Bulatović, Aleksandar

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Authority KeyName Variants
orcid::0000-0002-5715-2633
  • Bulatović, Aleksandar (34)
Projects
Serbian archaeology: cultural identity, integration factors, technological processes and the role of the central Balkans in the development of European prehistory 313716
Arheoloski Institut, Srpska Akademija Nauka i Umetnosti (Archaeological Institute of the Serbian Academy of Arts and Sciences) Austrian Science Fund (FWF)Austrian Science Fund (FWF) [P32096-G25]
Brooklyn College Archaeological Research Center (BCARC) Components of this research were supported through the European Research Council Consolidator
DF acknowledges the support of the German Research Foundation Project Ref. 2901391021 -SFB 1266 in the preparation of this paper European Research Council project EUROFARM under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP
Fritz Thyssen Foundation The times of their lives: Towards precise narratives of change in the European Neolithic through formal chronological modelling
Urbanisation Processes and Development of Mediaeval Society Bioarchaeology of Ancient Europe: People, Animals and Plants in the Prehistory of Serbia
Ethnogenesis of the Serbs during the middle ages: a comparative analysis of the historical-cultural heritage, genetic material and artefacts of material culture from the aspect of analytical chemistry Innovation Fund of the AAS ('Visualising the Unknown Balkans' project)
Institute for Aegean Prehistory Institute for Aegean Prehistory, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York
Institute for Aegean Prehistory Renewal Research Grant Program Institute for the Study of Aegean Prehistory (INSTAP)
Museum of Leskovac PSC-CUNY [60631-00-48]
PSC-CUNY Faculty Research Awards Program PSC-CUNY Faculty Research Awards Program [64516-00-42, 67704-00-45]
PSC-CUNY Research Award program [67704-00 45] The authors thank Comisi6n Interministerial de Ciencia y Tecnologia, for financial support under project MAT 950092.

Author's Bibliography

Animal diseases in the Central Balkan Eneolithic (ca. 4500-2500 BC)-A diachronic perspective on the site of Bubanj, south-eastern Serbia

Bulatović, Jelena; Marković, Nemanja; Krstić, Nikola; Bulatović, Aleksandar; Mitrović, Marko; Marinković, Darko

(Wiley, Hoboken, 2022)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bulatović, Jelena
AU  - Marković, Nemanja
AU  - Krstić, Nikola
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Mitrović, Marko
AU  - Marinković, Darko
PY  - 2022
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/392
AB  - This paper aims to present the first evidence of animal diseases from the Central Balkan Eneolithic, a prehistoric period that lasted about 2000 years. The eponymous site of Bubanj in south-eastern Serbia provided a diachronic perspective on animal pathologies developing during this long time period. We analyzed 71 animal remains showing evidence of pathological changes. All of the remains exhibiting anomalies were subjected to macroscopic analysis, while the specimens with the most prominent alterations also underwent X-ray and CT imaging. Anomalies were observed mostly in domestic animals. Only in caprines were all of the different types of anomalies present, with dental pathologies being the most frequent. Degenerative bone alterations were noted in around 78% of the domestic cattle specimens, while congenital anomalies were the most common type in domestic pigs. Pathological changes were also noted in dogs, aurochs, red deer, wild boars, beavers, and bears. In most cases, the anomalies were caused by hereditary and environmental factors. Caprine dental pathologies were the result of aging and poor-quality nutrition. In domestic cattle, besides being caused by environmental factors, the degenerative alterations might also have been work related. The lack of paleopathological data from other Eneolithic sites in the region, and the scarce or non-existent evidence from the previous (Neolithic) and succeeding (Bronze Age) periods prevented comparative analyses and discussion of the results within wider temporal and spatial frames. Establishing a paleopathological investigation of animal remains with anomalies from the prehistoric Central Balkans should be a standard, in order to provide us with a better understanding of human-animal interactions.
PB  - Wiley, Hoboken
T2  - International Journal of Osteoarchaeology
T1  - Animal diseases in the Central Balkan Eneolithic (ca. 4500-2500 BC)-A diachronic perspective on the site of Bubanj, south-eastern Serbia
DO  - 10.1002/oa.3065
UR  - conv_315
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bulatović, Jelena and Marković, Nemanja and Krstić, Nikola and Bulatović, Aleksandar and Mitrović, Marko and Marinković, Darko",
year = "2022",
abstract = "This paper aims to present the first evidence of animal diseases from the Central Balkan Eneolithic, a prehistoric period that lasted about 2000 years. The eponymous site of Bubanj in south-eastern Serbia provided a diachronic perspective on animal pathologies developing during this long time period. We analyzed 71 animal remains showing evidence of pathological changes. All of the remains exhibiting anomalies were subjected to macroscopic analysis, while the specimens with the most prominent alterations also underwent X-ray and CT imaging. Anomalies were observed mostly in domestic animals. Only in caprines were all of the different types of anomalies present, with dental pathologies being the most frequent. Degenerative bone alterations were noted in around 78% of the domestic cattle specimens, while congenital anomalies were the most common type in domestic pigs. Pathological changes were also noted in dogs, aurochs, red deer, wild boars, beavers, and bears. In most cases, the anomalies were caused by hereditary and environmental factors. Caprine dental pathologies were the result of aging and poor-quality nutrition. In domestic cattle, besides being caused by environmental factors, the degenerative alterations might also have been work related. The lack of paleopathological data from other Eneolithic sites in the region, and the scarce or non-existent evidence from the previous (Neolithic) and succeeding (Bronze Age) periods prevented comparative analyses and discussion of the results within wider temporal and spatial frames. Establishing a paleopathological investigation of animal remains with anomalies from the prehistoric Central Balkans should be a standard, in order to provide us with a better understanding of human-animal interactions.",
publisher = "Wiley, Hoboken",
journal = "International Journal of Osteoarchaeology",
title = "Animal diseases in the Central Balkan Eneolithic (ca. 4500-2500 BC)-A diachronic perspective on the site of Bubanj, south-eastern Serbia",
doi = "10.1002/oa.3065",
url = "conv_315"
}
Bulatović, J., Marković, N., Krstić, N., Bulatović, A., Mitrović, M.,& Marinković, D.. (2022). Animal diseases in the Central Balkan Eneolithic (ca. 4500-2500 BC)-A diachronic perspective on the site of Bubanj, south-eastern Serbia. in International Journal of Osteoarchaeology
Wiley, Hoboken..
https://doi.org/10.1002/oa.3065
conv_315
Bulatović J, Marković N, Krstić N, Bulatović A, Mitrović M, Marinković D. Animal diseases in the Central Balkan Eneolithic (ca. 4500-2500 BC)-A diachronic perspective on the site of Bubanj, south-eastern Serbia. in International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. 2022;.
doi:10.1002/oa.3065
conv_315 .
Bulatović, Jelena, Marković, Nemanja, Krstić, Nikola, Bulatović, Aleksandar, Mitrović, Marko, Marinković, Darko, "Animal diseases in the Central Balkan Eneolithic (ca. 4500-2500 BC)-A diachronic perspective on the site of Bubanj, south-eastern Serbia" in International Journal of Osteoarchaeology (2022),
https://doi.org/10.1002/oa.3065 .,
conv_315 .
1

The Balkan Aegean migrations revisited: changes in material culture and settlement patterns in the late bronze age central Balkans in light of new data

Bulatović, Aleksandar; Molloy, B.; Filipović, Vojislav

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2021)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Molloy, B.
AU  - Filipović, Vojislav
PY  - 2021
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/386
AB  - Alleged “Aegean migrations” have long been seen as underlying major transformations in lifeways and identity in the Balkans in the 12th–11th centuries BC. Revisiting the material culture and settlement changes in the north-south “routeway” of the Velika Morava–Južna Morava–Vardar/Axios river valleys, this paper evaluates developments within local communities. It is argued that mobility played an important role in social change, including an element of inward migration from the north. We argue that rather than an Aegean end point, these river valleys themselves were the destination of migrants. The prosperity this stimulated within those communities led to increased networks of personal mobility that incorporated elements from communities from the wider Carpathians and the north of Greece over the course of two centuries.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - The Balkan Aegean migrations revisited: changes in material culture and settlement patterns in the late bronze age central Balkans in light of new data
EP  - 105
IS  - 71
SP  - 61
DO  - 10.2298/STA2171061B
UR  - conv_450
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bulatović, Aleksandar and Molloy, B. and Filipović, Vojislav",
year = "2021",
abstract = "Alleged “Aegean migrations” have long been seen as underlying major transformations in lifeways and identity in the Balkans in the 12th–11th centuries BC. Revisiting the material culture and settlement changes in the north-south “routeway” of the Velika Morava–Južna Morava–Vardar/Axios river valleys, this paper evaluates developments within local communities. It is argued that mobility played an important role in social change, including an element of inward migration from the north. We argue that rather than an Aegean end point, these river valleys themselves were the destination of migrants. The prosperity this stimulated within those communities led to increased networks of personal mobility that incorporated elements from communities from the wider Carpathians and the north of Greece over the course of two centuries.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "The Balkan Aegean migrations revisited: changes in material culture and settlement patterns in the late bronze age central Balkans in light of new data",
pages = "105-61",
number = "71",
doi = "10.2298/STA2171061B",
url = "conv_450"
}
Bulatović, A., Molloy, B.,& Filipović, V.. (2021). The Balkan Aegean migrations revisited: changes in material culture and settlement patterns in the late bronze age central Balkans in light of new data. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(71), 61-105.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA2171061B
conv_450
Bulatović A, Molloy B, Filipović V. The Balkan Aegean migrations revisited: changes in material culture and settlement patterns in the late bronze age central Balkans in light of new data. in Starinar. 2021;(71):61-105.
doi:10.2298/STA2171061B
conv_450 .
Bulatović, Aleksandar, Molloy, B., Filipović, Vojislav, "The Balkan Aegean migrations revisited: changes in material culture and settlement patterns in the late bronze age central Balkans in light of new data" in Starinar, no. 71 (2021):61-105,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA2171061B .,
conv_450 .
1

Provenance of tin in the Late Bronze Age balkans based on probabilistic and spatial analysis of Sn isotopes

Mason, Andrea; Powell, Wayne; Bankoff, Arthur H.; Mathur, Ryan; Price, M.; Bulatović, Aleksandar; Filipović, Vojislav

(Elsevier Inc., 2020)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Mason, Andrea
AU  - Powell, Wayne
AU  - Bankoff, Arthur H.
AU  - Mathur, Ryan
AU  - Price, M.
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Filipović, Vojislav
PY  - 2020
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/336
AB  - We report the largest published dataset to date of Sn-isotopic compositions of Bronze Age artifacts (338) along with 150 cassiterite samples (75 new) from six potential tin ore sources from which the tin in these artifacts were thought to have likely originated. The artifacts are from a broad area, Central Europe through the Central Balkans, and the six tin sources are Cornwall, three sites in the Erzgebirge, and two sites in Serbia. A clustering analysis on mean site-level isotopic values of δ124Sn identifies regional variation that can be attributed to the use of different tin ore sources in different regions. Therefore, geographically meaningful regions were identified to group the Bronze Age artifact assemblages and a probabilistic, Bayesian analysis was performed to determine the proportional contribution of each tin source to each regional assemblage. Artifacts enriched in heavy isotopes (δ124Sn > 0.7‰) that cluster in west-central Serbia are likely associated with the ores from Mt. Cer in west Serbia. Mixed artifact assemblages (high and low δ124Sn) in this region are attributed to the use of cassiterite from the two Serbian sites (Mt. Cer and Mt. Bukulja). Moderate composition artifacts that occur north of the Middle Danube in Vojvodina, Transylvania, and Central Europe are likely associated primarily with ores from the West Pluton of the Erzgebirge. Compositionally light bronzes (δ124Sn < 0.2‰) in southern Serbia and the lower Danube river valley cannot be linked to a documented ore source. There is no indication of the use of ores from Cornwall or the East Pluton of the Erzgebirge in Central Europe and the Balkans during the Late Bronze Age.
PB  - Elsevier Inc.
T2  - Journal of Archaeological Science
T1  - Provenance of tin in the Late Bronze Age balkans based on probabilistic and spatial analysis of Sn isotopes
VL  - 122
DO  - 10.1016/j.jas.2020.105181
UR  - conv_469
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Mason, Andrea and Powell, Wayne and Bankoff, Arthur H. and Mathur, Ryan and Price, M. and Bulatović, Aleksandar and Filipović, Vojislav",
year = "2020",
abstract = "We report the largest published dataset to date of Sn-isotopic compositions of Bronze Age artifacts (338) along with 150 cassiterite samples (75 new) from six potential tin ore sources from which the tin in these artifacts were thought to have likely originated. The artifacts are from a broad area, Central Europe through the Central Balkans, and the six tin sources are Cornwall, three sites in the Erzgebirge, and two sites in Serbia. A clustering analysis on mean site-level isotopic values of δ124Sn identifies regional variation that can be attributed to the use of different tin ore sources in different regions. Therefore, geographically meaningful regions were identified to group the Bronze Age artifact assemblages and a probabilistic, Bayesian analysis was performed to determine the proportional contribution of each tin source to each regional assemblage. Artifacts enriched in heavy isotopes (δ124Sn > 0.7‰) that cluster in west-central Serbia are likely associated with the ores from Mt. Cer in west Serbia. Mixed artifact assemblages (high and low δ124Sn) in this region are attributed to the use of cassiterite from the two Serbian sites (Mt. Cer and Mt. Bukulja). Moderate composition artifacts that occur north of the Middle Danube in Vojvodina, Transylvania, and Central Europe are likely associated primarily with ores from the West Pluton of the Erzgebirge. Compositionally light bronzes (δ124Sn < 0.2‰) in southern Serbia and the lower Danube river valley cannot be linked to a documented ore source. There is no indication of the use of ores from Cornwall or the East Pluton of the Erzgebirge in Central Europe and the Balkans during the Late Bronze Age.",
publisher = "Elsevier Inc.",
journal = "Journal of Archaeological Science",
title = "Provenance of tin in the Late Bronze Age balkans based on probabilistic and spatial analysis of Sn isotopes",
volume = "122",
doi = "10.1016/j.jas.2020.105181",
url = "conv_469"
}
Mason, A., Powell, W., Bankoff, A. H., Mathur, R., Price, M., Bulatović, A.,& Filipović, V.. (2020). Provenance of tin in the Late Bronze Age balkans based on probabilistic and spatial analysis of Sn isotopes. in Journal of Archaeological Science
Elsevier Inc.., 122.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2020.105181
conv_469
Mason A, Powell W, Bankoff AH, Mathur R, Price M, Bulatović A, Filipović V. Provenance of tin in the Late Bronze Age balkans based on probabilistic and spatial analysis of Sn isotopes. in Journal of Archaeological Science. 2020;122.
doi:10.1016/j.jas.2020.105181
conv_469 .
Mason, Andrea, Powell, Wayne, Bankoff, Arthur H., Mathur, Ryan, Price, M., Bulatović, Aleksandar, Filipović, Vojislav, "Provenance of tin in the Late Bronze Age balkans based on probabilistic and spatial analysis of Sn isotopes" in Journal of Archaeological Science, 122 (2020),
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2020.105181 .,
conv_469 .
9
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Proizvodnja hrane tokom i posle neolitskoeneolitske tranzicije na centralnom Balkanu - širi kontekst nalaza domaćih biljaka i životinja sa eneolitskog bubnja u južnoj Srbiji

Filipović, Dragana; Bulatović, Jelena; Bulatović, Aleksandar

(Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd, 2020)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Filipović, Dragana
AU  - Bulatović, Jelena
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
PY  - 2020
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/364
AB  - Druga polovina 5. i veći deo 4. milenijuma pre nove ere na centralnom Balkanu označava se kao period prelaza iz kasnog neolita (tj. vinčanske kulture) u rani eneolit, i eneolitski period. Na osnovu značajnih promena u obrascima naseljavanja i veličini naselja, u pogrebnoj praksi i u materijalnoj kulturi, smatra se da je tokom prelaznog perioda došlo do razvoja novih obrazaca u društvenim odnosima i organizaciji, u ekonomiji i proizvodnji i u ideologiji postvinčanskih zajednica, koje su, za razliku od prethodnih velikih, dugotrajnih naselja, počele da osnivaju manje, relativno kratkotrajne naseobine, uglavnom na prethodno nenaseljenim lokacijama. Različiti faktori su predloženi kao pokretači ovih transformacija - društveni sukobi, invazije sa strane, klimatske promene, te pad raspoloživih prirodnih resursa i nedovoljno hrane. Za razmatranje eventualnih klimatskih promena tokom eneolita ne postoje nikakvi podaci, a doskora se veoma malo znalo i o ekonomiji zasnovanoj na biljkama i životinjama u postneolitskom periodu. Najjasnije formulisan zaključak o uzrocima raspada kasnoneolitskog društva, koji nalazi i najviše potpore u arheološkim saznanjima, jeste taj da su vinčanske zajednice dostigle granice održivosti zajedničkog života (u sociološkom smislu), što je dovelo do "fisije" i fragmentacije velikih zajednica na manje grupe. Sličan model kasnoneolitsko-ranoeneolitskih društvenih promena predložen je i za Karpatski basen - "popuštanje" društvene kohezije kao odgovor na moguće društvene tenzije. Pored promena i novih trendova koje nastupaju početkom i tokom eneolita na centralnom Balkanu, primetan je i visok stepen sličnosti/kontinuiteta u pojedinim aspektima života; na primer, pored manjih, razvijaju se i velika, dugotrajna eneolitska naselja, poput onih na lokalitetima Bubanj i Velika Humska Čuka u južnoj Srbiji. Dok su ovi i drugi aspekti eneolitskih zajednica u izvesnoj meri poznati i istraženi, proizvodnja hrane je doskora bila velika nepoznanica. Do sada je pak zooarheološki i arheobotanički istraženo nekoliko eneolitskih lokaliteta, a nova iskopavanja na Bubnju donela su važne podatke o uzgajanju i upotrebi domaćih biljaka i životinja. Iako su podaci i dalje skromni, posebno oni o poljoprivrednim aktivnostima, sada je ipak moguć uvid u pojedine aspekte proizvodnje hrane. U ovom radu smo do sada prikupljene zooarheološke i arheobotaničke podatke sa Bubnja razmotrili u širem geografskom i hronološkom kontekstu tako što smo uporedili saznanja o uzgajanju i upotrebi životinja i biljaka sa do sada analiziranih kasnoneolitskih i eneolitskih nalazišta na teritoriji Srbije. Uporedna analiza pokazala je da su iste vrste domaćih životinja - goveda, ovce/koze i svinje - gajene i u neolitu i u eneolitu. S druge strane, ostaci ovaca i koza i svinja su, spram govečeta, zastupljeniji u uzorcima sa eneolitskih nalazišta. Utisak je, stoga, da je značaj ovaca i koza, kao i svinja, bio veći u eneolitu, što je važna razlika u odnosu na kasni neolit, tokom kog je goveče bilo dominantno. Postoje, međutim, i izuzeci od ovog opšteg zapažanja; na primer, na nalazištu Vinča - Belo brdo, relativni odnos ekonomski najznačajnih domaćih životinja je manje-više isti tokom oba perioda. Takođe, na kasnoeneolitskom nalazištu Kudoš-Šašinci, većina ostataka pripada domaćem govečetu. Preliminarni zaključak je da generalno ujednačena slika karakteristična za kasni neolit postaje raznovrsnija tokom eneolita i javljaju se jasne regionalne i hronološke razlike u pogledu značaja domaćih životinja. Arheobotanički podaci pokazuju da se spektar gajenih vrsta na nalazištima kasnog neolita i eneolita u Srbiji uveliko preklapa, te da osnovne kulture poznate iz neolita - jednozrna i dvozrna pšenica - ostaju osnov poljoprivredne proizvodnje i tokom eneolita. I ovde se, međutim, kao i kod domaćih životinja, uočavaju moguće razlike između lokaliteta. Recimo, u kasnoeneolitskom sloju Gomolave zabeležena je veća količina ječma, što je za sada jedini slučaj kako za neolit tako i za eneolit, jer se ječam na drugim analiziranim lokalitetima iz ovih perioda javlja samo u tragovima. Podaci sa Bubnja ukazuju na mogući rast u važnosti mahunarki, tačnije sočiva, od ranog ka kasnom eneolitu, te manje značajnu ulogu dvozrne pšenice kroz vreme, ali je broj ostataka izuzetno Mali za čvrste zaključke. Dok relativno nepromenjen izbor gajenih vrsta kroz kasni neolit i eneolit ističe kontinuitet, donekle su vidljive potencijalne razlike između lokaliteta u stepenu proizvodnje pojedinih poljoprivrednih kultura. Moguće je da dolazi do promene u metodama i intenzitetu zemljoradnje, a vrlo verovatno u vezi sa promenama u stočarstvu, recimo u pogledu potrebe za proizvodnjom stočne hrane ili varijacijama u veličini površina pod usevima ili onim namenjenim za ispašu. Uvid u ove i slične aspekte proizvodnje hrane u eneolitu zahteva znatno veću količinu podataka od one koja je sada na raspolaganju.
AB  - In the central Balkans, the period from the second half of the 5th through the mid-3rd millennium BC is known as the Eneolithic. The earlier part of this period has been described as the transition between the Late Neolithic and Early Eneolithic and the time of transformations-societal, economic and ideological. Prevailing understanding of the archaeological record from this period is that the remarkable shifts in the settlement system reflect disintegration of the Neolithic society. What effect did this have on food economy? This question has not yet been addressed using the direct evidence of food production and consumption from archaeological sites. Although such evidence is scarce, it has in recent years been enlarged through new excavations, including those at the long-lasting site of Bubanj in southern Serbia. This paper combines the archaeobotanical and zooarchaeological datasets from Bubanj and examines the integrated evidence from a broader chronological and geographical perspective using the information from other Eneolithic and, also, Late Neolithic sites in Serbia. A picture of agricultural diversity emerges, perhaps reflecting diachronic changes in the production methods and choices. These may have been driven by the social and ecological factors that led to the cultural transformations during and after the transitional period.
PB  - Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd
T2  - Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva
T1  - Proizvodnja hrane tokom i posle neolitskoeneolitske tranzicije na centralnom Balkanu - širi kontekst nalaza domaćih biljaka i životinja sa eneolitskog bubnja u južnoj Srbiji
T1  - Food economy during and after the neolithiceneolithic transition in the central Balkans: Contextualising crops and domestic animals from Eneolithic Bubanj, southern Serbia
EP  - 56
IS  - 36
SP  - 27
DO  - 10.18485/gsad.2020.36.2
UR  - conv_252
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Filipović, Dragana and Bulatović, Jelena and Bulatović, Aleksandar",
year = "2020",
abstract = "Druga polovina 5. i veći deo 4. milenijuma pre nove ere na centralnom Balkanu označava se kao period prelaza iz kasnog neolita (tj. vinčanske kulture) u rani eneolit, i eneolitski period. Na osnovu značajnih promena u obrascima naseljavanja i veličini naselja, u pogrebnoj praksi i u materijalnoj kulturi, smatra se da je tokom prelaznog perioda došlo do razvoja novih obrazaca u društvenim odnosima i organizaciji, u ekonomiji i proizvodnji i u ideologiji postvinčanskih zajednica, koje su, za razliku od prethodnih velikih, dugotrajnih naselja, počele da osnivaju manje, relativno kratkotrajne naseobine, uglavnom na prethodno nenaseljenim lokacijama. Različiti faktori su predloženi kao pokretači ovih transformacija - društveni sukobi, invazije sa strane, klimatske promene, te pad raspoloživih prirodnih resursa i nedovoljno hrane. Za razmatranje eventualnih klimatskih promena tokom eneolita ne postoje nikakvi podaci, a doskora se veoma malo znalo i o ekonomiji zasnovanoj na biljkama i životinjama u postneolitskom periodu. Najjasnije formulisan zaključak o uzrocima raspada kasnoneolitskog društva, koji nalazi i najviše potpore u arheološkim saznanjima, jeste taj da su vinčanske zajednice dostigle granice održivosti zajedničkog života (u sociološkom smislu), što je dovelo do "fisije" i fragmentacije velikih zajednica na manje grupe. Sličan model kasnoneolitsko-ranoeneolitskih društvenih promena predložen je i za Karpatski basen - "popuštanje" društvene kohezije kao odgovor na moguće društvene tenzije. Pored promena i novih trendova koje nastupaju početkom i tokom eneolita na centralnom Balkanu, primetan je i visok stepen sličnosti/kontinuiteta u pojedinim aspektima života; na primer, pored manjih, razvijaju se i velika, dugotrajna eneolitska naselja, poput onih na lokalitetima Bubanj i Velika Humska Čuka u južnoj Srbiji. Dok su ovi i drugi aspekti eneolitskih zajednica u izvesnoj meri poznati i istraženi, proizvodnja hrane je doskora bila velika nepoznanica. Do sada je pak zooarheološki i arheobotanički istraženo nekoliko eneolitskih lokaliteta, a nova iskopavanja na Bubnju donela su važne podatke o uzgajanju i upotrebi domaćih biljaka i životinja. Iako su podaci i dalje skromni, posebno oni o poljoprivrednim aktivnostima, sada je ipak moguć uvid u pojedine aspekte proizvodnje hrane. U ovom radu smo do sada prikupljene zooarheološke i arheobotaničke podatke sa Bubnja razmotrili u širem geografskom i hronološkom kontekstu tako što smo uporedili saznanja o uzgajanju i upotrebi životinja i biljaka sa do sada analiziranih kasnoneolitskih i eneolitskih nalazišta na teritoriji Srbije. Uporedna analiza pokazala je da su iste vrste domaćih životinja - goveda, ovce/koze i svinje - gajene i u neolitu i u eneolitu. S druge strane, ostaci ovaca i koza i svinja su, spram govečeta, zastupljeniji u uzorcima sa eneolitskih nalazišta. Utisak je, stoga, da je značaj ovaca i koza, kao i svinja, bio veći u eneolitu, što je važna razlika u odnosu na kasni neolit, tokom kog je goveče bilo dominantno. Postoje, međutim, i izuzeci od ovog opšteg zapažanja; na primer, na nalazištu Vinča - Belo brdo, relativni odnos ekonomski najznačajnih domaćih životinja je manje-više isti tokom oba perioda. Takođe, na kasnoeneolitskom nalazištu Kudoš-Šašinci, većina ostataka pripada domaćem govečetu. Preliminarni zaključak je da generalno ujednačena slika karakteristična za kasni neolit postaje raznovrsnija tokom eneolita i javljaju se jasne regionalne i hronološke razlike u pogledu značaja domaćih životinja. Arheobotanički podaci pokazuju da se spektar gajenih vrsta na nalazištima kasnog neolita i eneolita u Srbiji uveliko preklapa, te da osnovne kulture poznate iz neolita - jednozrna i dvozrna pšenica - ostaju osnov poljoprivredne proizvodnje i tokom eneolita. I ovde se, međutim, kao i kod domaćih životinja, uočavaju moguće razlike između lokaliteta. Recimo, u kasnoeneolitskom sloju Gomolave zabeležena je veća količina ječma, što je za sada jedini slučaj kako za neolit tako i za eneolit, jer se ječam na drugim analiziranim lokalitetima iz ovih perioda javlja samo u tragovima. Podaci sa Bubnja ukazuju na mogući rast u važnosti mahunarki, tačnije sočiva, od ranog ka kasnom eneolitu, te manje značajnu ulogu dvozrne pšenice kroz vreme, ali je broj ostataka izuzetno Mali za čvrste zaključke. Dok relativno nepromenjen izbor gajenih vrsta kroz kasni neolit i eneolit ističe kontinuitet, donekle su vidljive potencijalne razlike između lokaliteta u stepenu proizvodnje pojedinih poljoprivrednih kultura. Moguće je da dolazi do promene u metodama i intenzitetu zemljoradnje, a vrlo verovatno u vezi sa promenama u stočarstvu, recimo u pogledu potrebe za proizvodnjom stočne hrane ili varijacijama u veličini površina pod usevima ili onim namenjenim za ispašu. Uvid u ove i slične aspekte proizvodnje hrane u eneolitu zahteva znatno veću količinu podataka od one koja je sada na raspolaganju., In the central Balkans, the period from the second half of the 5th through the mid-3rd millennium BC is known as the Eneolithic. The earlier part of this period has been described as the transition between the Late Neolithic and Early Eneolithic and the time of transformations-societal, economic and ideological. Prevailing understanding of the archaeological record from this period is that the remarkable shifts in the settlement system reflect disintegration of the Neolithic society. What effect did this have on food economy? This question has not yet been addressed using the direct evidence of food production and consumption from archaeological sites. Although such evidence is scarce, it has in recent years been enlarged through new excavations, including those at the long-lasting site of Bubanj in southern Serbia. This paper combines the archaeobotanical and zooarchaeological datasets from Bubanj and examines the integrated evidence from a broader chronological and geographical perspective using the information from other Eneolithic and, also, Late Neolithic sites in Serbia. A picture of agricultural diversity emerges, perhaps reflecting diachronic changes in the production methods and choices. These may have been driven by the social and ecological factors that led to the cultural transformations during and after the transitional period.",
publisher = "Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd",
journal = "Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva",
title = "Proizvodnja hrane tokom i posle neolitskoeneolitske tranzicije na centralnom Balkanu - širi kontekst nalaza domaćih biljaka i životinja sa eneolitskog bubnja u južnoj Srbiji, Food economy during and after the neolithiceneolithic transition in the central Balkans: Contextualising crops and domestic animals from Eneolithic Bubanj, southern Serbia",
pages = "56-27",
number = "36",
doi = "10.18485/gsad.2020.36.2",
url = "conv_252"
}
Filipović, D., Bulatović, J.,& Bulatović, A.. (2020). Proizvodnja hrane tokom i posle neolitskoeneolitske tranzicije na centralnom Balkanu - širi kontekst nalaza domaćih biljaka i životinja sa eneolitskog bubnja u južnoj Srbiji. in Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva
Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd.(36), 27-56.
https://doi.org/10.18485/gsad.2020.36.2
conv_252
Filipović D, Bulatović J, Bulatović A. Proizvodnja hrane tokom i posle neolitskoeneolitske tranzicije na centralnom Balkanu - širi kontekst nalaza domaćih biljaka i životinja sa eneolitskog bubnja u južnoj Srbiji. in Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva. 2020;(36):27-56.
doi:10.18485/gsad.2020.36.2
conv_252 .
Filipović, Dragana, Bulatović, Jelena, Bulatović, Aleksandar, "Proizvodnja hrane tokom i posle neolitskoeneolitske tranzicije na centralnom Balkanu - širi kontekst nalaza domaćih biljaka i životinja sa eneolitskog bubnja u južnoj Srbiji" in Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva, no. 36 (2020):27-56,
https://doi.org/10.18485/gsad.2020.36.2 .,
conv_252 .
1

Neke zabeleške o genezi ranog eneolita na centralnom Balkanu

Bulatović, Aleksandar; Bulatović, Aleksandar; Bankoff, Arthur H.; Powell, Wayne; Filipović, Vojislav

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2020)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Bankoff, Arthur H.
AU  - Powell, Wayne
AU  - Filipović, Vojislav
PY  - 2020
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/344
AB  - U ovoj studiji reč je o nedovoljno jasno definisanom periodu na kraju neolita i početku eneolita na centralnom Balkanu. Glavna tema ovog teksta nisu razvoj i dezintegracija pozne vinčanske kulture, o čemu je dosta pisano u poslednje vreme, nego karakter i hronologija odnosa između pozne vinčanske kulture i ranoeneolitske grupe koja će je naslediti na ovoj teritoriji (Bubanj - Hum I kao regionalna varijanta kompleksa Bubanj-Salkuca-Krivodol - skraćeno BSK), kao i proces nastanka te grupe. Ova studija, stoga, analizira određene karakteristične keramičke forme koje potiču isključivo sa apsolutno datiranih lokaliteta, jednoslojnih ili onih sa dobro definisanom vertikalnom stratigrafijom, kao i hronologiju (apsolutne datume) kasnovinčanske kulture i grupe Bubanj - Hum I na centralnom Balkanu. Zbog specifičnih geografskih karakteristika centralnog Balkana, ali i radi lakšeg praćenja izlaganja, teritorija centralnog Balkana interpretirana je u radu putem dve zasebne geografske regije - prelazne regije (deo Posavine i Podrinja, baseni Jadra, Kolubare, Tamnave i donjeg toka Velike Morave, planina Cer, kao i pobrđe na jugu i istoku ograničeno planinama Gučevo, Povlen, Maljen, Suvobor i Rudnik) i planinske regije (planinska oblast centralnog Balkana). Analiza stilskih i tipoloških karakteristika keramike ukazala je na brojne zajedničke keramičke forme koje se javljaju kako u vinčanskoj kulturi (posebno kasnoj vinčanskoj kulturi), tako i u grupi Bubanj - Hum I. Razlike se uočavaju u površinskoj obradi, kvalitetu grnčarije i tehnici i motivima ukrašavanja. Teritorija grupe Bubanj - Hum I, takođe, u velikoj meri podudara se sa teritorijom kasnovinčanske kulture, a zanimljivo je da najraniji datumi za BSK kompleks, uključujući grupu Bubanj - Hum I, potiču sa perifernih područja njegove teritorije (Spančevo u dolini Bregalnice, Bodnjik u takozvanoj prelaznoj regiji centralnog Balkana i Ostorvul Corbului u Olteniji), što može da ukazuje na to da je ovaj ranoeneolitski kompleks proistekao iz vinčanske kulture i da se razvijao približno istovremeno u svim regionima počevši od oko 4450-4400. pre n. e. Ovi podaci bi mogli da dovedu u pitanje prethodnu tezu o raspadu vinčanske kulture i formiranju grupe Bubanj - Hum I, koja je isticala ulogu migracija stanovništva sa istoka u tom procesu, te da ukažu na to da je ranoeneolitski kompleks nastao približno istovremeno na celokupnoj svojoj teritoriji, na manje-više jedinstvenim, a najvećim delom autohtonim kulturnim osnovama. Rezultati analiza stilsko-tipoloških odlika karakterističnih keramičkih formi vinčanske kulture i kulturne grupe Bubanj - Hum I, uz osvrt na njihove ekonomske strategije, duhovnu kulturu, industriju okresanog kamena, topografiju i arhitekturu naselja kao i proces metalurgije, pokazuju da je prelazni period od kraja vinčanske kulture do pojave klasične Bubanj - Hum I grupe bio postepen i kontinuiran proces koji se na prostoru centralnog Balkana odvijao uz izvesne kulturne kontakte sa susednim zajednicama, posebno na istoku. Ovaj kulturni proces između 47. i 45. veka pre n. e. rezultirao je formiranjem grupe Bubanj - Hum I, koja će egzistirati tokom druge polovine V milenijuma na najvećem delu teritorije centralnog Balkana.
AB  - The study addresses an imprecisely defined period between the end of the Neolithic and the beginning of the Eneolithic in the Central Balkans. The study primarily refers to the characteristic ceramic forms common to both the Vinča culture and the Early Eneolithic groups, especially the Bubanj-Hum I group. The pottery under consideration originates exclusively from absolutely dated sites, single-layered sites, and sites that possess a well-defined vertical stratigraphy. The analyses of pottery, combined with brief reviews on economic strategies, the chipped stone industry, settlement topography and the process of metallurgy indicate that the transitional period from the Vinča culture to the Bubanj-Hum I group was a gradual process in the Central Balkans, without major external factors, yet continuous cultural contacts with the neighboring communities, especially into the East. This gradual process of vertical genetic transmission between the 47 th and the 45 th century calBC resulted in the formation of the Bubanj-Hum I group.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Neke zabeleške o genezi ranog eneolita na centralnom Balkanu
T1  - Some remarks on the genesis of the Early Eneolithic in the Central Balkans
EP  - 40
IS  - 70
SP  - 9
DO  - 10.2298/STA2070009B
UR  - conv_484
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bulatović, Aleksandar and Bulatović, Aleksandar and Bankoff, Arthur H. and Powell, Wayne and Filipović, Vojislav",
year = "2020",
abstract = "U ovoj studiji reč je o nedovoljno jasno definisanom periodu na kraju neolita i početku eneolita na centralnom Balkanu. Glavna tema ovog teksta nisu razvoj i dezintegracija pozne vinčanske kulture, o čemu je dosta pisano u poslednje vreme, nego karakter i hronologija odnosa između pozne vinčanske kulture i ranoeneolitske grupe koja će je naslediti na ovoj teritoriji (Bubanj - Hum I kao regionalna varijanta kompleksa Bubanj-Salkuca-Krivodol - skraćeno BSK), kao i proces nastanka te grupe. Ova studija, stoga, analizira određene karakteristične keramičke forme koje potiču isključivo sa apsolutno datiranih lokaliteta, jednoslojnih ili onih sa dobro definisanom vertikalnom stratigrafijom, kao i hronologiju (apsolutne datume) kasnovinčanske kulture i grupe Bubanj - Hum I na centralnom Balkanu. Zbog specifičnih geografskih karakteristika centralnog Balkana, ali i radi lakšeg praćenja izlaganja, teritorija centralnog Balkana interpretirana je u radu putem dve zasebne geografske regije - prelazne regije (deo Posavine i Podrinja, baseni Jadra, Kolubare, Tamnave i donjeg toka Velike Morave, planina Cer, kao i pobrđe na jugu i istoku ograničeno planinama Gučevo, Povlen, Maljen, Suvobor i Rudnik) i planinske regije (planinska oblast centralnog Balkana). Analiza stilskih i tipoloških karakteristika keramike ukazala je na brojne zajedničke keramičke forme koje se javljaju kako u vinčanskoj kulturi (posebno kasnoj vinčanskoj kulturi), tako i u grupi Bubanj - Hum I. Razlike se uočavaju u površinskoj obradi, kvalitetu grnčarije i tehnici i motivima ukrašavanja. Teritorija grupe Bubanj - Hum I, takođe, u velikoj meri podudara se sa teritorijom kasnovinčanske kulture, a zanimljivo je da najraniji datumi za BSK kompleks, uključujući grupu Bubanj - Hum I, potiču sa perifernih područja njegove teritorije (Spančevo u dolini Bregalnice, Bodnjik u takozvanoj prelaznoj regiji centralnog Balkana i Ostorvul Corbului u Olteniji), što može da ukazuje na to da je ovaj ranoeneolitski kompleks proistekao iz vinčanske kulture i da se razvijao približno istovremeno u svim regionima počevši od oko 4450-4400. pre n. e. Ovi podaci bi mogli da dovedu u pitanje prethodnu tezu o raspadu vinčanske kulture i formiranju grupe Bubanj - Hum I, koja je isticala ulogu migracija stanovništva sa istoka u tom procesu, te da ukažu na to da je ranoeneolitski kompleks nastao približno istovremeno na celokupnoj svojoj teritoriji, na manje-više jedinstvenim, a najvećim delom autohtonim kulturnim osnovama. Rezultati analiza stilsko-tipoloških odlika karakterističnih keramičkih formi vinčanske kulture i kulturne grupe Bubanj - Hum I, uz osvrt na njihove ekonomske strategije, duhovnu kulturu, industriju okresanog kamena, topografiju i arhitekturu naselja kao i proces metalurgije, pokazuju da je prelazni period od kraja vinčanske kulture do pojave klasične Bubanj - Hum I grupe bio postepen i kontinuiran proces koji se na prostoru centralnog Balkana odvijao uz izvesne kulturne kontakte sa susednim zajednicama, posebno na istoku. Ovaj kulturni proces između 47. i 45. veka pre n. e. rezultirao je formiranjem grupe Bubanj - Hum I, koja će egzistirati tokom druge polovine V milenijuma na najvećem delu teritorije centralnog Balkana., The study addresses an imprecisely defined period between the end of the Neolithic and the beginning of the Eneolithic in the Central Balkans. The study primarily refers to the characteristic ceramic forms common to both the Vinča culture and the Early Eneolithic groups, especially the Bubanj-Hum I group. The pottery under consideration originates exclusively from absolutely dated sites, single-layered sites, and sites that possess a well-defined vertical stratigraphy. The analyses of pottery, combined with brief reviews on economic strategies, the chipped stone industry, settlement topography and the process of metallurgy indicate that the transitional period from the Vinča culture to the Bubanj-Hum I group was a gradual process in the Central Balkans, without major external factors, yet continuous cultural contacts with the neighboring communities, especially into the East. This gradual process of vertical genetic transmission between the 47 th and the 45 th century calBC resulted in the formation of the Bubanj-Hum I group.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Neke zabeleške o genezi ranog eneolita na centralnom Balkanu, Some remarks on the genesis of the Early Eneolithic in the Central Balkans",
pages = "40-9",
number = "70",
doi = "10.2298/STA2070009B",
url = "conv_484"
}
Bulatović, A., Bulatović, A., Bankoff, A. H., Powell, W.,& Filipović, V.. (2020). Neke zabeleške o genezi ranog eneolita na centralnom Balkanu. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(70), 9-40.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA2070009B
conv_484
Bulatović A, Bulatović A, Bankoff AH, Powell W, Filipović V. Neke zabeleške o genezi ranog eneolita na centralnom Balkanu. in Starinar. 2020;(70):9-40.
doi:10.2298/STA2070009B
conv_484 .
Bulatović, Aleksandar, Bulatović, Aleksandar, Bankoff, Arthur H., Powell, Wayne, Filipović, Vojislav, "Neke zabeleške o genezi ranog eneolita na centralnom Balkanu" in Starinar, no. 70 (2020):9-40,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA2070009B .,
conv_484 .
3
2

Radiocarbon dating the 3rd millennium bc in the central Balkans: a re-examination of the early bronze age sequence

Bulatović, Aleksandar; Gori, Maja; Vander Linden, Marc

(Univ Arizona Dept Geosciences, Tucson, 2020)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Gori, Maja
AU  - Vander Linden, Marc
PY  - 2020
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/365
AB  - Long-standing archaeological narratives suggest that the 3rd millennium cal BC is a key period in Mediterranean and European prehistory, characterized by the development of extensive interaction networks. In the Balkans for instance, the identification of such interactions relies solely upon typological arguments associated with conflicting local terminologies. Through a combination of 25 new radiocarbon (C-14) dates and re-examination of the existing documentation, this paper defines the absolute chronology for groups which were previously only broadly framed into the 3rd millennium BC central Balkans (modern-day Serbia and North Macedonia). These absolute dates allow us to establish with greater clarity the chronological relations between different cultural groups that represent the main cultural units of the central Balkans sequence for the 3rd millennium cal BC: Cotofeni-Kostolac, Bubanj-Hum II, Belotic-Bela Crkva, Atmenochori, and Bubanj Hum M. When comparing together the chronologies for material culture, funerary treatment of the body, and funerary architecture, there are no easily discernible patterns. We observe instead a complex mix of traits criss-crossing over a wide area encompassing the Pannonian basin, the central Balkans and the Greek peninsula.
PB  - Univ Arizona Dept Geosciences, Tucson
T2  - Radiocarbon
T1  - Radiocarbon dating the 3rd millennium bc in the central Balkans: a re-examination of the early bronze age sequence
EP  - 1191
IS  - 5
SP  - 1163
VL  - 62
DO  - 10.1017/RDC.2020.61
UR  - conv_340
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bulatović, Aleksandar and Gori, Maja and Vander Linden, Marc",
year = "2020",
abstract = "Long-standing archaeological narratives suggest that the 3rd millennium cal BC is a key period in Mediterranean and European prehistory, characterized by the development of extensive interaction networks. In the Balkans for instance, the identification of such interactions relies solely upon typological arguments associated with conflicting local terminologies. Through a combination of 25 new radiocarbon (C-14) dates and re-examination of the existing documentation, this paper defines the absolute chronology for groups which were previously only broadly framed into the 3rd millennium BC central Balkans (modern-day Serbia and North Macedonia). These absolute dates allow us to establish with greater clarity the chronological relations between different cultural groups that represent the main cultural units of the central Balkans sequence for the 3rd millennium cal BC: Cotofeni-Kostolac, Bubanj-Hum II, Belotic-Bela Crkva, Atmenochori, and Bubanj Hum M. When comparing together the chronologies for material culture, funerary treatment of the body, and funerary architecture, there are no easily discernible patterns. We observe instead a complex mix of traits criss-crossing over a wide area encompassing the Pannonian basin, the central Balkans and the Greek peninsula.",
publisher = "Univ Arizona Dept Geosciences, Tucson",
journal = "Radiocarbon",
title = "Radiocarbon dating the 3rd millennium bc in the central Balkans: a re-examination of the early bronze age sequence",
pages = "1191-1163",
number = "5",
volume = "62",
doi = "10.1017/RDC.2020.61",
url = "conv_340"
}
Bulatović, A., Gori, M.,& Vander Linden, M.. (2020). Radiocarbon dating the 3rd millennium bc in the central Balkans: a re-examination of the early bronze age sequence. in Radiocarbon
Univ Arizona Dept Geosciences, Tucson., 62(5), 1163-1191.
https://doi.org/10.1017/RDC.2020.61
conv_340
Bulatović A, Gori M, Vander Linden M. Radiocarbon dating the 3rd millennium bc in the central Balkans: a re-examination of the early bronze age sequence. in Radiocarbon. 2020;62(5):1163-1191.
doi:10.1017/RDC.2020.61
conv_340 .
Bulatović, Aleksandar, Gori, Maja, Vander Linden, Marc, "Radiocarbon dating the 3rd millennium bc in the central Balkans: a re-examination of the early bronze age sequence" in Radiocarbon, 62, no. 5 (2020):1163-1191,
https://doi.org/10.1017/RDC.2020.61 .,
conv_340 .
6
4
4

New Insights into the Later Stage of the Neolithisation Process of the Central Balkans. First Excavations at Svinjaricka Cuka 2018

Horejs, Barbara; Bulatović, Aleksandar; Bulatović, Jelena; Brandl, Michael; Burke, Clare; Filipović, Dragana; Mili', Bogdana

(Verlag Der Oesterreichischen Akad Wissenschaften, Vienna, 2019)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Horejs, Barbara
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Bulatović, Jelena
AU  - Brandl, Michael
AU  - Burke, Clare
AU  - Filipović, Dragana
AU  - Mili', Bogdana
PY  - 2019
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/313
AB  - This article discusses recent findings from the newly identified archaeological site of Svinjaricka Cuka, situated next to the Southern Morava River in southern Serbia. We will present the latest results from the excavation, material studies, bioarchaeological analyses and contextualised radiocarbon data, focusing on the Stare'evo Neolithic horizon within the context of the new NEOTECH project. The interdisciplinary approach aims to shed light on the Neolithisation process of the region along one of the main communication routes between the Aegean and the Danube by the Axios-Vardar-Morava river system. The work so far has uncovered remains of Early to Middle Neolithic features dating around 5600 calBC, with analyses of faunal remains, ceramics and lithics contributing new insights into animal exploitation, raw materials and technological practices during this important time of socio-economic transition.
PB  - Verlag Der Oesterreichischen Akad Wissenschaften, Vienna
T2  - Archaeologia Austriaca
T1  - New Insights into the Later Stage of the Neolithisation Process of the Central Balkans. First Excavations at Svinjaricka Cuka 2018
EP  - 226
IS  - 103
SP  - 175
DO  - 10.1553/archaeologia103s175
UR  - conv_320
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Horejs, Barbara and Bulatović, Aleksandar and Bulatović, Jelena and Brandl, Michael and Burke, Clare and Filipović, Dragana and Mili', Bogdana",
year = "2019",
abstract = "This article discusses recent findings from the newly identified archaeological site of Svinjaricka Cuka, situated next to the Southern Morava River in southern Serbia. We will present the latest results from the excavation, material studies, bioarchaeological analyses and contextualised radiocarbon data, focusing on the Stare'evo Neolithic horizon within the context of the new NEOTECH project. The interdisciplinary approach aims to shed light on the Neolithisation process of the region along one of the main communication routes between the Aegean and the Danube by the Axios-Vardar-Morava river system. The work so far has uncovered remains of Early to Middle Neolithic features dating around 5600 calBC, with analyses of faunal remains, ceramics and lithics contributing new insights into animal exploitation, raw materials and technological practices during this important time of socio-economic transition.",
publisher = "Verlag Der Oesterreichischen Akad Wissenschaften, Vienna",
journal = "Archaeologia Austriaca",
title = "New Insights into the Later Stage of the Neolithisation Process of the Central Balkans. First Excavations at Svinjaricka Cuka 2018",
pages = "226-175",
number = "103",
doi = "10.1553/archaeologia103s175",
url = "conv_320"
}
Horejs, B., Bulatović, A., Bulatović, J., Brandl, M., Burke, C., Filipović, D.,& Mili', B.. (2019). New Insights into the Later Stage of the Neolithisation Process of the Central Balkans. First Excavations at Svinjaricka Cuka 2018. in Archaeologia Austriaca
Verlag Der Oesterreichischen Akad Wissenschaften, Vienna.(103), 175-226.
https://doi.org/10.1553/archaeologia103s175
conv_320
Horejs B, Bulatović A, Bulatović J, Brandl M, Burke C, Filipović D, Mili' B. New Insights into the Later Stage of the Neolithisation Process of the Central Balkans. First Excavations at Svinjaricka Cuka 2018. in Archaeologia Austriaca. 2019;(103):175-226.
doi:10.1553/archaeologia103s175
conv_320 .
Horejs, Barbara, Bulatović, Aleksandar, Bulatović, Jelena, Brandl, Michael, Burke, Clare, Filipović, Dragana, Mili', Bogdana, "New Insights into the Later Stage of the Neolithisation Process of the Central Balkans. First Excavations at Svinjaricka Cuka 2018" in Archaeologia Austriaca, no. 103 (2019):175-226,
https://doi.org/10.1553/archaeologia103s175 .,
conv_320 .
3
2
1
2

Copper isotopes as a means of determining regional metallurgical practices in European prehistory: A reply to Jansen

Powell, Wayne; Mathur, Ryan; Bankoff, Arthur H.; John, J.; Chvojka, O.; Tisucka, M.; Bulatović, Aleksandar; Filipović, Vojislav

(Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London, 2018)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Powell, Wayne
AU  - Mathur, Ryan
AU  - Bankoff, Arthur H.
AU  - John, J.
AU  - Chvojka, O.
AU  - Tisucka, M.
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Filipović, Vojislav
PY  - 2018
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/294
AB  - We present a detailed response to the critique by Mr. Jansen of the paper "Digging Deeper: Insights into Metallurgical Transitions in European Prehistory through Copper Isotopes". When we consider Cu isotope ratios of European Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age artifacts in the context of their local geological settings, climates, and archaeological contexts, Mr. Jansen's hypothesis that Cu-63 enrichment results from the adoption of fahlore ores is untenable. In both Serbia and Central Europe, the earliest copper production is associated with Cu-65-enriched ores and subsequently produced artifacts yield lower ranges delta Cu-65. This shift in Cu isotopic composition correlates with the initial use of predominantly hypogene ores, not with variations in their trace element content. Essentially the expanded dataset supports the conclusions that were presented in the original paper-Cu isotopes are an effective means of delineating the transition from oxide-based smelting to methodologically more complex smelting of sulphide ores in prehistoric Europe with its relatively limited production and trade. Mixing did not mask the critical Cu isotope signatures in this setting. Therefore, Cu isotope compositions of artifacts can be used to interpret the mineralogical character of the ores from which they were produced, regardless of their provenance, as long as trade networks remained within a region of similar climatic history.
PB  - Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London
T2  - Journal of Archaeological Science
T1  - Copper isotopes as a means of determining regional metallurgical practices in European prehistory: A reply to Jansen
EP  - 221
SP  - 216
VL  - 93
DO  - 10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.015
UR  - conv_321
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Powell, Wayne and Mathur, Ryan and Bankoff, Arthur H. and John, J. and Chvojka, O. and Tisucka, M. and Bulatović, Aleksandar and Filipović, Vojislav",
year = "2018",
abstract = "We present a detailed response to the critique by Mr. Jansen of the paper "Digging Deeper: Insights into Metallurgical Transitions in European Prehistory through Copper Isotopes". When we consider Cu isotope ratios of European Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age artifacts in the context of their local geological settings, climates, and archaeological contexts, Mr. Jansen's hypothesis that Cu-63 enrichment results from the adoption of fahlore ores is untenable. In both Serbia and Central Europe, the earliest copper production is associated with Cu-65-enriched ores and subsequently produced artifacts yield lower ranges delta Cu-65. This shift in Cu isotopic composition correlates with the initial use of predominantly hypogene ores, not with variations in their trace element content. Essentially the expanded dataset supports the conclusions that were presented in the original paper-Cu isotopes are an effective means of delineating the transition from oxide-based smelting to methodologically more complex smelting of sulphide ores in prehistoric Europe with its relatively limited production and trade. Mixing did not mask the critical Cu isotope signatures in this setting. Therefore, Cu isotope compositions of artifacts can be used to interpret the mineralogical character of the ores from which they were produced, regardless of their provenance, as long as trade networks remained within a region of similar climatic history.",
publisher = "Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London",
journal = "Journal of Archaeological Science",
title = "Copper isotopes as a means of determining regional metallurgical practices in European prehistory: A reply to Jansen",
pages = "221-216",
volume = "93",
doi = "10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.015",
url = "conv_321"
}
Powell, W., Mathur, R., Bankoff, A. H., John, J., Chvojka, O., Tisucka, M., Bulatović, A.,& Filipović, V.. (2018). Copper isotopes as a means of determining regional metallurgical practices in European prehistory: A reply to Jansen. in Journal of Archaeological Science
Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London., 93, 216-221.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.015
conv_321
Powell W, Mathur R, Bankoff AH, John J, Chvojka O, Tisucka M, Bulatović A, Filipović V. Copper isotopes as a means of determining regional metallurgical practices in European prehistory: A reply to Jansen. in Journal of Archaeological Science. 2018;93:216-221.
doi:10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.015
conv_321 .
Powell, Wayne, Mathur, Ryan, Bankoff, Arthur H., John, J., Chvojka, O., Tisucka, M., Bulatović, Aleksandar, Filipović, Vojislav, "Copper isotopes as a means of determining regional metallurgical practices in European prehistory: A reply to Jansen" in Journal of Archaeological Science, 93 (2018):216-221,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.015 .,
conv_321 .
1
5
5

New AMS dates as a contribution to the absolute chronology of the early eneolithic in the central Balkans

Bulatović, Aleksandar; Vander Linden, Marc; Gori, Maja

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2018)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Vander Linden, Marc
AU  - Gori, Maja
PY  - 2018
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/283
AB  - In this study we present new absolute dates for the Early Eneolithic in
   Serbia. Four of them confirm the recently obtained dates from that period
   (Bubanj-Hum I culture) but two samples (from Mokranjske stene and Bubanj)
   provide somewhat later dates for this period, although their stratigraphic
   context makes their interpretation difficult. Pottery from those sites,
   besides the typical examples, also shows particular stylistic and
   typological characteristics that resemble Galatin or Sălcuţa IV cultures, so
   one can presume that the Bubanj-Hum I culture in Serbia may have lasted
   longer than what is generally assumed.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - New AMS dates as a contribution to the absolute chronology of the early eneolithic in the central Balkans
EP  - 32
IS  - 68
SP  - 19
DO  - 10.2298/STA1868019B
UR  - conv_706
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bulatović, Aleksandar and Vander Linden, Marc and Gori, Maja",
year = "2018",
abstract = "In this study we present new absolute dates for the Early Eneolithic in
   Serbia. Four of them confirm the recently obtained dates from that period
   (Bubanj-Hum I culture) but two samples (from Mokranjske stene and Bubanj)
   provide somewhat later dates for this period, although their stratigraphic
   context makes their interpretation difficult. Pottery from those sites,
   besides the typical examples, also shows particular stylistic and
   typological characteristics that resemble Galatin or Sălcuţa IV cultures, so
   one can presume that the Bubanj-Hum I culture in Serbia may have lasted
   longer than what is generally assumed.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "New AMS dates as a contribution to the absolute chronology of the early eneolithic in the central Balkans",
pages = "32-19",
number = "68",
doi = "10.2298/STA1868019B",
url = "conv_706"
}
Bulatović, A., Vander Linden, M.,& Gori, M.. (2018). New AMS dates as a contribution to the absolute chronology of the early eneolithic in the central Balkans. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(68), 19-32.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1868019B
conv_706
Bulatović A, Vander Linden M, Gori M. New AMS dates as a contribution to the absolute chronology of the early eneolithic in the central Balkans. in Starinar. 2018;(68):19-32.
doi:10.2298/STA1868019B
conv_706 .
Bulatović, Aleksandar, Vander Linden, Marc, Gori, Maja, "New AMS dates as a contribution to the absolute chronology of the early eneolithic in the central Balkans" in Starinar, no. 68 (2018):19-32,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1868019B .,
conv_706 .
5

Absolute dating of copper and early bronze age levels at the eponymous archaeological site Bubanj (southeastern Serbia)

Bulatović, Aleksandar; Vander Linden, Marc

(Univ Arizona Dept Geosciences, Tucson, 2017)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Vander Linden, Marc
PY  - 2017
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/272
AB  - This paper reports the first radiocarbon (C-14) dates obtained for the Eneolithic/Bronze Age site of Bubanj, Serbia. Despite featuring prominently in the existing typo-chronological schemes for southeastern Europe, the history of research and recent large-scale destruction of the site had prevented so far the acquisition of samples from secure archaeological contexts. We fill this documentary gap by presenting 10 new C-14 dates, covering the late 5th, 4th, and 3rd millennia cal BC. These dates are compared to the existing documentation from the literature, in order to assess the placement of Bubanj within its wider archaeological context.
PB  - Univ Arizona Dept Geosciences, Tucson
T2  - Radiocarbon
T1  - Absolute dating of copper and early bronze age levels at the eponymous archaeological site Bubanj (southeastern Serbia)
EP  - 1065
IS  - 4
SP  - 1047
VL  - 59
DO  - 10.1017/RDC.2017.28
UR  - conv_323
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bulatović, Aleksandar and Vander Linden, Marc",
year = "2017",
abstract = "This paper reports the first radiocarbon (C-14) dates obtained for the Eneolithic/Bronze Age site of Bubanj, Serbia. Despite featuring prominently in the existing typo-chronological schemes for southeastern Europe, the history of research and recent large-scale destruction of the site had prevented so far the acquisition of samples from secure archaeological contexts. We fill this documentary gap by presenting 10 new C-14 dates, covering the late 5th, 4th, and 3rd millennia cal BC. These dates are compared to the existing documentation from the literature, in order to assess the placement of Bubanj within its wider archaeological context.",
publisher = "Univ Arizona Dept Geosciences, Tucson",
journal = "Radiocarbon",
title = "Absolute dating of copper and early bronze age levels at the eponymous archaeological site Bubanj (southeastern Serbia)",
pages = "1065-1047",
number = "4",
volume = "59",
doi = "10.1017/RDC.2017.28",
url = "conv_323"
}
Bulatović, A.,& Vander Linden, M.. (2017). Absolute dating of copper and early bronze age levels at the eponymous archaeological site Bubanj (southeastern Serbia). in Radiocarbon
Univ Arizona Dept Geosciences, Tucson., 59(4), 1047-1065.
https://doi.org/10.1017/RDC.2017.28
conv_323
Bulatović A, Vander Linden M. Absolute dating of copper and early bronze age levels at the eponymous archaeological site Bubanj (southeastern Serbia). in Radiocarbon. 2017;59(4):1047-1065.
doi:10.1017/RDC.2017.28
conv_323 .
Bulatović, Aleksandar, Vander Linden, Marc, "Absolute dating of copper and early bronze age levels at the eponymous archaeological site Bubanj (southeastern Serbia)" in Radiocarbon, 59, no. 4 (2017):1047-1065,
https://doi.org/10.1017/RDC.2017.28 .,
conv_323 .
5
6

Digging deeper: Insights into metallurgical transitions in European prehistory through copper isotopes

Powell, Wayne; Mathur, Ryan; Bankoff, Arthur H.; Mason, Andrea; Bulatović, Aleksandar; Filipović, Vojislav; Godfrey, Linda

(Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London, 2017)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Powell, Wayne
AU  - Mathur, Ryan
AU  - Bankoff, Arthur H.
AU  - Mason, Andrea
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Filipović, Vojislav
AU  - Godfrey, Linda
PY  - 2017
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/267
AB  - Southeastern Europe is the birthplace of metallurgy, with evidence of copper smelting at ca. 5000 BCE. There the later Eneolithic (Copper Age) was associated with the casting of massive copper tools. However, copper metallurgy in this region ceased, or significantly decreased, centuries before the dawn of the Bronze Age. Archaeologists continue to be debate whether this hiatus was imposed on early metalworking communities as a result of exhaustion of workable mineral resources, or instead a cultural transition that was associated with changes in depositional practices and material culture. Copper isotopes provide a broadly applicable means of addressing this question. Copper isotopes fractionate in the near-surface environment such that surficial oxide ores can be differentiated from non-weathered sulphide ores that occur at greater depth. This compositional variation is transferred to associated copper artifacts, the final product of the metallurgical process. In the central Balkans, a shift from 65Cu-enriched to 65Cu-depleted copper artifacts occurs across the metallurgical hiatus at the Eneolithic-Bronze Age boundary, ca. 2500 BCE. This indicates that the reemergence of metal production at the beginning of the Bronze Age is associated with pyrotechnical advancements that allowed for the extraction of copper from sulphide ore. Thus copper isotopes provide direct evidence that the copper hiatus was the result of exhaustion of near-surface oxide ores after one-and-a-half millennia of mining, and that the beginning of the Bronze Age in the Balkans is associated with the introduction of more complex smelting techniques for metal extraction from regionally abundant sulphidic deposits.
PB  - Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London
T2  - Journal of Archaeological Science
T1  - Digging deeper: Insights into metallurgical transitions in European prehistory through copper isotopes
EP  - 46
SP  - 37
VL  - 88
DO  - 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.012
UR  - conv_361
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Powell, Wayne and Mathur, Ryan and Bankoff, Arthur H. and Mason, Andrea and Bulatović, Aleksandar and Filipović, Vojislav and Godfrey, Linda",
year = "2017",
abstract = "Southeastern Europe is the birthplace of metallurgy, with evidence of copper smelting at ca. 5000 BCE. There the later Eneolithic (Copper Age) was associated with the casting of massive copper tools. However, copper metallurgy in this region ceased, or significantly decreased, centuries before the dawn of the Bronze Age. Archaeologists continue to be debate whether this hiatus was imposed on early metalworking communities as a result of exhaustion of workable mineral resources, or instead a cultural transition that was associated with changes in depositional practices and material culture. Copper isotopes provide a broadly applicable means of addressing this question. Copper isotopes fractionate in the near-surface environment such that surficial oxide ores can be differentiated from non-weathered sulphide ores that occur at greater depth. This compositional variation is transferred to associated copper artifacts, the final product of the metallurgical process. In the central Balkans, a shift from 65Cu-enriched to 65Cu-depleted copper artifacts occurs across the metallurgical hiatus at the Eneolithic-Bronze Age boundary, ca. 2500 BCE. This indicates that the reemergence of metal production at the beginning of the Bronze Age is associated with pyrotechnical advancements that allowed for the extraction of copper from sulphide ore. Thus copper isotopes provide direct evidence that the copper hiatus was the result of exhaustion of near-surface oxide ores after one-and-a-half millennia of mining, and that the beginning of the Bronze Age in the Balkans is associated with the introduction of more complex smelting techniques for metal extraction from regionally abundant sulphidic deposits.",
publisher = "Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London",
journal = "Journal of Archaeological Science",
title = "Digging deeper: Insights into metallurgical transitions in European prehistory through copper isotopes",
pages = "46-37",
volume = "88",
doi = "10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.012",
url = "conv_361"
}
Powell, W., Mathur, R., Bankoff, A. H., Mason, A., Bulatović, A., Filipović, V.,& Godfrey, L.. (2017). Digging deeper: Insights into metallurgical transitions in European prehistory through copper isotopes. in Journal of Archaeological Science
Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London., 88, 37-46.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.012
conv_361
Powell W, Mathur R, Bankoff AH, Mason A, Bulatović A, Filipović V, Godfrey L. Digging deeper: Insights into metallurgical transitions in European prehistory through copper isotopes. in Journal of Archaeological Science. 2017;88:37-46.
doi:10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.012
conv_361 .
Powell, Wayne, Mathur, Ryan, Bankoff, Arthur H., Mason, Andrea, Bulatović, Aleksandar, Filipović, Vojislav, Godfrey, Linda, "Digging deeper: Insights into metallurgical transitions in European prehistory through copper isotopes" in Journal of Archaeological Science, 88 (2017):37-46,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.012 .,
conv_361 .
13
19
7
20

Tin isotope characterization of bronze artifacts of the central Balkans

Mason, Andrea; Powell, Wayne; Bankoff, Arthur H.; Mathur, Ryan; Bulatović, Aleksandar; Filipović, Vojislav; Ruiz, J.

(Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London, 2016)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Mason, Andrea
AU  - Powell, Wayne
AU  - Bankoff, Arthur H.
AU  - Mathur, Ryan
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Filipović, Vojislav
AU  - Ruiz, J.
PY  - 2016
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/256
AB  - Isotopic analysis has proved to be an effective approach to determine the provenance of copper ore sources for the production of bronze artifacts. More recently, methods for Sn isotopic analysis of bronze have been developed. However, the viability of tin isotopes as a means to define groupings that may be attributed to varying ore sources, production methods, or recycling is still in question. In part, this is due to the numerically and/or geographically limited nature of published datasets. This study reports on the Sn isotopic composition of 52 artifacts from the later Bronze Age (1500-1100 BCE) from Serbia and western Romania. The majority of samples cluster between 0.4 and 0.8 per mil for delta Sn-124, and 0.2 and 0.4 per mil for delta Sn-120 (relative to NIST SRM 3161A), and this isotopic grouping of bronze artifacts occurs across Serbia. However, groupings of isotopically heavier and lighter artifacts are evident, and each corresponds to a more limited geographic range. Artifacts associated with higher delta Sn values are limited to the Vojvodina region of northern Serbia, whereas a cluster of bronzes with lower Sn-isotopic signatures are constrained to the Banat along the Serbia-Romania border, and Transylvania. One low-value outlier corresponds to an uncontextualized find near Krusevac at the southern extent of the study area. Geographic correlation of the low-value cluster with known tin mineralization in Transylvania, and the moderate-value cluster with placer tin deposits of western Serbia, suggests that these distinct bronze Sn-isotopic signatures might reflect exploitation of different tin ores. The small cluster of high Sn-isotopic values from bronzes from the Vojvodina region might reflect bronze recycling in this area that lies furthest from both known tin ore sources.
PB  - Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London
T2  - Journal of Archaeological Science
T1  - Tin isotope characterization of bronze artifacts of the central Balkans
EP  - 117
SP  - 110
VL  - 69
DO  - 10.1016/j.jas.2016.04.012
UR  - conv_367
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Mason, Andrea and Powell, Wayne and Bankoff, Arthur H. and Mathur, Ryan and Bulatović, Aleksandar and Filipović, Vojislav and Ruiz, J.",
year = "2016",
abstract = "Isotopic analysis has proved to be an effective approach to determine the provenance of copper ore sources for the production of bronze artifacts. More recently, methods for Sn isotopic analysis of bronze have been developed. However, the viability of tin isotopes as a means to define groupings that may be attributed to varying ore sources, production methods, or recycling is still in question. In part, this is due to the numerically and/or geographically limited nature of published datasets. This study reports on the Sn isotopic composition of 52 artifacts from the later Bronze Age (1500-1100 BCE) from Serbia and western Romania. The majority of samples cluster between 0.4 and 0.8 per mil for delta Sn-124, and 0.2 and 0.4 per mil for delta Sn-120 (relative to NIST SRM 3161A), and this isotopic grouping of bronze artifacts occurs across Serbia. However, groupings of isotopically heavier and lighter artifacts are evident, and each corresponds to a more limited geographic range. Artifacts associated with higher delta Sn values are limited to the Vojvodina region of northern Serbia, whereas a cluster of bronzes with lower Sn-isotopic signatures are constrained to the Banat along the Serbia-Romania border, and Transylvania. One low-value outlier corresponds to an uncontextualized find near Krusevac at the southern extent of the study area. Geographic correlation of the low-value cluster with known tin mineralization in Transylvania, and the moderate-value cluster with placer tin deposits of western Serbia, suggests that these distinct bronze Sn-isotopic signatures might reflect exploitation of different tin ores. The small cluster of high Sn-isotopic values from bronzes from the Vojvodina region might reflect bronze recycling in this area that lies furthest from both known tin ore sources.",
publisher = "Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London",
journal = "Journal of Archaeological Science",
title = "Tin isotope characterization of bronze artifacts of the central Balkans",
pages = "117-110",
volume = "69",
doi = "10.1016/j.jas.2016.04.012",
url = "conv_367"
}
Mason, A., Powell, W., Bankoff, A. H., Mathur, R., Bulatović, A., Filipović, V.,& Ruiz, J.. (2016). Tin isotope characterization of bronze artifacts of the central Balkans. in Journal of Archaeological Science
Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London., 69, 110-117.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2016.04.012
conv_367
Mason A, Powell W, Bankoff AH, Mathur R, Bulatović A, Filipović V, Ruiz J. Tin isotope characterization of bronze artifacts of the central Balkans. in Journal of Archaeological Science. 2016;69:110-117.
doi:10.1016/j.jas.2016.04.012
conv_367 .
Mason, Andrea, Powell, Wayne, Bankoff, Arthur H., Mathur, Ryan, Bulatović, Aleksandar, Filipović, Vojislav, Ruiz, J., "Tin isotope characterization of bronze artifacts of the central Balkans" in Journal of Archaeological Science, 69 (2016):110-117,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2016.04.012 .,
conv_367 .
4
30
16
30

An AMS dated late Bronze Age grave from the mound necropolis at Paulje

Gligorić, Rada; Filipović, Vojislav; Bulatović, Aleksandar

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2016)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Gligorić, Rada
AU  - Filipović, Vojislav
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
PY  - 2016
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/246
AB  - The subject of the paper is a closed entity - an incineration grave from
   northwest Serbia, dated to the developed Bronze Age, with an absolute date
   obtained by AMS (Accelerator mass spectrometry). The sample was taken from
   the wooden support on which the urn with the bones of the deceased and bronze
   jewellery was placed. The date obtained corresponds to the 14th century B.C.
   and confirms earlier proposed suppositions concerning the chronological
   determination of the necropolises from the territory of Jadar, Podgorina and
   Lower Podrinje.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - An AMS dated late Bronze Age grave from the mound necropolis at Paulje
EP  - 109
IS  - 66
SP  - 103
DO  - 10.2298/STA1666103G
UR  - conv_660
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Gligorić, Rada and Filipović, Vojislav and Bulatović, Aleksandar",
year = "2016",
abstract = "The subject of the paper is a closed entity - an incineration grave from
   northwest Serbia, dated to the developed Bronze Age, with an absolute date
   obtained by AMS (Accelerator mass spectrometry). The sample was taken from
   the wooden support on which the urn with the bones of the deceased and bronze
   jewellery was placed. The date obtained corresponds to the 14th century B.C.
   and confirms earlier proposed suppositions concerning the chronological
   determination of the necropolises from the territory of Jadar, Podgorina and
   Lower Podrinje.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "An AMS dated late Bronze Age grave from the mound necropolis at Paulje",
pages = "109-103",
number = "66",
doi = "10.2298/STA1666103G",
url = "conv_660"
}
Gligorić, R., Filipović, V.,& Bulatović, A.. (2016). An AMS dated late Bronze Age grave from the mound necropolis at Paulje. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(66), 103-109.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1666103G
conv_660
Gligorić R, Filipović V, Bulatović A. An AMS dated late Bronze Age grave from the mound necropolis at Paulje. in Starinar. 2016;(66):103-109.
doi:10.2298/STA1666103G
conv_660 .
Gligorić, Rada, Filipović, Vojislav, Bulatović, Aleksandar, "An AMS dated late Bronze Age grave from the mound necropolis at Paulje" in Starinar, no. 66 (2016):103-109,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1666103G .,
conv_660 .
1

Necropolis under a tumulus at Veprčani: Representative case of using sacred places during several periods in the past

Mitkoski, Aleksandar; Bulatović, Aleksandar; Mikić, Ilija

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2016)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Mitkoski, Aleksandar
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Mikić, Ilija
PY  - 2016
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/243
AB  - Six Late Roman graves and one prehistoric burial have been discovered under a
   tumulus in the course of investigations. The tumulus is around 11meters in
   diameter and around 1 meter high and is situated at Veprčani, in the
   mountainous area of Mariovo in south Macedonia. The graves mostly contained
   cists of broken stones or slabs covered with stone slabs, one grave was
   carved into the rock and one consisted of a dislocated grave association. One
   prehistoric burial containing the remains of a cremated individual and grave
   goods was encountered under a small stone mound to the south of tumulus.
   Regarding the grave goods, mortuary practice and funerary rituals of the
   original tumulus as well as the prehistoric burials, and material from the
   mound have been dated to the Ha A period, while the antique graves were dated
   to the 3rd-4th century.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Necropolis under a tumulus at Veprčani: Representative case of using sacred places during several periods in the past
EP  - 57
IS  - 66
SP  - 27
DO  - 10.2298/STA1666027M
UR  - conv_728
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Mitkoski, Aleksandar and Bulatović, Aleksandar and Mikić, Ilija",
year = "2016",
abstract = "Six Late Roman graves and one prehistoric burial have been discovered under a
   tumulus in the course of investigations. The tumulus is around 11meters in
   diameter and around 1 meter high and is situated at Veprčani, in the
   mountainous area of Mariovo in south Macedonia. The graves mostly contained
   cists of broken stones or slabs covered with stone slabs, one grave was
   carved into the rock and one consisted of a dislocated grave association. One
   prehistoric burial containing the remains of a cremated individual and grave
   goods was encountered under a small stone mound to the south of tumulus.
   Regarding the grave goods, mortuary practice and funerary rituals of the
   original tumulus as well as the prehistoric burials, and material from the
   mound have been dated to the Ha A period, while the antique graves were dated
   to the 3rd-4th century.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Necropolis under a tumulus at Veprčani: Representative case of using sacred places during several periods in the past",
pages = "57-27",
number = "66",
doi = "10.2298/STA1666027M",
url = "conv_728"
}
Mitkoski, A., Bulatović, A.,& Mikić, I.. (2016). Necropolis under a tumulus at Veprčani: Representative case of using sacred places during several periods in the past. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(66), 27-57.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1666027M
conv_728
Mitkoski A, Bulatović A, Mikić I. Necropolis under a tumulus at Veprčani: Representative case of using sacred places during several periods in the past. in Starinar. 2016;(66):27-57.
doi:10.2298/STA1666027M
conv_728 .
Mitkoski, Aleksandar, Bulatović, Aleksandar, Mikić, Ilija, "Necropolis under a tumulus at Veprčani: Representative case of using sacred places during several periods in the past" in Starinar, no. 66 (2016):27-57,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1666027M .,
conv_728 .

Cultural contacts between communities of southwestern Romania and the central Balkans in the fourth millennium BC

Bulatović, Aleksandar; Kapuran, Aleksandar

(Dept. of History, Archeology and Museology, Univ. of Alba Iulia, 2016)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
PY  - 2016
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/250
AB  - At the beginning of fourth millennium BC, after the disintegration of the Bubanj-Sǎlcuţa-Krivodol cultural complex, the so-called Transitional period from the Eneolithic to the Bronze Age began in the territory of Oltenia (western Bulgaria and Serbia). We still lack a lot of data about this period. In northwestern Bulgaria this period is defined by the Galatin group, and in Romania by the Sǎlcuţa IV group, while in Serbia it is almost completely unknown. Stratigraphical observations from new excavations (2008 to 2014) at the Bubanj site near Niš in southeastern Serbia suggest that elements of Bubanj-Hum I culture lasted longer there than in Oltenia and western Bulgaria, and that the hiatus between this culture and the Cernavodǎ III culture was very short. Excavations at the Mokranjske stene site in eastern Serbia, where the Coţofeni cultural layer lies directly above the Bubanj-Hum I culture layer, provide similar evidence. After this period, i.e. in the last quarter of the fourth millennium, it is possible again to notice some kind of cultural integration in the territory where the BSK complex previously existed. Across the vast territory from Transylvania in the north, across the Oltenia and eastern Serbia to southeastern Serbia to the south, almost identical stylistic and typological elements can be observed in the pottery record. According to recent absolute dates from Serbian sites, this cultural phenomenon can be chronologically defined starting from the end of the third quarter of fourth millennium BC, namely Cernavodǎ III culture. The situation is similar in the next period (last quarter of the fourth and first quarter of the third millennium BC), when Coţofeni and Kostolac societies met in the area of the Iron Gates and eastern Serbia, creating a new cultural phenomenon defined as Coţofeni-Kostolac culture. A significant proportion of the stylistic and typological elements of this culture are identical to those originating on Coţofeni territories in Oltenia and Transylvania. The impacts of these cultures reached far to the south, all the way to the Aegean coast, but in the late Eneolithic, Vucedol culture came to be a significant influence on the cultural milieu of the central Balkans. On the other hand, after the demise of Vucedol culture (second half of the third millennium BC), the Balkans became largely influenced by Aegean civilisation, which significantly contributed to the appearance of early Bronze Age cultures in the Balkans.
PB  - Dept. of History, Archeology and Museology, Univ. of Alba Iulia
T2  - Annales Universitatis Apulensis. Series Historica
T1  - Cultural contacts between communities of southwestern Romania and the central Balkans in the fourth millennium BC
EP  - 201 and 402
IS  - 2
SP  - 183
VL  - 20
UR  - conv_549
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bulatović, Aleksandar and Kapuran, Aleksandar",
year = "2016",
abstract = "At the beginning of fourth millennium BC, after the disintegration of the Bubanj-Sǎlcuţa-Krivodol cultural complex, the so-called Transitional period from the Eneolithic to the Bronze Age began in the territory of Oltenia (western Bulgaria and Serbia). We still lack a lot of data about this period. In northwestern Bulgaria this period is defined by the Galatin group, and in Romania by the Sǎlcuţa IV group, while in Serbia it is almost completely unknown. Stratigraphical observations from new excavations (2008 to 2014) at the Bubanj site near Niš in southeastern Serbia suggest that elements of Bubanj-Hum I culture lasted longer there than in Oltenia and western Bulgaria, and that the hiatus between this culture and the Cernavodǎ III culture was very short. Excavations at the Mokranjske stene site in eastern Serbia, where the Coţofeni cultural layer lies directly above the Bubanj-Hum I culture layer, provide similar evidence. After this period, i.e. in the last quarter of the fourth millennium, it is possible again to notice some kind of cultural integration in the territory where the BSK complex previously existed. Across the vast territory from Transylvania in the north, across the Oltenia and eastern Serbia to southeastern Serbia to the south, almost identical stylistic and typological elements can be observed in the pottery record. According to recent absolute dates from Serbian sites, this cultural phenomenon can be chronologically defined starting from the end of the third quarter of fourth millennium BC, namely Cernavodǎ III culture. The situation is similar in the next period (last quarter of the fourth and first quarter of the third millennium BC), when Coţofeni and Kostolac societies met in the area of the Iron Gates and eastern Serbia, creating a new cultural phenomenon defined as Coţofeni-Kostolac culture. A significant proportion of the stylistic and typological elements of this culture are identical to those originating on Coţofeni territories in Oltenia and Transylvania. The impacts of these cultures reached far to the south, all the way to the Aegean coast, but in the late Eneolithic, Vucedol culture came to be a significant influence on the cultural milieu of the central Balkans. On the other hand, after the demise of Vucedol culture (second half of the third millennium BC), the Balkans became largely influenced by Aegean civilisation, which significantly contributed to the appearance of early Bronze Age cultures in the Balkans.",
publisher = "Dept. of History, Archeology and Museology, Univ. of Alba Iulia",
journal = "Annales Universitatis Apulensis. Series Historica",
title = "Cultural contacts between communities of southwestern Romania and the central Balkans in the fourth millennium BC",
pages = "201 and 402-183",
number = "2",
volume = "20",
url = "conv_549"
}
Bulatović, A.,& Kapuran, A.. (2016). Cultural contacts between communities of southwestern Romania and the central Balkans in the fourth millennium BC. in Annales Universitatis Apulensis. Series Historica
Dept. of History, Archeology and Museology, Univ. of Alba Iulia., 20(2), 183-201 and 402.
conv_549
Bulatović A, Kapuran A. Cultural contacts between communities of southwestern Romania and the central Balkans in the fourth millennium BC. in Annales Universitatis Apulensis. Series Historica. 2016;20(2):183-201 and 402.
conv_549 .
Bulatović, Aleksandar, Kapuran, Aleksandar, "Cultural contacts between communities of southwestern Romania and the central Balkans in the fourth millennium BC" in Annales Universitatis Apulensis. Series Historica, 20, no. 2 (2016):183-201 and 402,
conv_549 .
2

The phenomenon of prehistoric ritual pits: Several examples from the central Balkans

Bulatović, Aleksandar

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2015)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
PY  - 2015
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/223
AB  - In recent years, the phenomenon of pits with special deposits, i.e. ritual
   pits, seems to have, once again, attracted attention both in Europe and in
   the Balkans. In the central Balkans, scientific literature related to this
   topic is still deficient, hence one of the objectives of this paper is to
   change the current state and rekindle interest in the study of this form of
   manifestation of the spiritual culture of prehistoric man. It appears that
   one of the oldest reasons for sacrificial offerings is primal, instinctive
   fear. The fear of the transience of life or of death compelled our ancient
   ancestors to make some sort of “agreement” with the surrounding forces,
   bestowing particular sacrifices onto them. Sacrifice represents one of the
   rituals of prehistoric communities which could have been performed in a
   number of ways and in different circumstances. One of these are offerings
   placed in pits, in the form of specific objects, food, drink or living beings
   sacrificed to higher powers and accompanied by certain symbolic actions, for
   the purpose of gaining their favour or help. When interpreting pits, what
   should further be considered is that the fundamental difference between a
   discarded object and an object used for a ritual purpose lies in the fact
   that the object of ritual character is still meaningful to man, performing a
   symbolic function, unlike the former, whose role is lost after being disposed
   of. Aritual object, an item or a living being sacrificed in a pit, is no
   longer of common, worldly significance (food, drink, tools, etc.), but rather
   possesses a symbolic, sacral meaning, intended for higher powers, to
   propitiate and appease them, that is to create some form of the oldest
   religious communication. Not only is it difficult to identify the pits used
   for ritual purposes in the course of fieldwork, but it is even more
   challenging to interpret them and practically impossible to accurately
   reconstruct the actions performed during the rituals. Many authors who
   concern themselves with this topic concur that the context of a pit and the
   objects within it, the choice of offerings and their symbolism, along with
   the pit’s stratigraphy and other patterns observed in it, are in fact the
   features that make it distinct, i.e. ritual. Similar pits are known
   throughout history and their descriptions can be found in ancient written
   sources, as well as identified in the field, with certain differences,
   stretching back all the way into deep prehistory. This paper presents several
   newly discovered ritual pits in the central Balkans from the Eneolithic,
   Bronze and Iron Age, and additionally mentions some of the previously
   published pits from the area and its near and more distant surroundings. In
   the course of recent investigations conducted at the site of Bubanj, two
   ritual pits were recorded in the Early Eneolithic horizon of the Bubanj-Hum I
   culture. Next to the first, shallower (up to 0.2 m), oval shaped pit, of
   around 2.5 m long and 1.7 m wide, an oven was noted, while the pit was filled
   with whole vessels, parts of grindstones, chipped and polished stone tools,
   baked clay, animal bones, etc. (Figs. 1, 2; Pl. I). Two smaller hollows were
   noted in the northern part of the pit, while several postholes, which might
   have supported some kind of roof or shelter construction, were detected
   somewhat deeper in the subsoil, around the oven and the pit. Below this pit,
   a smaller one was noted, around 0.7 m deep and with a base diameter of about
   1.2 m, filled with yellow, sandy, refined soil. The bottom of the pit was dug
   to the level of the subsoil and levelled. The second ritual pit from Bubanj
   was considerably deeper (around 1.5 m) and approximately 1.7 m in diameter,
   with baked walls and filled with red ashy soil. It contained fragmented or
   whole vessels, chipped stone tools, a part of an altar, an air nozzle
   (tuyиres), a polished stone axe, tools made of horn, a fragment of a
   grindstone, pebbles, house daub and animal bones (Fig. 3; Pl. II). Part of
   the inventory had been burnt, particularly in the lower section of the pit.
   This paper also mentions the Late Eneolithic pit from Vinča, containing eight
   whole vessels in an inverted position (Fig. 4; Pl. III), as well as the
   Bronze Age complexes from Kokino Selo and Pelince, in northern Macedonia
   (Figs. 5, 6), comprising several dozen pits, commonly with a broken stone
   construction, in which whole vessels, along with tools made from chipped and
   polished stone, baked clay or bone and large amounts of daub were discovered.
   In the Iron Age, the number of ritual pits significantly increased in all of
   Europe and, from this period, two pits from the area surrounding Vranje are
   presented - one with mixed contents (the skulls, without the lower jaw, of at
   least six male wild boars, as well as the skulls, lower jaws, right pelvic
   bones and shoulder blades of at least six deer, along with parts of
   grindstones, pottery and daub fragments and a chipped stone tool) and the
   other with a complete skeleton of a young female horse, a baked clay weight
   and chipped stone flaking debris (Figs. 7, 8; Pl. IV).1 The pits were dated,
   by means of conventional C14 dating, to the period from the mid-6th to the
   mid-4th century BC.2 By comparing and analysing a large number of pits from
   the central Balkans and the neighbouring areas, it was observed that ritual
   pits, as a form of an ancient, primitive religiosity, had already emerged in
   the Palaeolithic and endured in Europe throughout the entire prehistory,
   despite various natural and social changes that occurred during this extended
   period. The pits proved to have been located both outside inhabited areas, as
   well as in settlements (even under houses), either individually or clustered,
   and in some cases also constituting entire complexes, with protective
   architecture in the form of a roof or a shelter (Bubanj, Ohoden). The surface
   areas occupied by the complexes, along with the dimensions and shapes of the
   pits, the stratigraphy of their contents, their architecture and many other
   elements vary considerably, even within a single complex. It is for this
   reason that it is not possible, at this moment in time, at least without very
   detailed and comprehensive analysis, to discern some regularities or patterns
   which could, with any certainty, be considered reliable. This primeval
   custom, therefore, cannot be linked to any particular period, culture or
   region, but was entirely dependent on the state or level of the spiritual
   consciousness of an individual or a community. This religious idea started to
   decline during the Roman domination and vanished entirely at the time of
   Christianity.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - The phenomenon of prehistoric ritual pits: Several examples from the central Balkans
EP  - 35
IS  - 65
SP  - 7
DO  - 10.2298/STA1565007B
UR  - conv_631
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bulatović, Aleksandar",
year = "2015",
abstract = "In recent years, the phenomenon of pits with special deposits, i.e. ritual
   pits, seems to have, once again, attracted attention both in Europe and in
   the Balkans. In the central Balkans, scientific literature related to this
   topic is still deficient, hence one of the objectives of this paper is to
   change the current state and rekindle interest in the study of this form of
   manifestation of the spiritual culture of prehistoric man. It appears that
   one of the oldest reasons for sacrificial offerings is primal, instinctive
   fear. The fear of the transience of life or of death compelled our ancient
   ancestors to make some sort of “agreement” with the surrounding forces,
   bestowing particular sacrifices onto them. Sacrifice represents one of the
   rituals of prehistoric communities which could have been performed in a
   number of ways and in different circumstances. One of these are offerings
   placed in pits, in the form of specific objects, food, drink or living beings
   sacrificed to higher powers and accompanied by certain symbolic actions, for
   the purpose of gaining their favour or help. When interpreting pits, what
   should further be considered is that the fundamental difference between a
   discarded object and an object used for a ritual purpose lies in the fact
   that the object of ritual character is still meaningful to man, performing a
   symbolic function, unlike the former, whose role is lost after being disposed
   of. Aritual object, an item or a living being sacrificed in a pit, is no
   longer of common, worldly significance (food, drink, tools, etc.), but rather
   possesses a symbolic, sacral meaning, intended for higher powers, to
   propitiate and appease them, that is to create some form of the oldest
   religious communication. Not only is it difficult to identify the pits used
   for ritual purposes in the course of fieldwork, but it is even more
   challenging to interpret them and practically impossible to accurately
   reconstruct the actions performed during the rituals. Many authors who
   concern themselves with this topic concur that the context of a pit and the
   objects within it, the choice of offerings and their symbolism, along with
   the pit’s stratigraphy and other patterns observed in it, are in fact the
   features that make it distinct, i.e. ritual. Similar pits are known
   throughout history and their descriptions can be found in ancient written
   sources, as well as identified in the field, with certain differences,
   stretching back all the way into deep prehistory. This paper presents several
   newly discovered ritual pits in the central Balkans from the Eneolithic,
   Bronze and Iron Age, and additionally mentions some of the previously
   published pits from the area and its near and more distant surroundings. In
   the course of recent investigations conducted at the site of Bubanj, two
   ritual pits were recorded in the Early Eneolithic horizon of the Bubanj-Hum I
   culture. Next to the first, shallower (up to 0.2 m), oval shaped pit, of
   around 2.5 m long and 1.7 m wide, an oven was noted, while the pit was filled
   with whole vessels, parts of grindstones, chipped and polished stone tools,
   baked clay, animal bones, etc. (Figs. 1, 2; Pl. I). Two smaller hollows were
   noted in the northern part of the pit, while several postholes, which might
   have supported some kind of roof or shelter construction, were detected
   somewhat deeper in the subsoil, around the oven and the pit. Below this pit,
   a smaller one was noted, around 0.7 m deep and with a base diameter of about
   1.2 m, filled with yellow, sandy, refined soil. The bottom of the pit was dug
   to the level of the subsoil and levelled. The second ritual pit from Bubanj
   was considerably deeper (around 1.5 m) and approximately 1.7 m in diameter,
   with baked walls and filled with red ashy soil. It contained fragmented or
   whole vessels, chipped stone tools, a part of an altar, an air nozzle
   (tuyиres), a polished stone axe, tools made of horn, a fragment of a
   grindstone, pebbles, house daub and animal bones (Fig. 3; Pl. II). Part of
   the inventory had been burnt, particularly in the lower section of the pit.
   This paper also mentions the Late Eneolithic pit from Vinča, containing eight
   whole vessels in an inverted position (Fig. 4; Pl. III), as well as the
   Bronze Age complexes from Kokino Selo and Pelince, in northern Macedonia
   (Figs. 5, 6), comprising several dozen pits, commonly with a broken stone
   construction, in which whole vessels, along with tools made from chipped and
   polished stone, baked clay or bone and large amounts of daub were discovered.
   In the Iron Age, the number of ritual pits significantly increased in all of
   Europe and, from this period, two pits from the area surrounding Vranje are
   presented - one with mixed contents (the skulls, without the lower jaw, of at
   least six male wild boars, as well as the skulls, lower jaws, right pelvic
   bones and shoulder blades of at least six deer, along with parts of
   grindstones, pottery and daub fragments and a chipped stone tool) and the
   other with a complete skeleton of a young female horse, a baked clay weight
   and chipped stone flaking debris (Figs. 7, 8; Pl. IV).1 The pits were dated,
   by means of conventional C14 dating, to the period from the mid-6th to the
   mid-4th century BC.2 By comparing and analysing a large number of pits from
   the central Balkans and the neighbouring areas, it was observed that ritual
   pits, as a form of an ancient, primitive religiosity, had already emerged in
   the Palaeolithic and endured in Europe throughout the entire prehistory,
   despite various natural and social changes that occurred during this extended
   period. The pits proved to have been located both outside inhabited areas, as
   well as in settlements (even under houses), either individually or clustered,
   and in some cases also constituting entire complexes, with protective
   architecture in the form of a roof or a shelter (Bubanj, Ohoden). The surface
   areas occupied by the complexes, along with the dimensions and shapes of the
   pits, the stratigraphy of their contents, their architecture and many other
   elements vary considerably, even within a single complex. It is for this
   reason that it is not possible, at this moment in time, at least without very
   detailed and comprehensive analysis, to discern some regularities or patterns
   which could, with any certainty, be considered reliable. This primeval
   custom, therefore, cannot be linked to any particular period, culture or
   region, but was entirely dependent on the state or level of the spiritual
   consciousness of an individual or a community. This religious idea started to
   decline during the Roman domination and vanished entirely at the time of
   Christianity.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "The phenomenon of prehistoric ritual pits: Several examples from the central Balkans",
pages = "35-7",
number = "65",
doi = "10.2298/STA1565007B",
url = "conv_631"
}
Bulatović, A.. (2015). The phenomenon of prehistoric ritual pits: Several examples from the central Balkans. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(65), 7-35.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1565007B
conv_631
Bulatović A. The phenomenon of prehistoric ritual pits: Several examples from the central Balkans. in Starinar. 2015;(65):7-35.
doi:10.2298/STA1565007B
conv_631 .
Bulatović, Aleksandar, "The phenomenon of prehistoric ritual pits: Several examples from the central Balkans" in Starinar, no. 65 (2015):7-35,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1565007B .,
conv_631 .
2

Horizon of the late roman necropolises with rectangular and circular kernoi in southeastern Serbia, eastern Macedonia and western Bulgaria

Bulatović, Aleksandar

(Nous Publishers Ltd., 2015)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
PY  - 2015
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/219
AB  - In recent years at Late Roman necropolises in the mountainous area of southeastern Serbia, southwestern Bulgaria, and eastern Macedonia, unusual coarse shallow vessels with rectangular and circular bases have been found. The same funerary rites and pottery types are attested at cemeteries in all of these areas. These data suggest a very conservative population whose culture was based on prehistoric traditions. According to funerary customs and pottery analogies as well as historical sources, we try to determine the ethnicity of the population buried in these cemeteries.
PB  - Nous Publishers Ltd.
T2  - Archaeologia Bulgarica
T1  - Horizon of the late roman necropolises with rectangular and circular kernoi in southeastern Serbia, eastern Macedonia and western Bulgaria
EP  - 51
IS  - 1
SP  - 33
VL  - 19
UR  - conv_568
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bulatović, Aleksandar",
year = "2015",
abstract = "In recent years at Late Roman necropolises in the mountainous area of southeastern Serbia, southwestern Bulgaria, and eastern Macedonia, unusual coarse shallow vessels with rectangular and circular bases have been found. The same funerary rites and pottery types are attested at cemeteries in all of these areas. These data suggest a very conservative population whose culture was based on prehistoric traditions. According to funerary customs and pottery analogies as well as historical sources, we try to determine the ethnicity of the population buried in these cemeteries.",
publisher = "Nous Publishers Ltd.",
journal = "Archaeologia Bulgarica",
title = "Horizon of the late roman necropolises with rectangular and circular kernoi in southeastern Serbia, eastern Macedonia and western Bulgaria",
pages = "51-33",
number = "1",
volume = "19",
url = "conv_568"
}
Bulatović, A.. (2015). Horizon of the late roman necropolises with rectangular and circular kernoi in southeastern Serbia, eastern Macedonia and western Bulgaria. in Archaeologia Bulgarica
Nous Publishers Ltd.., 19(1), 33-51.
conv_568
Bulatović A. Horizon of the late roman necropolises with rectangular and circular kernoi in southeastern Serbia, eastern Macedonia and western Bulgaria. in Archaeologia Bulgarica. 2015;19(1):33-51.
conv_568 .
Bulatović, Aleksandar, "Horizon of the late roman necropolises with rectangular and circular kernoi in southeastern Serbia, eastern Macedonia and western Bulgaria" in Archaeologia Bulgarica, 19, no. 1 (2015):33-51,
conv_568 .

Paleopathological changes in an early iron age horse skeleton from the Central Balkans (Serbia)

Bulatović, Jelena; Bulatović, Aleksandar; Marković, Nemanja

(Elsevier Science Inc, New York, 2014)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bulatović, Jelena
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Marković, Nemanja
PY  - 2014
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/218
AB  - During a rescue archeological excavation in 2012 at the site of Ranutovac-Meaniste near Vranje, southern Serbia, remains of an Early Iron Age (Hallstatt B-C) settlement were revealed. In one of the settlement pits a complete horse skeleton was discovered. The skeleton belongs to a mare, aged 4-5 years at death. In this paper, paleopathological changes in the horse skeleton are described and analyzed using macroscopic, radiographic and scanning electron microscopy techniques to interpret the possible use of the animal. Potential bitting damage is observed in the lower second premolars (P-2) and mandibular diastema. Several pathologies are recorded in thoracic (T10-17) and lumbar vertebrae (L-1). Paleopathological changes in forelimbs are restricted to the lower leg bones. Bone changes in the hind-limbs, beside the metatarsals and the first phalanges, are also observed in the right femur, right calcaneum and both tibiae. These paleopathological changes were caused by chronic inflammation of ligaments as a consequence of the intensive exploitation of the animal, most likely riding. This paper is one of the first publications of animal paleopathology in Serbia and the first identified example of coxofemoral osteochondrosis in horse in the paleopathological literature.
PB  - Elsevier Science Inc, New York
T2  - International Journal of Paleopathology
T1  - Paleopathological changes in an early iron age horse skeleton from the Central Balkans (Serbia)
EP  - 82
SP  - 76
VL  - 7
DO  - 10.1016/j.ijpp.2014.07.001
UR  - conv_327
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bulatović, Jelena and Bulatović, Aleksandar and Marković, Nemanja",
year = "2014",
abstract = "During a rescue archeological excavation in 2012 at the site of Ranutovac-Meaniste near Vranje, southern Serbia, remains of an Early Iron Age (Hallstatt B-C) settlement were revealed. In one of the settlement pits a complete horse skeleton was discovered. The skeleton belongs to a mare, aged 4-5 years at death. In this paper, paleopathological changes in the horse skeleton are described and analyzed using macroscopic, radiographic and scanning electron microscopy techniques to interpret the possible use of the animal. Potential bitting damage is observed in the lower second premolars (P-2) and mandibular diastema. Several pathologies are recorded in thoracic (T10-17) and lumbar vertebrae (L-1). Paleopathological changes in forelimbs are restricted to the lower leg bones. Bone changes in the hind-limbs, beside the metatarsals and the first phalanges, are also observed in the right femur, right calcaneum and both tibiae. These paleopathological changes were caused by chronic inflammation of ligaments as a consequence of the intensive exploitation of the animal, most likely riding. This paper is one of the first publications of animal paleopathology in Serbia and the first identified example of coxofemoral osteochondrosis in horse in the paleopathological literature.",
publisher = "Elsevier Science Inc, New York",
journal = "International Journal of Paleopathology",
title = "Paleopathological changes in an early iron age horse skeleton from the Central Balkans (Serbia)",
pages = "82-76",
volume = "7",
doi = "10.1016/j.ijpp.2014.07.001",
url = "conv_327"
}
Bulatović, J., Bulatović, A.,& Marković, N.. (2014). Paleopathological changes in an early iron age horse skeleton from the Central Balkans (Serbia). in International Journal of Paleopathology
Elsevier Science Inc, New York., 7, 76-82.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpp.2014.07.001
conv_327
Bulatović J, Bulatović A, Marković N. Paleopathological changes in an early iron age horse skeleton from the Central Balkans (Serbia). in International Journal of Paleopathology. 2014;7:76-82.
doi:10.1016/j.ijpp.2014.07.001
conv_327 .
Bulatović, Jelena, Bulatović, Aleksandar, Marković, Nemanja, "Paleopathological changes in an early iron age horse skeleton from the Central Balkans (Serbia)" in International Journal of Paleopathology, 7 (2014):76-82,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpp.2014.07.001 .,
conv_327 .
1
4
3
6

New finds as a contribution to the study of the early bronze age in the southern part of the central Balkans

Bulatović, Aleksandar

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2014)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
PY  - 2014
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/215
AB  - In this paper, new sites are presented which were explored throughout the
   protective excavations conducted along the E 75 motorway, as well as new
   indicative finds from the sites in north-eastern Macedonia. These results
   will complete the picture of life in the Early Bronze Age communities of the
   territory of Southern Pomoravlje and Gornja Pčinja, as well as that of their
   relationship with the neighbouring populations. Of particular importance are
   the results of the investigation of this territory’s first explored
   necropolis from this period, which enriched our knowledge of the spiritual
   life of these communities.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - New finds as a contribution to the study of the early bronze age in the southern part of the central Balkans
EP  - 75
IS  - 64
SP  - 57
DO  - 10.2298/STA1464057B
UR  - conv_666
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bulatović, Aleksandar",
year = "2014",
abstract = "In this paper, new sites are presented which were explored throughout the
   protective excavations conducted along the E 75 motorway, as well as new
   indicative finds from the sites in north-eastern Macedonia. These results
   will complete the picture of life in the Early Bronze Age communities of the
   territory of Southern Pomoravlje and Gornja Pčinja, as well as that of their
   relationship with the neighbouring populations. Of particular importance are
   the results of the investigation of this territory’s first explored
   necropolis from this period, which enriched our knowledge of the spiritual
   life of these communities.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "New finds as a contribution to the study of the early bronze age in the southern part of the central Balkans",
pages = "75-57",
number = "64",
doi = "10.2298/STA1464057B",
url = "conv_666"
}
Bulatović, A.. (2014). New finds as a contribution to the study of the early bronze age in the southern part of the central Balkans. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(64), 57-75.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1464057B
conv_666
Bulatović A. New finds as a contribution to the study of the early bronze age in the southern part of the central Balkans. in Starinar. 2014;(64):57-75.
doi:10.2298/STA1464057B
conv_666 .
Bulatović, Aleksandar, "New finds as a contribution to the study of the early bronze age in the southern part of the central Balkans" in Starinar, no. 64 (2014):57-75,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1464057B .,
conv_666 .
1

Placer Tin Ores from Mt. Cer, West Serbia, and Their Potential Exploitation during the Bronze Age

Huska, A.; Powell, Wayne; Mitrović, S.; Bankoff, Arthur H.; Bulatović, Aleksandar; Filipović, Vojislav; Boger, R.

(Wiley, Hoboken, 2014)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Huska, A.
AU  - Powell, Wayne
AU  - Mitrović, S.
AU  - Bankoff, Arthur H.
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Filipović, Vojislav
AU  - Boger, R.
PY  - 2014
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/206
AB  - Tin is a rare metal that is essential for making bronze, the defining technology of the Bronze Age. The source(s) of tin for Aegean bronze is undetermined but several small Bronze Age tin mines have been documented in the circum-Aegean region. The discovery of Bronze Age archaeological sites in West Serbia near a tin placer deposit on the flanks of Mt. Cer led to an investigation of this site as a potential additional Bronze Age tin mine in the region. Geochemical prospecting of stream sediments flowing from Mt. Cer allowed for categorization of streams based on relative tin grade. Tin grade is highest in the Milinska River, a likely combination of a broad catchment area with multiple ore-bearing tributaries, and a topographic profile that favors the accumulation of placer deposits. A survey of cornfields along the southern pluton margin discovered archaeological sites spanning the Neolithic to the Iron Age. Unlike older and younger sites, those of the Bronze Age were found only along the Milinska and Cernica Rivers where placer tin grades are highest, but appear to be absent where tin is scarce or absent. This suggests that these sites were associated with the exploitation of the tin ore.
PB  - Wiley, Hoboken
T2  - Geoarchaeology-An International Journal
T1  - Placer Tin Ores from Mt. Cer, West Serbia, and Their Potential Exploitation during the Bronze Age
EP  - 493
IS  - 6
SP  - 477
VL  - 29
DO  - 10.1002/gea.21488
UR  - conv_373
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Huska, A. and Powell, Wayne and Mitrović, S. and Bankoff, Arthur H. and Bulatović, Aleksandar and Filipović, Vojislav and Boger, R.",
year = "2014",
abstract = "Tin is a rare metal that is essential for making bronze, the defining technology of the Bronze Age. The source(s) of tin for Aegean bronze is undetermined but several small Bronze Age tin mines have been documented in the circum-Aegean region. The discovery of Bronze Age archaeological sites in West Serbia near a tin placer deposit on the flanks of Mt. Cer led to an investigation of this site as a potential additional Bronze Age tin mine in the region. Geochemical prospecting of stream sediments flowing from Mt. Cer allowed for categorization of streams based on relative tin grade. Tin grade is highest in the Milinska River, a likely combination of a broad catchment area with multiple ore-bearing tributaries, and a topographic profile that favors the accumulation of placer deposits. A survey of cornfields along the southern pluton margin discovered archaeological sites spanning the Neolithic to the Iron Age. Unlike older and younger sites, those of the Bronze Age were found only along the Milinska and Cernica Rivers where placer tin grades are highest, but appear to be absent where tin is scarce or absent. This suggests that these sites were associated with the exploitation of the tin ore.",
publisher = "Wiley, Hoboken",
journal = "Geoarchaeology-An International Journal",
title = "Placer Tin Ores from Mt. Cer, West Serbia, and Their Potential Exploitation during the Bronze Age",
pages = "493-477",
number = "6",
volume = "29",
doi = "10.1002/gea.21488",
url = "conv_373"
}
Huska, A., Powell, W., Mitrović, S., Bankoff, A. H., Bulatović, A., Filipović, V.,& Boger, R.. (2014). Placer Tin Ores from Mt. Cer, West Serbia, and Their Potential Exploitation during the Bronze Age. in Geoarchaeology-An International Journal
Wiley, Hoboken., 29(6), 477-493.
https://doi.org/10.1002/gea.21488
conv_373
Huska A, Powell W, Mitrović S, Bankoff AH, Bulatović A, Filipović V, Boger R. Placer Tin Ores from Mt. Cer, West Serbia, and Their Potential Exploitation during the Bronze Age. in Geoarchaeology-An International Journal. 2014;29(6):477-493.
doi:10.1002/gea.21488
conv_373 .
Huska, A., Powell, Wayne, Mitrović, S., Bankoff, Arthur H., Bulatović, Aleksandar, Filipović, Vojislav, Boger, R., "Placer Tin Ores from Mt. Cer, West Serbia, and Their Potential Exploitation during the Bronze Age" in Geoarchaeology-An International Journal, 29, no. 6 (2014):477-493,
https://doi.org/10.1002/gea.21488 .,
conv_373 .
10
4
13

Corded Ware in the Central and Southern Balkans: A Consequence of Cultural Interaction or an Indication of Ethnic Change?

Bulatović, Aleksandar

(Institute for the Study of Man, 2014)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
PY  - 2014
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/211
AB  - The analysis of corded ware and accompanying artifacts reveals the nature of its appearance across the Central and Southern Balkan Eneolithic during three cultural-chronological horizons. The first horizon corresponds to the Early Eneolithic, namely the Bubanj-Salcuta-Krivodol cultural complex (BSK), while the second corresponds to the Cotofeni culture. The third horizon, showing chronological continuity with the second, and set within the Late Eneolithic/ Early Bronze Age, has a site distribution that encompasses the territory of nearly the entire Balkan Peninsula, where corded ware is found together with other steppe elements which are present in large numbers, such are burials under mounds and the appearance of the domestic horse.
PB  - Institute for the Study of Man
T2  - Journal of Indo-European Studies
T1  - Corded Ware in the Central and Southern Balkans: A Consequence of Cultural Interaction or an Indication of Ethnic Change?
EP  - 143
IS  - 1-2
SP  - 101
VL  - 42
UR  - conv_504
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bulatović, Aleksandar",
year = "2014",
abstract = "The analysis of corded ware and accompanying artifacts reveals the nature of its appearance across the Central and Southern Balkan Eneolithic during three cultural-chronological horizons. The first horizon corresponds to the Early Eneolithic, namely the Bubanj-Salcuta-Krivodol cultural complex (BSK), while the second corresponds to the Cotofeni culture. The third horizon, showing chronological continuity with the second, and set within the Late Eneolithic/ Early Bronze Age, has a site distribution that encompasses the territory of nearly the entire Balkan Peninsula, where corded ware is found together with other steppe elements which are present in large numbers, such are burials under mounds and the appearance of the domestic horse.",
publisher = "Institute for the Study of Man",
journal = "Journal of Indo-European Studies",
title = "Corded Ware in the Central and Southern Balkans: A Consequence of Cultural Interaction or an Indication of Ethnic Change?",
pages = "143-101",
number = "1-2",
volume = "42",
url = "conv_504"
}
Bulatović, A.. (2014). Corded Ware in the Central and Southern Balkans: A Consequence of Cultural Interaction or an Indication of Ethnic Change?. in Journal of Indo-European Studies
Institute for the Study of Man., 42(1-2), 101-143.
conv_504
Bulatović A. Corded Ware in the Central and Southern Balkans: A Consequence of Cultural Interaction or an Indication of Ethnic Change?. in Journal of Indo-European Studies. 2014;42(1-2):101-143.
conv_504 .
Bulatović, Aleksandar, "Corded Ware in the Central and Southern Balkans: A Consequence of Cultural Interaction or an Indication of Ethnic Change?" in Journal of Indo-European Studies, 42, no. 1-2 (2014):101-143,
conv_504 .
2
7

Praistorijski lokaliteti na trasi autoputa E 75 - prethodni izveštaj

Bulatović, Aleksandar; Kapuran, Aleksandar

(Narodni muzej, Leskovac, 2013)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
PY  - 2013
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/173
AB  - During the 2011 - 2012 The Archaeological Institute, Belgrade and the Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Philosophy in Belgrade conducted rescue excavations on a section of the E 75 Grabovnica near Leskovac and Bujanovac in Levosoj. Nine prehistoric sites, listed in this paper, were explored. Ranutovac, Meanište arch. site, Vranje (Map 1/1). The site contains the remains of people burned in funeral pyres, dates back to the Early Bronze Age(photo 1, Fig. 1-4), the village from the Early Iron Age(Fig. 5-7) and the settlement from the late phase of the early Iron Age (fig. 8-10). Donji Neradovac, Golo rebro arch. site, Vranje (Map 1/2); remains dates back to the Early Bronze Age(Fig. 11). Pavlovac, Kovačke njive site, Vranje (Map 1/3; 2 photos). Settlements from the Neolithic period (Starčevačka and The Vinča culture - photos 11, 12) and the Early Iron Age (Fig. 14, 15). Pavlovac, site Čukar, Vranje (Map 1/4). Settlements from the Neolithic period (Starčevačka and The Vinča culture) and the Early Iron Age. Pavlovac, site Gumnište Vranje (card 1/5). Settlements date back to the Middle and Late Neolithic. Davidovac, location site of the church, Vranje (Map 1/6). The settlement from the Early Iron Age (fig. 16-23). Davidovac, Gradište, Bujanovac (card 1/7). The burial dates back to the early Bronze Age settlements from the Late Bronze Age (fig. 24, 25) and the early Iron Age (fig. 26-28). Karadnik, Kamenjarke arch. site , Bujanovac (map 1/8). The settlement from the Early Iron Age. Oslare, Vučjak arch. site , Bujanovac (Map 1/9). The settlement dates back to the Early / late Iron Age.
PB  - Narodni muzej, Leskovac
T2  - Leskovački zbornik
T1  - Praistorijski lokaliteti na trasi autoputa E 75 - prethodni izveštaj
T1  - Prehistoric sites along highway 75 E: A preliminary report
EP  - 21
IS  - 53
SP  - 12
UR  - conv_281
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bulatović, Aleksandar and Kapuran, Aleksandar",
year = "2013",
abstract = "During the 2011 - 2012 The Archaeological Institute, Belgrade and the Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Philosophy in Belgrade conducted rescue excavations on a section of the E 75 Grabovnica near Leskovac and Bujanovac in Levosoj. Nine prehistoric sites, listed in this paper, were explored. Ranutovac, Meanište arch. site, Vranje (Map 1/1). The site contains the remains of people burned in funeral pyres, dates back to the Early Bronze Age(photo 1, Fig. 1-4), the village from the Early Iron Age(Fig. 5-7) and the settlement from the late phase of the early Iron Age (fig. 8-10). Donji Neradovac, Golo rebro arch. site, Vranje (Map 1/2); remains dates back to the Early Bronze Age(Fig. 11). Pavlovac, Kovačke njive site, Vranje (Map 1/3; 2 photos). Settlements from the Neolithic period (Starčevačka and The Vinča culture - photos 11, 12) and the Early Iron Age (Fig. 14, 15). Pavlovac, site Čukar, Vranje (Map 1/4). Settlements from the Neolithic period (Starčevačka and The Vinča culture) and the Early Iron Age. Pavlovac, site Gumnište Vranje (card 1/5). Settlements date back to the Middle and Late Neolithic. Davidovac, location site of the church, Vranje (Map 1/6). The settlement from the Early Iron Age (fig. 16-23). Davidovac, Gradište, Bujanovac (card 1/7). The burial dates back to the early Bronze Age settlements from the Late Bronze Age (fig. 24, 25) and the early Iron Age (fig. 26-28). Karadnik, Kamenjarke arch. site , Bujanovac (map 1/8). The settlement from the Early Iron Age. Oslare, Vučjak arch. site , Bujanovac (Map 1/9). The settlement dates back to the Early / late Iron Age.",
publisher = "Narodni muzej, Leskovac",
journal = "Leskovački zbornik",
title = "Praistorijski lokaliteti na trasi autoputa E 75 - prethodni izveštaj, Prehistoric sites along highway 75 E: A preliminary report",
pages = "21-12",
number = "53",
url = "conv_281"
}
Bulatović, A.,& Kapuran, A.. (2013). Praistorijski lokaliteti na trasi autoputa E 75 - prethodni izveštaj. in Leskovački zbornik
Narodni muzej, Leskovac.(53), 12-21.
conv_281
Bulatović A, Kapuran A. Praistorijski lokaliteti na trasi autoputa E 75 - prethodni izveštaj. in Leskovački zbornik. 2013;(53):12-21.
conv_281 .
Bulatović, Aleksandar, Kapuran, Aleksandar, "Praistorijski lokaliteti na trasi autoputa E 75 - prethodni izveštaj" in Leskovački zbornik, no. 53 (2013):12-21,
conv_281 .

Oven models from early bronze age settlements in central and southern parts of the Balkan Peninsula

Bulatović, Aleksandar

(Nous Publishers Ltd., 2013)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
PY  - 2013
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/201
PB  - Nous Publishers Ltd.
T2  - Archaeologia Bulgarica
T1  - Oven models from early bronze age settlements in central and southern parts of the Balkan Peninsula
EP  - 13
IS  - 1
SP  - 1
VL  - 17
UR  - conv_590
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bulatović, Aleksandar",
year = "2013",
publisher = "Nous Publishers Ltd.",
journal = "Archaeologia Bulgarica",
title = "Oven models from early bronze age settlements in central and southern parts of the Balkan Peninsula",
pages = "13-1",
number = "1",
volume = "17",
url = "conv_590"
}
Bulatović, A.. (2013). Oven models from early bronze age settlements in central and southern parts of the Balkan Peninsula. in Archaeologia Bulgarica
Nous Publishers Ltd.., 17(1), 1-13.
conv_590
Bulatović A. Oven models from early bronze age settlements in central and southern parts of the Balkan Peninsula. in Archaeologia Bulgarica. 2013;17(1):1-13.
conv_590 .
Bulatović, Aleksandar, "Oven models from early bronze age settlements in central and southern parts of the Balkan Peninsula" in Archaeologia Bulgarica, 17, no. 1 (2013):1-13,
conv_590 .
3

Kulturna grupa Kocofeni-Kostolac na teritoriji severoistočne Srbije

Kapuran, Aleksandar; Bulatović, Aleksandar

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2012)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
PY  - 2012
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/165
AB  - Poslednjih godina se pokazalo da na teritoriji Srbije postoji mnogo veći broj lokaliteta Kocofeni kulturne grupe nego što je publikovano pre jedne ili više decenija. Objedinjavanjem nepublikovanih podataka i dokumentacije sa arheoloških iskopavanja i rekognosciranja, kao i apsolutnim datumima dobijenim poslednjih godina, stvorena je potreba da se u nekim aspektima koriguju i bolje sagledaju rasprostranjenost, način života i trajanje ove kulturne grupe na prostoru severoistočne Srbije, gde je ona i najprisutnija. Osim nalaza materijalne kulture, u radu su prezentovane topografske karakteristike naselja koja su sada u najvećem procentu georeferencirana. Ovaj rad, takođe, predstavlja pokušaj da se pojasne neke od dilema vezanih za društveno-ekonomski i tehnološki razvoj populacija kasnog bakarnog i ranog bronzanog doba.
AB  - The settlement of the territory of north-eastern Serbia by the representatives of the Coţofeni culture began during the second half of the IV millennium, probably under the pressure of invading tribes from Euroasian steppe. This territory extended over Transylvania, Banat, Oltenia and Muntenia (Map 2). On the territory of Serbia they settled from the Djrerdap gorge up to the Mlava river to the west, and through Kučajske mountains, Bor, Zaječar and further to the south, up to Niš. Aspecific symbiosis occurred on the territory of Serbia between the Coţofeni and the Kostolac cultures. According to the results of the latest project of re-identification, the number of Coţofeni-Kostolac sites and settlements increased to 76. After all the sites were re-identified and georeferenced, with consideration of the surrounding landscape, hydrography, geomorphology of the terrain and the character of the ceramic production finds, we believe that there is a need for re-analyzing specific aspects of the cultural and geographic development not only of settlements, but of the entire Coţofeni-Kostolac cultural phenomenon. In this paper we considered three archaeological sites in the Nišava valley, given that re-identification work over the past several years yielded new information (Bubanj-Staro Selo, Velika Humska čuka and Donja Vrežina). The topography of Coţofeni-Kostolac settlements on the territory of north-eastern Serbia, the Serbian part of the Danube valley and its hinterland, is characterized by diversity of position (location above sea level and landscape placement), types of houses and economic survival. In the 70’s of the last century sites were identified that are located in very inaccessible terrain, which in particular cases has an slope incline of 45°, where the number of such settlements in the meantime increased to nine. They are represented by Kulmja Škjopuluji in Klokočevac and Pjatra Kosti in Crnajka (T. I/1-2; Map 1/9), followed by Vratna -Veliki most (T. I/ 7; Map 1/33), Bogovina-above a cave (T. I/ 4; Map 1/8), Jezero (T. I/ 3; Map 1/12), Kljanc (T. I/3; Map 1/11), Turija-Stenje (T. I/ 6; Map 1/22), Mokranjske stene-quarry (T. I/ 5; Map 1/39) and Bolvan (T. I/ 8; Map 1/66). These settlements have several other common elements, the most important being that each one of the elevated settlements is positioned on the rocky peak of a canyon, in places where smaller rivers or brooks flow into a larger river. We can suppose how the selection of such positions was of strategic importance, given that in the mountainous area of north-eastern Serbia the system of waterways and river valleys represents communicational links from prehistory to modern times. The second common characteristic of these settlements is the rocky massif which provided the foundation for their erection. The rock foundation in the majority of cases is of limestone origin and is well suited to artificial nivelation into terraces atop which surface structures could be built using wood covered with mud (Jezero, Kulmja Škjopuluji, Pjatra Kosti, Vratna, Bogovina). The third shared characteristic is that one or more caves are usually located in the immediate vicinity of settlements. An example of the symbiosis of cave and hill fort Coţofeni-Kostolac settlements is the vicinity of the Zavojsko jezero near Majdanpek. So far two hill fort settlements, Jezero and Kljanc (T. I/3; Map 1/11-12), were identified in this area, built on limestone cliffs above the Mali Pek river. The Rajkova cave (Map 1/14), Paskova cave and Kapetanova cave (Map 1/13) are located in their immediate vicinity, in which the remains of anthropogenic activity were discovered. The Kapetanova cave provides stratigraphy of over 3 m high, which represents a rare case for Coţofeni-Kostolac cultural sites. This fact does not only indicate its long-term use, but could provide the answer to the genesis and duration of this cultural phenomenon on the territory of the Serbian part of the Djerdap hinterland. The fourth shared characteristic which links these settlements is their dominant position in the landscape. Given that their position and appearance are readily visible from a considerable distance, they probably were not used for hiding, but for making their position prominent. We suppose that pastoral communities emphasized in this manner their control of mountain crosspass and roads, particularly in places where rivers exit narrow canyons in important communications paths to the Crni and Beli Timok, Pek and Danuber rivers. The other Coţofeni-Kostolac type settlement on the territory of north-eastern Serbia is represented by settlements that are positioned on smaller hills or on gentle slopes that on the average range between 336 and 210 m above sea level. The only fortified hill fort settlement discovered so far, Čoka lu Balaš near Krivelj (Map 1/3) belongs to this group. The archaeological sites Velika Čuka i Neresnica (Map 1/23), Smiljkova glavica in Štubik (Map 1/31) and Ćetaće in Kovilovo (Map 1/38) are located on wide and flat, elevated plateaus that dominate up on river valleys. Judging by the considerable surface that they occupy, their position and surroundings for these two settlements, we can suppose that they could have been used for wintering places or points for gathering of flocks and shepherds during pauses between seasonal migrations. They are primarily characterized by the natural surroundings of smaller hills and larger river valleys, as well as the relatively low above sea level elevation on which they are located. Such 'seasonal stations or checkpoints' on which larger groups of shepherds could gather with their flocks during the winter months represented important locations in the lives of pastoral communities. During the warm summer period, homesteads with stable architecture are abandoned because of migrations into mountain areas, where favourable grazing areas area located. Certain groups of shepherds during autumn returned to these settlements en route to lowlands and river terraces, while other groups probably continued their journey to gathering centres in valleys near the Danube and the Timok rivers. The next type of settlement belongs to high, multi-layered settlements (Arija baba-Košobrdo, Čoka Kormaroš, Field of Z. Brzanović, Varzari and Smedovac-Grabar-Svračar) which represent sunbathed dominant positions, with a good view of the surrounding area, well suited to long-term occupation. Settlements on high elevations of this type are usually linked with landscapes that predominate in grazing areas and in which there are no large forests. The last type of Coţofeni-Kostolac settlement is characteristic of lowland settlements positioned on river terraces. The settlements on the right bank of the Danube, around Ključ (Kladovo- Brodoimpeks, Mala Vrbica, Zbradila-Fund, Korbovo- Obala, Vajuga-Pesak, Jakomirski potok estuary, Velesnica, Ljubič evac-river bank, Ljubičevac-Island, Brzi prun, Slatinska reka estuary, Knjepište, Ruženjka, Kusjak-Bordjej, Kusjak-Motel, Kusjak-Vrkalj), represented points at which shepherd’s flocks could remain for longer periods, waiting for favourable conditions for crossing to the other side of the river. This assumption is based on old maps predating the construction of the accumulation lake. These maps indicate that in the immediate vicinity of these settlements were located small sand islands linked to the river bank, pointing to shallows and crossing points. These sections of the river bank, during prolonged droughts or during cold winters, when ice was formed, could have been places where the river was crossed from one side to the other. Residential architecture cannot be precisely defined, given that the discovered remains of houses are very meagre and lack sufficient elements for reconstruction. The most recent excavations on the Bubanj-Staro Selo settlemant at Niš, indicate an identical type of architectural construction as discovered at Gomolava and Bordjej which represents structures that are characteristic for lowland areas. Houses in hill fort settlements built on artificial terraces have been mostly devastated by erosion, so that judging by the impressions of wooden structures and wattle and daub, as well as the remains of hearths, it can be asserted that these were residential structures. Numerous studies so far noted that based on the stylistic and typological characteristics of ceramics on archaeological sites in Timočka Krajina it is possible to distinguish between two phases of the Coţofeni group, where the first is dominated by ornamental techniques of carving that are characteristic of the Coţofeni group, and a later phase in which this style is mixed with the furchenstich, as well as other Kostolac cultural elements (furchenstich, certain types of ceramics, etc.). The fact is that the majority of Coţofeni-Kostolac group sites in eastern Serbia have not been excavated, or have only been partially excavated, and that no vertical stratigraphy had been observed, where no stratigraphic relationship between stylistic-topological characteristics of older ceramics (Coţofeni) and the more recent phase (Coţofeni-Kostolac) have been established. These are mostly settlements in which ceramics were observed with elements both of the Kostolac and the Coţofeni group, or only with elements of the Coţofeni group, while settlements with only Kostolac ceramics have not been identified. Therefore, in Serbia it is only possible to distinguish between sites where furchenstich ornamentation has been observed and those where this type of ornamentation still has not been observed. Still, it is unclear whether this distinction can be applied to period assignment, or whether it is in fact caused by settlement of different populations in different regions of Eastern Serbia - the Kostolac region from the west and the Coţofeni group from the East. In Romania, however, vertical stratigraphy was observed at several settlements where development phases were observed of the Coţofeni group, so that based on the stratigraphy at those sites, with certain caution, it is possible to draw conclusions about the development of the Coţofeni-Kostolac group in eastern Serbia. Settlements without any furchenstich ornamentation would be assigned to the older phase (Coţofeni group) where ceramics characteristic of the Coţofeni group have been observed, although observed shapes and ornaments are usually associated with the furchenstich technique and the more recent phase of the group. The most frequent type of vessels at sites in eastern Serbia are amphorae with extended funnel shaped necks, ornamented below the neck with carved lines or with stamped ornamentation (fig. 6, 21, 38, 64, 71, 89, 98-100, 104, 109, 115, 116, 134), fishbone shape impressions (fig. 4, 28), and in the more recent period furchenstich ornamentation or point impressions (fig. 9, 20, 25, 140), with a tongue shaped or vertically perforated handle, tunnel shaped or horse-shoe shaped handle below the rim (fig. 6, 9, 20, 21, 51, 63, 100, 126, 134, 88, 115 ). The second characteristic type of vessel are semi-spherical bowls with deeper recipients, with flat rims (fig. 11, 12, 23, 27, 29, 52-54, 57, 59-60, 74, 79, 81, 82, 90, 91, 95, 113, 124, 125, 131 and 145), or with shallower recipients, with a slanted, triangular rim or T-shaped profiled rim (14, 19, 133 and 146). Such vessels are characteristic for both phases, because they are ornamented, besides vertical ribs, with carves, and with furchenstich ornamentation (fig. 23, 68, 81 and 82). The third type of vessels are semi-spherical bowls with contracted rims creating a nearly spherical shape. They can be ornamented with vertical ribs on rims (fig. 148) in combination with pinholes (fig. 17), carves (fig. 61, 84, 85) or line impressions (fig. 132). Less frequent vessels on the territory of northeastern Serbia are biconical or spherical goblets, followed by pare-shaped goblets with a single handle, larger pare-shaped amphorae with an extended or conical neck, with small handles below the rim, ornamented with a series of carves (fig. 39, 86), as well as barrel or spherical pots ornamented with carves, horizontal tapes or circular impressions (fig. 45-47, 141, 142). The appearance of ropeshape ornaments is very significant, given that they appear in Rumanian finds in the second phase of the Coţofeni group, and most frequently in the third phase. This ornament was sporadically observed in the far south, on the Dikili Taš site on the northern shore of the Aegean sea, in level 6, which according to the author belongs chronologically to the Bubanj-Hum II group and the Kostolac group. Its presence at sites in eastern Serbia can be linked to the older phase at the majority of settlements, except in the case of Grabar-Svračar, as these ceramics were not found alongside ceramics with furchenstich. The largest number of sites with only Coţofeni elements on ceramics have been observed (34), but it is indicative that only a few have been excavated. 28 sites with Kostolac group elements were noted, while 17 unspecified sites in which the period cannot be precisely defined have been identified. According to the stratigraphy of several of the mentioned sites in western Bulgaria, in the Morava valley and in southern Romania it can be concluded that the Coţofeni group (northeastern Serbia and Romania) and the Coţofeni-Kostolac group (Morava valley and western Bulgaria), in all of the mentioned regions, was preceded by the Černavoda III group, and was superseded by the Vučedol culture and the Bubanj-Hum II group in the Morava valle and the Struma valley, and the Glina II-Schnekenber group in Oltenija and the territory of Transylvania and the southern Carpathians. Analysis of the distribution of settlements and stylistictopological characteristics of ceramics from all of the settlements led to the conclusion that the oldest settlements, without ceramics with furchenstich ornamentation, were established in Ključ in Negotinska Krajina, leading to the assumption that the representatives of the Coţofeni group came from Oltenia and from the southern Carpathians. A large number fo sites west of Ključ, along the Danube, at which ceramics with furchenstich ornamentation were noted, point to the direction of expansion of Kostolac elements, from Banat, Branicevo and Stig. The influence of the Kostolac group was very strong starting in the Coţofeni II phase, even in Romanian sites, given that in Transylvania and in the southern Carpathians a large number of ceramic finds were found with furchenstich ornamentation, while it is interesting that only sporadic appearances were noted in Oltenia. It is clear that Coţofeni group settlements represented a certain barrier to the expansion of these elements to the east. With the formation of the Coţofeni-Kostolac group which was created through contacts between representatives of the Coţofeni to the east and the representatives of the Kostolac group to the west and north-west a short period of coexistence occurred on this territory. Absolute dating of the chronological framework of the Coţofeni-Kostolac group in the Danube valley and in eastern Serbia can only be assigned indirectly, as there is no carbon dating available from these sites. According to J. Bojačijev, phase II-III of the Coţofeni group (4400-4300 bp) can be assigned chronologically approximately to the same period as the Kostolac group (4500-4100 bp), and if we suppose that the Coţofeni-Kostolac group occurred a little while after the occurrence of the Kostolac group, it can be concluded that the Coţofeni-Kostolac group existed at the end of the IV and the first half of the III millennium BC, although it is possible that it continued even later in particular regions. The results for the oldest and the middle phase of the Kostolac cultural group at Gomolava range between 3038-2903 BC and 3108-2877 BC, while the Kostolac culture at the Streim and Vučedol sits was dated 3310-2920 BC, as is the approximate dating of settlements of this group in Pivnica (3042-2857 BC). All the dating of Kostolac group sites indicate that this cultural group occurred and developed in the period of the last quarter of the IV and the first half of the III millennium BC, which would chronologically assign the Coţofeni-Kostolac group in the Morava valley and Timočka Krajina to the end of the IV and the start of the III millennium BC, and to the ensuing period.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Kulturna grupa Kocofeni-Kostolac na teritoriji severoistočne Srbije
T1  - Coţofeni-Kostolac culture on the territory of north-eastern Serbia
EP  - 94
IS  - 62
SP  - 65
DO  - 10.2298/STA1262065K
UR  - conv_656
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Kapuran, Aleksandar and Bulatović, Aleksandar",
year = "2012",
abstract = "Poslednjih godina se pokazalo da na teritoriji Srbije postoji mnogo veći broj lokaliteta Kocofeni kulturne grupe nego što je publikovano pre jedne ili više decenija. Objedinjavanjem nepublikovanih podataka i dokumentacije sa arheoloških iskopavanja i rekognosciranja, kao i apsolutnim datumima dobijenim poslednjih godina, stvorena je potreba da se u nekim aspektima koriguju i bolje sagledaju rasprostranjenost, način života i trajanje ove kulturne grupe na prostoru severoistočne Srbije, gde je ona i najprisutnija. Osim nalaza materijalne kulture, u radu su prezentovane topografske karakteristike naselja koja su sada u najvećem procentu georeferencirana. Ovaj rad, takođe, predstavlja pokušaj da se pojasne neke od dilema vezanih za društveno-ekonomski i tehnološki razvoj populacija kasnog bakarnog i ranog bronzanog doba., The settlement of the territory of north-eastern Serbia by the representatives of the Coţofeni culture began during the second half of the IV millennium, probably under the pressure of invading tribes from Euroasian steppe. This territory extended over Transylvania, Banat, Oltenia and Muntenia (Map 2). On the territory of Serbia they settled from the Djrerdap gorge up to the Mlava river to the west, and through Kučajske mountains, Bor, Zaječar and further to the south, up to Niš. Aspecific symbiosis occurred on the territory of Serbia between the Coţofeni and the Kostolac cultures. According to the results of the latest project of re-identification, the number of Coţofeni-Kostolac sites and settlements increased to 76. After all the sites were re-identified and georeferenced, with consideration of the surrounding landscape, hydrography, geomorphology of the terrain and the character of the ceramic production finds, we believe that there is a need for re-analyzing specific aspects of the cultural and geographic development not only of settlements, but of the entire Coţofeni-Kostolac cultural phenomenon. In this paper we considered three archaeological sites in the Nišava valley, given that re-identification work over the past several years yielded new information (Bubanj-Staro Selo, Velika Humska čuka and Donja Vrežina). The topography of Coţofeni-Kostolac settlements on the territory of north-eastern Serbia, the Serbian part of the Danube valley and its hinterland, is characterized by diversity of position (location above sea level and landscape placement), types of houses and economic survival. In the 70’s of the last century sites were identified that are located in very inaccessible terrain, which in particular cases has an slope incline of 45°, where the number of such settlements in the meantime increased to nine. They are represented by Kulmja Škjopuluji in Klokočevac and Pjatra Kosti in Crnajka (T. I/1-2; Map 1/9), followed by Vratna -Veliki most (T. I/ 7; Map 1/33), Bogovina-above a cave (T. I/ 4; Map 1/8), Jezero (T. I/ 3; Map 1/12), Kljanc (T. I/3; Map 1/11), Turija-Stenje (T. I/ 6; Map 1/22), Mokranjske stene-quarry (T. I/ 5; Map 1/39) and Bolvan (T. I/ 8; Map 1/66). These settlements have several other common elements, the most important being that each one of the elevated settlements is positioned on the rocky peak of a canyon, in places where smaller rivers or brooks flow into a larger river. We can suppose how the selection of such positions was of strategic importance, given that in the mountainous area of north-eastern Serbia the system of waterways and river valleys represents communicational links from prehistory to modern times. The second common characteristic of these settlements is the rocky massif which provided the foundation for their erection. The rock foundation in the majority of cases is of limestone origin and is well suited to artificial nivelation into terraces atop which surface structures could be built using wood covered with mud (Jezero, Kulmja Škjopuluji, Pjatra Kosti, Vratna, Bogovina). The third shared characteristic is that one or more caves are usually located in the immediate vicinity of settlements. An example of the symbiosis of cave and hill fort Coţofeni-Kostolac settlements is the vicinity of the Zavojsko jezero near Majdanpek. So far two hill fort settlements, Jezero and Kljanc (T. I/3; Map 1/11-12), were identified in this area, built on limestone cliffs above the Mali Pek river. The Rajkova cave (Map 1/14), Paskova cave and Kapetanova cave (Map 1/13) are located in their immediate vicinity, in which the remains of anthropogenic activity were discovered. The Kapetanova cave provides stratigraphy of over 3 m high, which represents a rare case for Coţofeni-Kostolac cultural sites. This fact does not only indicate its long-term use, but could provide the answer to the genesis and duration of this cultural phenomenon on the territory of the Serbian part of the Djerdap hinterland. The fourth shared characteristic which links these settlements is their dominant position in the landscape. Given that their position and appearance are readily visible from a considerable distance, they probably were not used for hiding, but for making their position prominent. We suppose that pastoral communities emphasized in this manner their control of mountain crosspass and roads, particularly in places where rivers exit narrow canyons in important communications paths to the Crni and Beli Timok, Pek and Danuber rivers. The other Coţofeni-Kostolac type settlement on the territory of north-eastern Serbia is represented by settlements that are positioned on smaller hills or on gentle slopes that on the average range between 336 and 210 m above sea level. The only fortified hill fort settlement discovered so far, Čoka lu Balaš near Krivelj (Map 1/3) belongs to this group. The archaeological sites Velika Čuka i Neresnica (Map 1/23), Smiljkova glavica in Štubik (Map 1/31) and Ćetaće in Kovilovo (Map 1/38) are located on wide and flat, elevated plateaus that dominate up on river valleys. Judging by the considerable surface that they occupy, their position and surroundings for these two settlements, we can suppose that they could have been used for wintering places or points for gathering of flocks and shepherds during pauses between seasonal migrations. They are primarily characterized by the natural surroundings of smaller hills and larger river valleys, as well as the relatively low above sea level elevation on which they are located. Such 'seasonal stations or checkpoints' on which larger groups of shepherds could gather with their flocks during the winter months represented important locations in the lives of pastoral communities. During the warm summer period, homesteads with stable architecture are abandoned because of migrations into mountain areas, where favourable grazing areas area located. Certain groups of shepherds during autumn returned to these settlements en route to lowlands and river terraces, while other groups probably continued their journey to gathering centres in valleys near the Danube and the Timok rivers. The next type of settlement belongs to high, multi-layered settlements (Arija baba-Košobrdo, Čoka Kormaroš, Field of Z. Brzanović, Varzari and Smedovac-Grabar-Svračar) which represent sunbathed dominant positions, with a good view of the surrounding area, well suited to long-term occupation. Settlements on high elevations of this type are usually linked with landscapes that predominate in grazing areas and in which there are no large forests. The last type of Coţofeni-Kostolac settlement is characteristic of lowland settlements positioned on river terraces. The settlements on the right bank of the Danube, around Ključ (Kladovo- Brodoimpeks, Mala Vrbica, Zbradila-Fund, Korbovo- Obala, Vajuga-Pesak, Jakomirski potok estuary, Velesnica, Ljubič evac-river bank, Ljubičevac-Island, Brzi prun, Slatinska reka estuary, Knjepište, Ruženjka, Kusjak-Bordjej, Kusjak-Motel, Kusjak-Vrkalj), represented points at which shepherd’s flocks could remain for longer periods, waiting for favourable conditions for crossing to the other side of the river. This assumption is based on old maps predating the construction of the accumulation lake. These maps indicate that in the immediate vicinity of these settlements were located small sand islands linked to the river bank, pointing to shallows and crossing points. These sections of the river bank, during prolonged droughts or during cold winters, when ice was formed, could have been places where the river was crossed from one side to the other. Residential architecture cannot be precisely defined, given that the discovered remains of houses are very meagre and lack sufficient elements for reconstruction. The most recent excavations on the Bubanj-Staro Selo settlemant at Niš, indicate an identical type of architectural construction as discovered at Gomolava and Bordjej which represents structures that are characteristic for lowland areas. Houses in hill fort settlements built on artificial terraces have been mostly devastated by erosion, so that judging by the impressions of wooden structures and wattle and daub, as well as the remains of hearths, it can be asserted that these were residential structures. Numerous studies so far noted that based on the stylistic and typological characteristics of ceramics on archaeological sites in Timočka Krajina it is possible to distinguish between two phases of the Coţofeni group, where the first is dominated by ornamental techniques of carving that are characteristic of the Coţofeni group, and a later phase in which this style is mixed with the furchenstich, as well as other Kostolac cultural elements (furchenstich, certain types of ceramics, etc.). The fact is that the majority of Coţofeni-Kostolac group sites in eastern Serbia have not been excavated, or have only been partially excavated, and that no vertical stratigraphy had been observed, where no stratigraphic relationship between stylistic-topological characteristics of older ceramics (Coţofeni) and the more recent phase (Coţofeni-Kostolac) have been established. These are mostly settlements in which ceramics were observed with elements both of the Kostolac and the Coţofeni group, or only with elements of the Coţofeni group, while settlements with only Kostolac ceramics have not been identified. Therefore, in Serbia it is only possible to distinguish between sites where furchenstich ornamentation has been observed and those where this type of ornamentation still has not been observed. Still, it is unclear whether this distinction can be applied to period assignment, or whether it is in fact caused by settlement of different populations in different regions of Eastern Serbia - the Kostolac region from the west and the Coţofeni group from the East. In Romania, however, vertical stratigraphy was observed at several settlements where development phases were observed of the Coţofeni group, so that based on the stratigraphy at those sites, with certain caution, it is possible to draw conclusions about the development of the Coţofeni-Kostolac group in eastern Serbia. Settlements without any furchenstich ornamentation would be assigned to the older phase (Coţofeni group) where ceramics characteristic of the Coţofeni group have been observed, although observed shapes and ornaments are usually associated with the furchenstich technique and the more recent phase of the group. The most frequent type of vessels at sites in eastern Serbia are amphorae with extended funnel shaped necks, ornamented below the neck with carved lines or with stamped ornamentation (fig. 6, 21, 38, 64, 71, 89, 98-100, 104, 109, 115, 116, 134), fishbone shape impressions (fig. 4, 28), and in the more recent period furchenstich ornamentation or point impressions (fig. 9, 20, 25, 140), with a tongue shaped or vertically perforated handle, tunnel shaped or horse-shoe shaped handle below the rim (fig. 6, 9, 20, 21, 51, 63, 100, 126, 134, 88, 115 ). The second characteristic type of vessel are semi-spherical bowls with deeper recipients, with flat rims (fig. 11, 12, 23, 27, 29, 52-54, 57, 59-60, 74, 79, 81, 82, 90, 91, 95, 113, 124, 125, 131 and 145), or with shallower recipients, with a slanted, triangular rim or T-shaped profiled rim (14, 19, 133 and 146). Such vessels are characteristic for both phases, because they are ornamented, besides vertical ribs, with carves, and with furchenstich ornamentation (fig. 23, 68, 81 and 82). The third type of vessels are semi-spherical bowls with contracted rims creating a nearly spherical shape. They can be ornamented with vertical ribs on rims (fig. 148) in combination with pinholes (fig. 17), carves (fig. 61, 84, 85) or line impressions (fig. 132). Less frequent vessels on the territory of northeastern Serbia are biconical or spherical goblets, followed by pare-shaped goblets with a single handle, larger pare-shaped amphorae with an extended or conical neck, with small handles below the rim, ornamented with a series of carves (fig. 39, 86), as well as barrel or spherical pots ornamented with carves, horizontal tapes or circular impressions (fig. 45-47, 141, 142). The appearance of ropeshape ornaments is very significant, given that they appear in Rumanian finds in the second phase of the Coţofeni group, and most frequently in the third phase. This ornament was sporadically observed in the far south, on the Dikili Taš site on the northern shore of the Aegean sea, in level 6, which according to the author belongs chronologically to the Bubanj-Hum II group and the Kostolac group. Its presence at sites in eastern Serbia can be linked to the older phase at the majority of settlements, except in the case of Grabar-Svračar, as these ceramics were not found alongside ceramics with furchenstich. The largest number of sites with only Coţofeni elements on ceramics have been observed (34), but it is indicative that only a few have been excavated. 28 sites with Kostolac group elements were noted, while 17 unspecified sites in which the period cannot be precisely defined have been identified. According to the stratigraphy of several of the mentioned sites in western Bulgaria, in the Morava valley and in southern Romania it can be concluded that the Coţofeni group (northeastern Serbia and Romania) and the Coţofeni-Kostolac group (Morava valley and western Bulgaria), in all of the mentioned regions, was preceded by the Černavoda III group, and was superseded by the Vučedol culture and the Bubanj-Hum II group in the Morava valle and the Struma valley, and the Glina II-Schnekenber group in Oltenija and the territory of Transylvania and the southern Carpathians. Analysis of the distribution of settlements and stylistictopological characteristics of ceramics from all of the settlements led to the conclusion that the oldest settlements, without ceramics with furchenstich ornamentation, were established in Ključ in Negotinska Krajina, leading to the assumption that the representatives of the Coţofeni group came from Oltenia and from the southern Carpathians. A large number fo sites west of Ključ, along the Danube, at which ceramics with furchenstich ornamentation were noted, point to the direction of expansion of Kostolac elements, from Banat, Branicevo and Stig. The influence of the Kostolac group was very strong starting in the Coţofeni II phase, even in Romanian sites, given that in Transylvania and in the southern Carpathians a large number of ceramic finds were found with furchenstich ornamentation, while it is interesting that only sporadic appearances were noted in Oltenia. It is clear that Coţofeni group settlements represented a certain barrier to the expansion of these elements to the east. With the formation of the Coţofeni-Kostolac group which was created through contacts between representatives of the Coţofeni to the east and the representatives of the Kostolac group to the west and north-west a short period of coexistence occurred on this territory. Absolute dating of the chronological framework of the Coţofeni-Kostolac group in the Danube valley and in eastern Serbia can only be assigned indirectly, as there is no carbon dating available from these sites. According to J. Bojačijev, phase II-III of the Coţofeni group (4400-4300 bp) can be assigned chronologically approximately to the same period as the Kostolac group (4500-4100 bp), and if we suppose that the Coţofeni-Kostolac group occurred a little while after the occurrence of the Kostolac group, it can be concluded that the Coţofeni-Kostolac group existed at the end of the IV and the first half of the III millennium BC, although it is possible that it continued even later in particular regions. The results for the oldest and the middle phase of the Kostolac cultural group at Gomolava range between 3038-2903 BC and 3108-2877 BC, while the Kostolac culture at the Streim and Vučedol sits was dated 3310-2920 BC, as is the approximate dating of settlements of this group in Pivnica (3042-2857 BC). All the dating of Kostolac group sites indicate that this cultural group occurred and developed in the period of the last quarter of the IV and the first half of the III millennium BC, which would chronologically assign the Coţofeni-Kostolac group in the Morava valley and Timočka Krajina to the end of the IV and the start of the III millennium BC, and to the ensuing period.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Kulturna grupa Kocofeni-Kostolac na teritoriji severoistočne Srbije, Coţofeni-Kostolac culture on the territory of north-eastern Serbia",
pages = "94-65",
number = "62",
doi = "10.2298/STA1262065K",
url = "conv_656"
}
Kapuran, A.,& Bulatović, A.. (2012). Kulturna grupa Kocofeni-Kostolac na teritoriji severoistočne Srbije. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(62), 65-94.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1262065K
conv_656
Kapuran A, Bulatović A. Kulturna grupa Kocofeni-Kostolac na teritoriji severoistočne Srbije. in Starinar. 2012;(62):65-94.
doi:10.2298/STA1262065K
conv_656 .
Kapuran, Aleksandar, Bulatović, Aleksandar, "Kulturna grupa Kocofeni-Kostolac na teritoriji severoistočne Srbije" in Starinar, no. 62 (2012):65-94,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1262065K .,
conv_656 .
1

Particular ceramic forms in the central Balkan and northern shores of the Aegean sea in the late bronze age

Bulatović, Aleksandar

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2011)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
PY  - 2011
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/157
AB  - This paper deals with the appearance and development of particular ceramic
   forms that were prevalent on the wider territory from the lower Danube to the
   northern shores of the Aegean sea during the middle and Late Bronze Age.
   These forms relate to globular beakers, pear shaped vessels with everted rims
   with arch shaped handles, cups with handles with plastic applications on
   their upper surface, etc. Particular attention is devoted to the phenomenon
   of globular beakers of the LBA in the valleys of Varder, Mesta and Struma
   rivers. All information collected primarily through analysis of
   stylistic-typological characteristics of ceramics of the middle and Late
   Bronze Age - that took into account ritual burials, layout of settlements,
   trade routes and climactic conditions during that period - points to
   population movements from the north to the south already by the LBA, i.e. in
   15th century BC. These movements contributed to the creation of particular
   cultural groups in the LBA in the central Balkans, such as the Brnjica
   cultural group. However, these movements cannot be clearly linked to the
   so-called Aegean Migration, and for this reason their character and
   chronology are subject to debate. Ultimately it can be concluded that beakers
   of the Zimnicea -Cherkovna-Plovdiv type appeared in the late Bronze Age in
   the Vlasine depression and the Danube valley through the evolution of beaker
   forms of cultural groups of earlier periods. Almost contemporaneously, during
   LBA, a variant of this ceramic form, richly ornamented (mostly with spirals)
   and similar in manner to the cultural group Dubovac-Žuto Brdo-Grla Mare-
   Krna, appeared in the LBA culture in northern Greece. Clearly this stylistic
   mannerism, with spirals as characteristic elements, spread relatively quickly
   through successive migrations in the period of 15th-14th century BC, toward
   the south of the Balkan Peninsula, thus covering the wider territory from the
   southern tip of the Carpathian mountains down to the northern shores of the
   Aegean Sea. Participants in those migrations are in fact representatives of
   cultural groups that were created in the northern Balkan Peninsula during the
   16th and 15th centuries BC through the breakdown of Vatic culture. As the
   result of pressures from the north and north-west they headed south,
   contributing to the creation and development of cultural groups on the
   territory of the central Balkans. The final destination of the migrations
   were the valleys of the Mesta, Struma and Vardar rivers where, starting in
   the 15th century BC, a noticeable foreign cultural influence can be felt that
   became most pronounced during 14th century BC.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Particular ceramic forms in the central Balkan and northern shores of the Aegean sea in the late bronze age
EP  - 140
IS  - 61
SP  - 121
DO  - 10.2298/STA1161121B
UR  - conv_639
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bulatović, Aleksandar",
year = "2011",
abstract = "This paper deals with the appearance and development of particular ceramic
   forms that were prevalent on the wider territory from the lower Danube to the
   northern shores of the Aegean sea during the middle and Late Bronze Age.
   These forms relate to globular beakers, pear shaped vessels with everted rims
   with arch shaped handles, cups with handles with plastic applications on
   their upper surface, etc. Particular attention is devoted to the phenomenon
   of globular beakers of the LBA in the valleys of Varder, Mesta and Struma
   rivers. All information collected primarily through analysis of
   stylistic-typological characteristics of ceramics of the middle and Late
   Bronze Age - that took into account ritual burials, layout of settlements,
   trade routes and climactic conditions during that period - points to
   population movements from the north to the south already by the LBA, i.e. in
   15th century BC. These movements contributed to the creation of particular
   cultural groups in the LBA in the central Balkans, such as the Brnjica
   cultural group. However, these movements cannot be clearly linked to the
   so-called Aegean Migration, and for this reason their character and
   chronology are subject to debate. Ultimately it can be concluded that beakers
   of the Zimnicea -Cherkovna-Plovdiv type appeared in the late Bronze Age in
   the Vlasine depression and the Danube valley through the evolution of beaker
   forms of cultural groups of earlier periods. Almost contemporaneously, during
   LBA, a variant of this ceramic form, richly ornamented (mostly with spirals)
   and similar in manner to the cultural group Dubovac-Žuto Brdo-Grla Mare-
   Krna, appeared in the LBA culture in northern Greece. Clearly this stylistic
   mannerism, with spirals as characteristic elements, spread relatively quickly
   through successive migrations in the period of 15th-14th century BC, toward
   the south of the Balkan Peninsula, thus covering the wider territory from the
   southern tip of the Carpathian mountains down to the northern shores of the
   Aegean Sea. Participants in those migrations are in fact representatives of
   cultural groups that were created in the northern Balkan Peninsula during the
   16th and 15th centuries BC through the breakdown of Vatic culture. As the
   result of pressures from the north and north-west they headed south,
   contributing to the creation and development of cultural groups on the
   territory of the central Balkans. The final destination of the migrations
   were the valleys of the Mesta, Struma and Vardar rivers where, starting in
   the 15th century BC, a noticeable foreign cultural influence can be felt that
   became most pronounced during 14th century BC.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Particular ceramic forms in the central Balkan and northern shores of the Aegean sea in the late bronze age",
pages = "140-121",
number = "61",
doi = "10.2298/STA1161121B",
url = "conv_639"
}
Bulatović, A.. (2011). Particular ceramic forms in the central Balkan and northern shores of the Aegean sea in the late bronze age. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(61), 121-140.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1161121B
conv_639
Bulatović A. Particular ceramic forms in the central Balkan and northern shores of the Aegean sea in the late bronze age. in Starinar. 2011;(61):121-140.
doi:10.2298/STA1161121B
conv_639 .
Bulatović, Aleksandar, "Particular ceramic forms in the central Balkan and northern shores of the Aegean sea in the late bronze age" in Starinar, no. 61 (2011):121-140,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1161121B .,
conv_639 .
2