinčanske kulture koja će baciti sasvim novo svetlo na karakter ove izuzetne neolitske kulture koja se, svakim novootkrivenim lokalitetom pokazuje kao kultura o kojoj još uvek malo znamo., Abundant hand written documentation from excavations of Vinča (1908–1934) offers sufficient evidence that confirms the thesis established by investigator of Vinča M. M. Vasić himself that Vinča was metallurgical center. After comparing these data with the finds related to early copper processing on other sites of the central Balkans (Belovode, Pločnik, Gornja Tuzla, Fafos, Selevac) it could be assumed that Vinča culture was acquainted with metallurgy from its very outset. This assumption is supported by similar finds from other sides of the world (Tymna, Chinflon, Batán Grande) and even more so the results of experimental copper processing.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Prerada bakra u Vinči - novi prilozi tezi o metalurškom karakteru Vinčanske kulture, Copper processing in Vinča: New contributions to the thesis about metallurgical character of Vinča culture",
pages = "45-27",
number = "52",
doi = "10.2298/STA0252027A",
url = "conv_667"
}
Antonović, D.. (2002). Prerada bakra u Vinči - novi prilozi tezi o metalurškom karakteru Vinčanske kulture. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(52), 27-45.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA0252027A
conv_667
Antonović D. Prerada bakra u Vinči - novi prilozi tezi o metalurškom karakteru Vinčanske kulture. in Starinar. 2002;(52):27-45.
doi:10.2298/STA0252027A
conv_667 .
Antonović, Dragana, "Prerada bakra u Vinči - novi prilozi tezi o metalurškom karakteru Vinčanske kulture" in Starinar, no. 52 (2002):27-45,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA0252027A .,
conv_667 .
8

Industrija glačanog kamena sa Donje Branjevine i njeno mesto u neolitu naše zemlje

Antonović, Dragana

(Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd, 2002)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
PY  - 2002
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/50
AB  - Industrija glačanog kamena sa Donje Branjevine kod Odžaka, najranijeg lokaliteta od do sada istraženih sa teritorije Vojvodine, predstavlja veoma zanimljivu pojavu u neolitu naših krajeva. Ovaj lokalitet se nalazi duboko u vojvođanskoj ravnici, pa pojava kamenog alata pruža značajne podatke o putevima dobavljanja sirovina, a sa tim i o mogućim kontaktima sa okolnim oblastima. Kamena industrija sa Donje Branjevine je, na osnovu izbora sirovina, vezana za neolit centralne Srbije, dok u tehnološkom smislu pokazuje sličnosti sa đerdapskom industrijom glačanog kamena.
AB  - It was analyzed, from the site Donja Branjevina, the sample of 99 ground stone artifacts originating from the Early Neolithic (Starčevo and Koros) horizons, collected during all excavating seasons. Raw material was examined by macroscopic and microscopic petrographic method. Sixteen sorts of rocks have been recorded, some of them being represented with only one specimen (table 1, graph 1). According to few microscopic analyses and previous investigations in this domain we are inclined to supposition that main sources of raw materials were located in the territory of central Serbia. At Donja Branjevina it is interesting the occurrence of fine-grained rocks typical for the central Serbian Starčevo and Vinča culture. These rocks are widely spread in geological formations of central and western Serbia and it is the most probable that they had been brought at Donja Branjevina from these areas. Other kinds of rocks had been probably collected as pebbles which explains their great diversity. According to types of tools and raw material as well, the ground stone industry from Donja Branjevina is fully developed what is pointed out by the uniformity of manufacturing the artifacts. The great number of tool types has been recorded: various shapes of axes, adzes, chisels, hammers and grindstones (table 2, graph 2). Concerning technology the ground stone tools reveal very interesting technique of manufacture. Some ground edge tools, particularly axes which are made of fine-grained rocks suitable for chipping are additionally treated in order to get more massive form like they have been made of pebbles of magmatic stones and sandstone as is the case with tools from the Iron Gates sites. This is very interesting aspiration of Neolithic masters at Donja Branjevina to make tools, produced by developed technology, to look like more primitive implements. This phenomenon has also been recorded in the Proto-Starčevo assemblage from Grivac. Thus, according to shape ground edge tools look like those found at Lepenski Vir, Vlasac, Velesnica and Padina, but by raw material and technique employed they entirely belong to the Starčevo-Vinča type of tools. If we wish to apprehend the place of the stone industry from Donja Branjevina in the Neolithic of Serbia we must mention territorial distribution of certain variants of this industry. Taking as a whole this industry display certain territorial characteristic and that is division into three technological circles related to the production of stone tools. First and for the time being best investigated is the central Serbia-Vojvodina circle, second is the Iron Gates circle and third South Morava-Kosovo circle as the least investigated. It seems that Donja Branjevina stone industry like the one from Grivac represents the link between first sedentary settlements in the Danube valley and completely established Neolithic cultures in this area. This is evident in combining various traditions in one type of product. It is even more probable that it is the case of stone industries on different levels of development. The Iron Gates industry is in the initial phase of development and the one from Donja Branjevina (and Grivac) appears as advanced technology in which is possible to recognize distant Mesolithic predecessor concentrated in a wish that pebble should still be the basic and only raw material for making tools. It seems by all means that stone industry represents to the greatest extent the key for solving the problem of origin and development of the Neolithic in Vojvodina as well as in the whole Serbia. Sources of raw material and ways of its procurement had no doubt the decisive role in establishing contacts of various populations with different cultural and technological traditions and in establishing of the unique techno-complex that characterize the central Balkan Neolithic.
PB  - Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd
T2  - Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva
T1  - Industrija glačanog kamena sa Donje Branjevine i njeno mesto u neolitu naše zemlje
T1  - Ground stone industry from Donja Branjevina and its place in the Neolithic of our region
EP  - 43
IS  - 18
SP  - 25
VL  - 19
UR  - conv_215
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Antonović, Dragana",
year = "2002",
abstract = "Industrija glačanog kamena sa Donje Branjevine kod Odžaka, najranijeg lokaliteta od do sada istraženih sa teritorije Vojvodine, predstavlja veoma zanimljivu pojavu u neolitu naših krajeva. Ovaj lokalitet se nalazi duboko u vojvođanskoj ravnici, pa pojava kamenog alata pruža značajne podatke o putevima dobavljanja sirovina, a sa tim i o mogućim kontaktima sa okolnim oblastima. Kamena industrija sa Donje Branjevine je, na osnovu izbora sirovina, vezana za neolit centralne Srbije, dok u tehnološkom smislu pokazuje sličnosti sa đerdapskom industrijom glačanog kamena., It was analyzed, from the site Donja Branjevina, the sample of 99 ground stone artifacts originating from the Early Neolithic (Starčevo and Koros) horizons, collected during all excavating seasons. Raw material was examined by macroscopic and microscopic petrographic method. Sixteen sorts of rocks have been recorded, some of them being represented with only one specimen (table 1, graph 1). According to few microscopic analyses and previous investigations in this domain we are inclined to supposition that main sources of raw materials were located in the territory of central Serbia. At Donja Branjevina it is interesting the occurrence of fine-grained rocks typical for the central Serbian Starčevo and Vinča culture. These rocks are widely spread in geological formations of central and western Serbia and it is the most probable that they had been brought at Donja Branjevina from these areas. Other kinds of rocks had been probably collected as pebbles which explains their great diversity. According to types of tools and raw material as well, the ground stone industry from Donja Branjevina is fully developed what is pointed out by the uniformity of manufacturing the artifacts. The great number of tool types has been recorded: various shapes of axes, adzes, chisels, hammers and grindstones (table 2, graph 2). Concerning technology the ground stone tools reveal very interesting technique of manufacture. Some ground edge tools, particularly axes which are made of fine-grained rocks suitable for chipping are additionally treated in order to get more massive form like they have been made of pebbles of magmatic stones and sandstone as is the case with tools from the Iron Gates sites. This is very interesting aspiration of Neolithic masters at Donja Branjevina to make tools, produced by developed technology, to look like more primitive implements. This phenomenon has also been recorded in the Proto-Starčevo assemblage from Grivac. Thus, according to shape ground edge tools look like those found at Lepenski Vir, Vlasac, Velesnica and Padina, but by raw material and technique employed they entirely belong to the Starčevo-Vinča type of tools. If we wish to apprehend the place of the stone industry from Donja Branjevina in the Neolithic of Serbia we must mention territorial distribution of certain variants of this industry. Taking as a whole this industry display certain territorial characteristic and that is division into three technological circles related to the production of stone tools. First and for the time being best investigated is the central Serbia-Vojvodina circle, second is the Iron Gates circle and third South Morava-Kosovo circle as the least investigated. It seems that Donja Branjevina stone industry like the one from Grivac represents the link between first sedentary settlements in the Danube valley and completely established Neolithic cultures in this area. This is evident in combining various traditions in one type of product. It is even more probable that it is the case of stone industries on different levels of development. The Iron Gates industry is in the initial phase of development and the one from Donja Branjevina (and Grivac) appears as advanced technology in which is possible to recognize distant Mesolithic predecessor concentrated in a wish that pebble should still be the basic and only raw material for making tools. It seems by all means that stone industry represents to the greatest extent the key for solving the problem of origin and development of the Neolithic in Vojvodina as well as in the whole Serbia. Sources of raw material and ways of its procurement had no doubt the decisive role in establishing contacts of various populations with different cultural and technological traditions and in establishing of the unique techno-complex that characterize the central Balkan Neolithic.",
publisher = "Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd",
journal = "Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva",
title = "Industrija glačanog kamena sa Donje Branjevine i njeno mesto u neolitu naše zemlje, Ground stone industry from Donja Branjevina and its place in the Neolithic of our region",
pages = "43-25",
number = "18",
volume = "19",
url = "conv_215"
}
Antonović, D.. (2002). Industrija glačanog kamena sa Donje Branjevine i njeno mesto u neolitu naše zemlje. in Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva
Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd., 19(18), 25-43.
conv_215
Antonović D. Industrija glačanog kamena sa Donje Branjevine i njeno mesto u neolitu naše zemlje. in Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva. 2002;19(18):25-43.
conv_215 .
Antonović, Dragana, "Industrija glačanog kamena sa Donje Branjevine i njeno mesto u neolitu naše zemlje" in Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva, 19, no. 18 (2002):25-43,
conv_215 .

Vinčanska industrija glačanog kamena u svetlu novih istraživanja

Antonović, Dragana

(Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd, 2001)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
PY  - 2001
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/46
AB  - U kamenoj glačanoj industriji vinčanske kulture postoji izuzetna ujednačenost u proizvodnji, naročito na području centralne Srbije. Ona se ogleda u ujednačenosti oblika alatki, u upotrebi ovih predmeta u obradi drveta, a posebno u izboru istih sirovina. Sve su ovo razlozi zbog kojih tek od vremena vinčanske kulture možemo da govorimo o pravoj industriji glačanog kamena, a posebno o organizovanom dobavljanju sirovina. U svetlu ovih novih saznanja pokazuje se kao potrebna i vrlo korisna studija materijala od glačanog kamena sa vinčanskih lokaliteta širom Srbije. Pomenuta uniformnost sada se pokazuje kao osnovni razlog za detaljnija ispitivanja vinčanske kamene industrije upravo radi utvrđivanja rasprostranjenosti pojedinih sirovina i načinu njihovog dobavljanja Stoga bi u budućim istraživanjima i rekognosciranjima vezanim za vinčansku kulturu trebalo obratiti pažnju na male naseo-binske pojave blizu izdanaka sirovina kao na potencijalna mala rudarska naselja ili radioničke centre.
AB  - Until recently our complete knowledge of the Vinča culture ground stone industry was mostly based on cognition of material from Vinča itself. But in last two decades the stone objects from numerous Neolithic sites in Serbia (Belovode, Crnokalačka Bara, Čučuge, Divostin, Drenovac, Gradac, Grivac Lipovac, Naprelje, Petnica, Pločnik, Selevac, Supska and assemblage collected during the recent excavations in Vinča) were completely researched or sometimes only briefly examined. Now, after such a researching, it is possible to comprehend the character of the ground stone industry from wide territory of the Vinča culture. It is noticed that the extreme uniformity in manufacture of ground stone objects exists in the Vinča culture which is the most obvious on the assemblage from central Serbian sites. The uniformity appears in: 1) tool forms - typology worked out on tools from the site of Vinča can be applied on artifacts from the whole territory of the Vinča culture; 2) usage - objects were mostly used in wood processing; 3) raw materials - at most of the Vinča culture sites almost the same kind of rocks were used for the manufacture of ground stone tools (characteristic finegrained greenish-gray rocks in Vinča Tordoš phases, and light white rocks in Gradačka and Vinča Pločnik phases). These are reasons why the Neolithic manufacture of ground stone objects can't be considered as the 'ground stone industry' earlier than the Vinča culture periods. Also from that time the organized procurement of raw materials can be regarded as some kind of early mining, proved in the case of light white rocks (magnesite). In light of these new investigations it seems necessary and very useful to examine and research ground stone assemblage from sites of a broad territory of the Vinča culture. The mentioned uniformity of the Vinča culture ground stone industry has produced aversion against the studying of this material mainly because of the fact that new types of tools or new kinds of raw materials were not usually recognized at most of the newly discovered Vinča culture sites. But today this uniformity appears as the most serious reason for intensive studying of the Vinča culture ground stone industry which could help to discover the spreading of certain rocks used in the manufacture of stone objects and the way of their procurement. Thus it would be necessary, in all future prospectings and excavations, to pay more attention to small residential conglomerations near the raw material deposit outcrops as potential mining and workshop settlements. It is possible to expect that in such a widely spread culture, as it was the Vinča culture, existed a quite progressed system of procurement and distribution of basic raw materials, and the stone certainly was the one of them. This kind of investigations could be applied to the complete Neolithic because until recently none of the essential difference has been noticed between the Vinča and the Starčevo culture ground stone industry in our country.
PB  - Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd
T2  - Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva
T1  - Vinčanska industrija glačanog kamena u svetlu novih istraživanja
T1  - The Vinča culture ground Stone industry in the light of new investigations
EP  - 175
IS  - 17
SP  - 169
UR  - conv_212
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Antonović, Dragana",
year = "2001",
abstract = "U kamenoj glačanoj industriji vinčanske kulture postoji izuzetna ujednačenost u proizvodnji, naročito na području centralne Srbije. Ona se ogleda u ujednačenosti oblika alatki, u upotrebi ovih predmeta u obradi drveta, a posebno u izboru istih sirovina. Sve su ovo razlozi zbog kojih tek od vremena vinčanske kulture možemo da govorimo o pravoj industriji glačanog kamena, a posebno o organizovanom dobavljanju sirovina. U svetlu ovih novih saznanja pokazuje se kao potrebna i vrlo korisna studija materijala od glačanog kamena sa vinčanskih lokaliteta širom Srbije. Pomenuta uniformnost sada se pokazuje kao osnovni razlog za detaljnija ispitivanja vinčanske kamene industrije upravo radi utvrđivanja rasprostranjenosti pojedinih sirovina i načinu njihovog dobavljanja Stoga bi u budućim istraživanjima i rekognosciranjima vezanim za vinčansku kulturu trebalo obratiti pažnju na male naseo-binske pojave blizu izdanaka sirovina kao na potencijalna mala rudarska naselja ili radioničke centre., Until recently our complete knowledge of the Vinča culture ground stone industry was mostly based on cognition of material from Vinča itself. But in last two decades the stone objects from numerous Neolithic sites in Serbia (Belovode, Crnokalačka Bara, Čučuge, Divostin, Drenovac, Gradac, Grivac Lipovac, Naprelje, Petnica, Pločnik, Selevac, Supska and assemblage collected during the recent excavations in Vinča) were completely researched or sometimes only briefly examined. Now, after such a researching, it is possible to comprehend the character of the ground stone industry from wide territory of the Vinča culture. It is noticed that the extreme uniformity in manufacture of ground stone objects exists in the Vinča culture which is the most obvious on the assemblage from central Serbian sites. The uniformity appears in: 1) tool forms - typology worked out on tools from the site of Vinča can be applied on artifacts from the whole territory of the Vinča culture; 2) usage - objects were mostly used in wood processing; 3) raw materials - at most of the Vinča culture sites almost the same kind of rocks were used for the manufacture of ground stone tools (characteristic finegrained greenish-gray rocks in Vinča Tordoš phases, and light white rocks in Gradačka and Vinča Pločnik phases). These are reasons why the Neolithic manufacture of ground stone objects can't be considered as the 'ground stone industry' earlier than the Vinča culture periods. Also from that time the organized procurement of raw materials can be regarded as some kind of early mining, proved in the case of light white rocks (magnesite). In light of these new investigations it seems necessary and very useful to examine and research ground stone assemblage from sites of a broad territory of the Vinča culture. The mentioned uniformity of the Vinča culture ground stone industry has produced aversion against the studying of this material mainly because of the fact that new types of tools or new kinds of raw materials were not usually recognized at most of the newly discovered Vinča culture sites. But today this uniformity appears as the most serious reason for intensive studying of the Vinča culture ground stone industry which could help to discover the spreading of certain rocks used in the manufacture of stone objects and the way of their procurement. Thus it would be necessary, in all future prospectings and excavations, to pay more attention to small residential conglomerations near the raw material deposit outcrops as potential mining and workshop settlements. It is possible to expect that in such a widely spread culture, as it was the Vinča culture, existed a quite progressed system of procurement and distribution of basic raw materials, and the stone certainly was the one of them. This kind of investigations could be applied to the complete Neolithic because until recently none of the essential difference has been noticed between the Vinča and the Starčevo culture ground stone industry in our country.",
publisher = "Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd",
journal = "Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva",
title = "Vinčanska industrija glačanog kamena u svetlu novih istraživanja, The Vinča culture ground Stone industry in the light of new investigations",
pages = "175-169",
number = "17",
url = "conv_212"
}
Antonović, D.. (2001). Vinčanska industrija glačanog kamena u svetlu novih istraživanja. in Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva
Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd.(17), 169-175.
conv_212
Antonović D. Vinčanska industrija glačanog kamena u svetlu novih istraživanja. in Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva. 2001;(17):169-175.
conv_212 .
Antonović, Dragana, "Vinčanska industrija glačanog kamena u svetlu novih istraživanja" in Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva, no. 17 (2001):169-175,
conv_212 .

Use of light white stone in the Central Balkans Neolithic

Antonović, Dragana

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 1997)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
PY  - 1997
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/33
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Use of light white stone in the Central Balkans Neolithic
EP  - 39
IS  - 48
SP  - 33
UR  - conv_146
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Antonović, Dragana",
year = "1997",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Use of light white stone in the Central Balkans Neolithic",
pages = "39-33",
number = "48",
url = "conv_146"
}
Antonović, D.. (1997). Use of light white stone in the Central Balkans Neolithic. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(48), 33-39.
conv_146
Antonović D. Use of light white stone in the Central Balkans Neolithic. in Starinar. 1997;(48):33-39.
conv_146 .
Antonović, Dragana, "Use of light white stone in the Central Balkans Neolithic" in Starinar, no. 48 (1997):33-39,
conv_146 .

Predmeti od glačanog kamena sa nalazišta Ilića Brdo

Antonović, Dragana

(Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd, 1997)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Antonović, Dragana
PY  - 1997
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/28
AB  - Excavations from 1990 on the site of Ilica Brdo supply, as to the polished stone industry, material which was poor in the number of finds, shapes and the choice of mostly bad quality materials used for manufacture of these objects. Implements are represented by small number of types and specimens. Axes, adzes, chisels and hammers, which by rale make the majority of the stone material on other sites (for instance, Vinča, Banjica and Žarkovo) were collected in a very small quantity. However, it is certain that they had been much more numerous, which is proved by many flakes found in all the layers of the settlement. The most numerous stone artefacts are certainly abrasive implements - whetstones, grindstones, and particularly polishers of all types. They are represented by 42 specimens, which makes even 65% of the total number of objects of polished stone industry. Objects of polished stone are equally present in all the layers, always in small numbers and distributed evenly on the whole surface of excavation so that, regardless of numerous polishers, so far it is not possible to talk about the existence of organized workshops for manufacturing of stone implements. However, since the trenches A and B are located on the periphery of the site, it could be assumed that final treatment of implements of stone, and probably of bones horn or wood as well, was carried out on the periphery of the settlement which, in that case, explains the lack of adzes and axes of finer manufacture. As for the raw-material, on many late Vinča localities light white stone, most often magnesite or diatom earth, was the dominant ore, or at least mineral present in considerable quantities, and the settlement on Ilica Brdo is not an exception. This kind of stone was most probably obtained by mining. Numerous deposits of magnesite are situated in central Serbia, and the closest ones lay in the region of Rudnik, whereas the deposits of diatom earth are located near Baroševac, at about 35 km away from our site. What is exceptional and particularly interesting on this site is that fine-grained sedimentary and contact metamorphic rocks (cornittes, silicified alevrolittes etc) are almost absent, and it is well-known that this type of stone represents the basic raw-material for manufecturing polished stone artifacts in the Vinča culture. These minerals, due to their power of endurance and hardness, required longer and more thorough treatment, in contrast to light white stone which was used most often for chipped-stone manufacturing, with additional polishing of surface by the cutting edge. This is another Vinča settlement which illustrates, both by the choice of raw-materials and the number of types of implements and the quality of their manufacture, that certain devaluation of polished stone industry occurred by the end of the Vinča culture.
PB  - Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd
T2  - Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva
T1  - Predmeti od glačanog kamena sa nalazišta Ilića Brdo
T1  - Objects of polished stone from the site of Ilica Brdo
EP  - 285
IS  - 13
SP  - 275
UR  - conv_262
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Antonović, Dragana",
year = "1997",
abstract = "Excavations from 1990 on the site of Ilica Brdo supply, as to the polished stone industry, material which was poor in the number of finds, shapes and the choice of mostly bad quality materials used for manufacture of these objects. Implements are represented by small number of types and specimens. Axes, adzes, chisels and hammers, which by rale make the majority of the stone material on other sites (for instance, Vinča, Banjica and Žarkovo) were collected in a very small quantity. However, it is certain that they had been much more numerous, which is proved by many flakes found in all the layers of the settlement. The most numerous stone artefacts are certainly abrasive implements - whetstones, grindstones, and particularly polishers of all types. They are represented by 42 specimens, which makes even 65% of the total number of objects of polished stone industry. Objects of polished stone are equally present in all the layers, always in small numbers and distributed evenly on the whole surface of excavation so that, regardless of numerous polishers, so far it is not possible to talk about the existence of organized workshops for manufacturing of stone implements. However, since the trenches A and B are located on the periphery of the site, it could be assumed that final treatment of implements of stone, and probably of bones horn or wood as well, was carried out on the periphery of the settlement which, in that case, explains the lack of adzes and axes of finer manufacture. As for the raw-material, on many late Vinča localities light white stone, most often magnesite or diatom earth, was the dominant ore, or at least mineral present in considerable quantities, and the settlement on Ilica Brdo is not an exception. This kind of stone was most probably obtained by mining. Numerous deposits of magnesite are situated in central Serbia, and the closest ones lay in the region of Rudnik, whereas the deposits of diatom earth are located near Baroševac, at about 35 km away from our site. What is exceptional and particularly interesting on this site is that fine-grained sedimentary and contact metamorphic rocks (cornittes, silicified alevrolittes etc) are almost absent, and it is well-known that this type of stone represents the basic raw-material for manufecturing polished stone artifacts in the Vinča culture. These minerals, due to their power of endurance and hardness, required longer and more thorough treatment, in contrast to light white stone which was used most often for chipped-stone manufacturing, with additional polishing of surface by the cutting edge. This is another Vinča settlement which illustrates, both by the choice of raw-materials and the number of types of implements and the quality of their manufacture, that certain devaluation of polished stone industry occurred by the end of the Vinča culture.",
publisher = "Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd",
journal = "Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva",
title = "Predmeti od glačanog kamena sa nalazišta Ilića Brdo, Objects of polished stone from the site of Ilica Brdo",
pages = "285-275",
number = "13",
url = "conv_262"
}
Antonović, D.. (1997). Predmeti od glačanog kamena sa nalazišta Ilića Brdo. in Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva
Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd.(13), 275-285.
conv_262
Antonović D. Predmeti od glačanog kamena sa nalazišta Ilića Brdo. in Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva. 1997;(13):275-285.
conv_262 .
Antonović, Dragana, "Predmeti od glačanog kamena sa nalazišta Ilića Brdo" in Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva, no. 13 (1997):275-285,
conv_262 .