Vojvoda, Mirjana

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orcid::0000-0001-7520-0988
  • Vojvoda, Mirjana (13)
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Zastupljenost nominala u grobovima na viminacijumskim južnim nekropolama

Vojvoda, Mirjana; Redžić, Saša

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2020)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Vojvoda, Mirjana
AU  - Redžić, Saša
PY  - 2020
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/369
AB  - Na viminacijumskim južnim nekropolama (Više Grobalja i Pećine) istovremeno su upražnjavani rituali kremacije i inhumacije od 1. do sredine 3. veka. U to vreme obred kremacije pokojnika bio je napušten i jedini vid sahranjivanja nadalje predstavlja inhumacija. Tokom zaštitnih arheoloških istraživanja od 1978. do 1990. godine u ovom arealu otkriveno je ukupno 10769 grobova kremiranih (2930) i inhumiranih (7839) pokojnika (Tabela 1). Od ukupnog broja registrovanih grobova samo 2649 njih sadržavalo je novac kao prilog, što iznosi 24,60%. Pri tome novac je znatno više prisutan u grobovima kremiranih (40,55%) nego u grobovima inhumiranih pokojnika (18,65%). Kod ove četvrtine grobova, u najvećem procentu registrovano prisustvo jednog novčića (86,20%) male vrednosti. U najvećoj meri prisutni su dupondijusi i asi (62,50%), slede provincijska izdanja (14,20%), frakcije folisa (12,74%), antoninijani (4,07%), denari (1,72%), dok su sestercijusi prisutni samo sa 1,20% (Grafikon 1). Običaj prilaganja novca u grob bio poštovan samo od dela populacije na Viminacijumu i čvršće je bio ukorenjen u delu populacije koji je praktikovao kremaciju. U okviru četvrtine grobova koja je sadržavala novac, može se reći da je u najvećem procentu poštovan običaj stavljanja novca u usta pokojnika naročito u primeru grobova sa jednim novcem. Prilagani su uglavnom novčići male vrednosti sa tragovima dužeg korišćenja.
AB  - At the southern necropolises of Viminacium, coins as grave goods were recorded in 24.60% of the total number of discovered graves (10769). These data show a discrepancy between the ancient source reports about the use of so-called "Charon' s obol" and archaeological evidence. Even though only about a fourth of the graves contain coins as grave goods, this percentage is above the average reported on analogous necropolises in the surrounding area. From this number, the incidence of asses and dupondii is by far the most frequent, thus confirming the use of low-value denominations in funeral practice. It may be also concluded that in the largest percentage, the custom of placing the coin in the mouth of the deceased was observed, especially in the example of graves with one coin.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Arheologija i prirodne nauke
T1  - Zastupljenost nominala u grobovima na viminacijumskim južnim nekropolama
T1  - Incidence of denominations in graves at the southern necropolises of Viminacium
EP  - 117
IS  - 16
SP  - 113
DO  - 10.18485/arhe_apn.2020.16.7
UR  - conv_307
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Vojvoda, Mirjana and Redžić, Saša",
year = "2020",
abstract = "Na viminacijumskim južnim nekropolama (Više Grobalja i Pećine) istovremeno su upražnjavani rituali kremacije i inhumacije od 1. do sredine 3. veka. U to vreme obred kremacije pokojnika bio je napušten i jedini vid sahranjivanja nadalje predstavlja inhumacija. Tokom zaštitnih arheoloških istraživanja od 1978. do 1990. godine u ovom arealu otkriveno je ukupno 10769 grobova kremiranih (2930) i inhumiranih (7839) pokojnika (Tabela 1). Od ukupnog broja registrovanih grobova samo 2649 njih sadržavalo je novac kao prilog, što iznosi 24,60%. Pri tome novac je znatno više prisutan u grobovima kremiranih (40,55%) nego u grobovima inhumiranih pokojnika (18,65%). Kod ove četvrtine grobova, u najvećem procentu registrovano prisustvo jednog novčića (86,20%) male vrednosti. U najvećoj meri prisutni su dupondijusi i asi (62,50%), slede provincijska izdanja (14,20%), frakcije folisa (12,74%), antoninijani (4,07%), denari (1,72%), dok su sestercijusi prisutni samo sa 1,20% (Grafikon 1). Običaj prilaganja novca u grob bio poštovan samo od dela populacije na Viminacijumu i čvršće je bio ukorenjen u delu populacije koji je praktikovao kremaciju. U okviru četvrtine grobova koja je sadržavala novac, može se reći da je u najvećem procentu poštovan običaj stavljanja novca u usta pokojnika naročito u primeru grobova sa jednim novcem. Prilagani su uglavnom novčići male vrednosti sa tragovima dužeg korišćenja., At the southern necropolises of Viminacium, coins as grave goods were recorded in 24.60% of the total number of discovered graves (10769). These data show a discrepancy between the ancient source reports about the use of so-called "Charon' s obol" and archaeological evidence. Even though only about a fourth of the graves contain coins as grave goods, this percentage is above the average reported on analogous necropolises in the surrounding area. From this number, the incidence of asses and dupondii is by far the most frequent, thus confirming the use of low-value denominations in funeral practice. It may be also concluded that in the largest percentage, the custom of placing the coin in the mouth of the deceased was observed, especially in the example of graves with one coin.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Arheologija i prirodne nauke",
title = "Zastupljenost nominala u grobovima na viminacijumskim južnim nekropolama, Incidence of denominations in graves at the southern necropolises of Viminacium",
pages = "117-113",
number = "16",
doi = "10.18485/arhe_apn.2020.16.7",
url = "conv_307"
}
Vojvoda, M.,& Redžić, S.. (2020). Zastupljenost nominala u grobovima na viminacijumskim južnim nekropolama. in Arheologija i prirodne nauke
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(16), 113-117.
https://doi.org/10.18485/arhe_apn.2020.16.7
conv_307
Vojvoda M, Redžić S. Zastupljenost nominala u grobovima na viminacijumskim južnim nekropolama. in Arheologija i prirodne nauke. 2020;(16):113-117.
doi:10.18485/arhe_apn.2020.16.7
conv_307 .
Vojvoda, Mirjana, Redžić, Saša, "Zastupljenost nominala u grobovima na viminacijumskim južnim nekropolama" in Arheologija i prirodne nauke, no. 16 (2020):113-117,
https://doi.org/10.18485/arhe_apn.2020.16.7 .,
conv_307 .

Odnos zastupljenosti emisija kovnice Viminacijum i Dakija - primer viminacijumskih južnih nekropola

Vojvoda, Mirjana; Mikić, Ilija

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2020)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Vojvoda, Mirjana
AU  - Mikić, Ilija
PY  - 2020
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/357
AB  - Nedostatak imperijalnog bronzanog novca u opticaju podunavskih i balkanskih provincija početkom 3. v. bio je posebno izražen i verovatno je predstavljao glavni razlog za otvaranje kovnice provincijalnog novca u Viminacijumu 239. g., a potom i u Dakiji 246.g. Kovnica provincijalnog novca u Viminacijumu otvorena je oktobra 239. godine što je bio i početak računanja provincijalne ere (AN I - AN XVI). Radila je 16 godina, od 239/240. godine do 254/255. godine sa dva prekida tokom 248/249 (AN X) i 253/254 (AN XV). Kovnica provincijalnog novca u Dakiji emitovala je novac deset godina uz oznaku lokalne ere od AN I - X (246/247-254/256). Za analizu monetarne cirkulacije na teritoriji Gornje Mezije u periodu 192-238 AD, odnosno periodu koje prethodi otvaranju kovnice provincijalnog novca u Viminacijumu, a potom i kovnice u Dakiji, dragoceni su podaci o nalazima novca sa viminacijumskih južnih nekropola. Nalazi novca provincije Dakije, srazmerno daleko manjoj produkciji u odnosu na kovnicu Viminacijum, imali su izvesnu ulogu u monetarnoj cirkulaciji na prostoru Gornje Mezije. Tako sa viminacijumskih južnih nekropola potiče 155 primeraka novca kovnice Viminacijum (93,40%) i 11 iz kovnice Dakija (6,60%). Izvestan broj dačkih izdanja potiče i iz 10 ostava novca, u kojima je zabeležen sličan odnos zastupljenosti viminacijumske u odnosu na dačku kovnicu. Ukupno uzevši, nalazi sa arheoloških istraživanja, iz ostava, kao i delovi ranijih privatnih kolekcija koje se danas nalaze u više muzeja u Srbiji, iznose 8072 primeraka emisija viminacijumske kovinice i 416 moneta kovnice Dakija (Grafikon 1). Osim same produkcije, do sada su uočene i druge razlike u radu dve provincijalne kovnice. Viminacijumska se ističe u odnosu na kovnicu Dakija, izuzetno širim arealom cirkulacije. Kako su pokazale komparativne analize monetarnih nalaza ove dve kovnice na području provincije Dakije, emisije Viminacijuma imale su za cilj širu cirkulaciju, dok su emisije provincije Dakije izgleda kovane samo za potrebe matične provincije. Produkcija obe balkanske kovnice, u Dakiji i Viminacijumu, predstavljala je način upravljanja monetarnom krizom iz sredine 3. veka i snabdevanja vojske neophodnim novcem.
AB  - Data on coin finds from the southern necropoles of Viminacium represent precious material for analyzing the monetary circulation of provincial mints of Viminacium and Dacia, in the territory of Moesia Superior. A large sample of processed coins (6233), originating from archaeological research activities on these necropoles, provides the possibility for various kinds of comparisons. As shown by comparative analyses of monetary finds from these two mints on the territory of Moesia Superior and Dacia, issues from Viminacium had the goal of a wider circulation range, while issues from the province of Dacia, it would seem, were minted only for the needs of that particular province. In any case, production of both mints from the Balkans, in Dacia and Viminacium, represented a manner of handling the monetary crisis in the middle of the 3rd century and providing the money necessary for the army.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Arheologija i prirodne nauke
T1  - Odnos zastupljenosti emisija kovnice Viminacijum i Dakija - primer viminacijumskih južnih nekropola
T1  - Distribution ratio of issues from the mints of Viminacium and Dacia: The example of the southern necropoles of Viminacium
EP  - 126
IS  - 16
SP  - 119
DO  - 10.18485/arhe_apn.2020.16.8
UR  - conv_308
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Vojvoda, Mirjana and Mikić, Ilija",
year = "2020",
abstract = "Nedostatak imperijalnog bronzanog novca u opticaju podunavskih i balkanskih provincija početkom 3. v. bio je posebno izražen i verovatno je predstavljao glavni razlog za otvaranje kovnice provincijalnog novca u Viminacijumu 239. g., a potom i u Dakiji 246.g. Kovnica provincijalnog novca u Viminacijumu otvorena je oktobra 239. godine što je bio i početak računanja provincijalne ere (AN I - AN XVI). Radila je 16 godina, od 239/240. godine do 254/255. godine sa dva prekida tokom 248/249 (AN X) i 253/254 (AN XV). Kovnica provincijalnog novca u Dakiji emitovala je novac deset godina uz oznaku lokalne ere od AN I - X (246/247-254/256). Za analizu monetarne cirkulacije na teritoriji Gornje Mezije u periodu 192-238 AD, odnosno periodu koje prethodi otvaranju kovnice provincijalnog novca u Viminacijumu, a potom i kovnice u Dakiji, dragoceni su podaci o nalazima novca sa viminacijumskih južnih nekropola. Nalazi novca provincije Dakije, srazmerno daleko manjoj produkciji u odnosu na kovnicu Viminacijum, imali su izvesnu ulogu u monetarnoj cirkulaciji na prostoru Gornje Mezije. Tako sa viminacijumskih južnih nekropola potiče 155 primeraka novca kovnice Viminacijum (93,40%) i 11 iz kovnice Dakija (6,60%). Izvestan broj dačkih izdanja potiče i iz 10 ostava novca, u kojima je zabeležen sličan odnos zastupljenosti viminacijumske u odnosu na dačku kovnicu. Ukupno uzevši, nalazi sa arheoloških istraživanja, iz ostava, kao i delovi ranijih privatnih kolekcija koje se danas nalaze u više muzeja u Srbiji, iznose 8072 primeraka emisija viminacijumske kovinice i 416 moneta kovnice Dakija (Grafikon 1). Osim same produkcije, do sada su uočene i druge razlike u radu dve provincijalne kovnice. Viminacijumska se ističe u odnosu na kovnicu Dakija, izuzetno širim arealom cirkulacije. Kako su pokazale komparativne analize monetarnih nalaza ove dve kovnice na području provincije Dakije, emisije Viminacijuma imale su za cilj širu cirkulaciju, dok su emisije provincije Dakije izgleda kovane samo za potrebe matične provincije. Produkcija obe balkanske kovnice, u Dakiji i Viminacijumu, predstavljala je način upravljanja monetarnom krizom iz sredine 3. veka i snabdevanja vojske neophodnim novcem., Data on coin finds from the southern necropoles of Viminacium represent precious material for analyzing the monetary circulation of provincial mints of Viminacium and Dacia, in the territory of Moesia Superior. A large sample of processed coins (6233), originating from archaeological research activities on these necropoles, provides the possibility for various kinds of comparisons. As shown by comparative analyses of monetary finds from these two mints on the territory of Moesia Superior and Dacia, issues from Viminacium had the goal of a wider circulation range, while issues from the province of Dacia, it would seem, were minted only for the needs of that particular province. In any case, production of both mints from the Balkans, in Dacia and Viminacium, represented a manner of handling the monetary crisis in the middle of the 3rd century and providing the money necessary for the army.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Arheologija i prirodne nauke",
title = "Odnos zastupljenosti emisija kovnice Viminacijum i Dakija - primer viminacijumskih južnih nekropola, Distribution ratio of issues from the mints of Viminacium and Dacia: The example of the southern necropoles of Viminacium",
pages = "126-119",
number = "16",
doi = "10.18485/arhe_apn.2020.16.8",
url = "conv_308"
}
Vojvoda, M.,& Mikić, I.. (2020). Odnos zastupljenosti emisija kovnice Viminacijum i Dakija - primer viminacijumskih južnih nekropola. in Arheologija i prirodne nauke
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(16), 119-126.
https://doi.org/10.18485/arhe_apn.2020.16.8
conv_308
Vojvoda M, Mikić I. Odnos zastupljenosti emisija kovnice Viminacijum i Dakija - primer viminacijumskih južnih nekropola. in Arheologija i prirodne nauke. 2020;(16):119-126.
doi:10.18485/arhe_apn.2020.16.8
conv_308 .
Vojvoda, Mirjana, Mikić, Ilija, "Odnos zastupljenosti emisija kovnice Viminacijum i Dakija - primer viminacijumskih južnih nekropola" in Arheologija i prirodne nauke, no. 16 (2020):119-126,
https://doi.org/10.18485/arhe_apn.2020.16.8 .,
conv_308 .

A hoard of solidi from a hypogeum at the Viminacium necropolis - Pecine (Serbia)

Vojvoda, Mirjana; Redžić, Saša

(Institute Arheoloski Slovenska Academy of Science Arts, 2020)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Vojvoda, Mirjana
AU  - Redžić, Saša
PY  - 2020
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/358
AB  - During more recent rescue archaeological investigations of the southern necropolises of Viminacium, in 2016, at the necropolis of Pecine, a hoard of seven solidi was discovered in one of the investigated monumental tombs (G 5868). The hoard contains coins of Honorius and Theodosius II, ranging from 403/408-430/440. Within the memoria, which was unfortunately robbed as far back as Antiquity, besides the hoard, an additional 23 coins, ranging from Alexander Severus (222-235) to the beginning of the 5th century, were also discovered. Rescue investigations in the area of the southern necropolises have been conducted, with interruptions, since the late 1970s and, over the course of four decades, this is merely the second discovery of gold coins, not only at the southern necropolis, but also at other investigated ones.
PB  - Institute Arheoloski Slovenska Academy of Science Arts
T2  - Arheološki vestnik
T1  - A hoard of solidi from a hypogeum at the Viminacium necropolis - Pecine (Serbia)
EP  - 231
SP  - 217
VL  - 71
DO  - 10.3986/AV.71.06
UR  - conv_349
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Vojvoda, Mirjana and Redžić, Saša",
year = "2020",
abstract = "During more recent rescue archaeological investigations of the southern necropolises of Viminacium, in 2016, at the necropolis of Pecine, a hoard of seven solidi was discovered in one of the investigated monumental tombs (G 5868). The hoard contains coins of Honorius and Theodosius II, ranging from 403/408-430/440. Within the memoria, which was unfortunately robbed as far back as Antiquity, besides the hoard, an additional 23 coins, ranging from Alexander Severus (222-235) to the beginning of the 5th century, were also discovered. Rescue investigations in the area of the southern necropolises have been conducted, with interruptions, since the late 1970s and, over the course of four decades, this is merely the second discovery of gold coins, not only at the southern necropolis, but also at other investigated ones.",
publisher = "Institute Arheoloski Slovenska Academy of Science Arts",
journal = "Arheološki vestnik",
title = "A hoard of solidi from a hypogeum at the Viminacium necropolis - Pecine (Serbia)",
pages = "231-217",
volume = "71",
doi = "10.3986/AV.71.06",
url = "conv_349"
}
Vojvoda, M.,& Redžić, S.. (2020). A hoard of solidi from a hypogeum at the Viminacium necropolis - Pecine (Serbia). in Arheološki vestnik
Institute Arheoloski Slovenska Academy of Science Arts., 71, 217-231.
https://doi.org/10.3986/AV.71.06
conv_349
Vojvoda M, Redžić S. A hoard of solidi from a hypogeum at the Viminacium necropolis - Pecine (Serbia). in Arheološki vestnik. 2020;71:217-231.
doi:10.3986/AV.71.06
conv_349 .
Vojvoda, Mirjana, Redžić, Saša, "A hoard of solidi from a hypogeum at the Viminacium necropolis - Pecine (Serbia)" in Arheološki vestnik, 71 (2020):217-231,
https://doi.org/10.3986/AV.71.06 .,
conv_349 .
1

Roman coin hoards of the third century ad found on the territory of Moesia superior, and Serbian part of Dalmatia and Pannonia inferior: the reasons for their burial

Vojvoda, Mirjana; Redžić, Saša

(Mega Publishing House, Cluj-Napoca, 2020)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Vojvoda, Mirjana
AU  - Redžić, Saša
PY  - 2020
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/331
AB  - The territory of present-day Serbia comprises the area of the former Roman provinces of Moesia Superior, Pannonia Inferior, Dalmatia and Barbaricum (the region between Pannonia Inferior and Dacia). The turbulent events of the 3rd century, which were frequent in the Balkans, left behind numerous coin hoards as significant historical sources. Thus far, 94 coin hoards have been found, ranging from Septimius Severus and Caracalla to Diocletian.
PB  - Mega Publishing House, Cluj-Napoca
T2  - Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology
T1  - Roman coin hoards of the third century ad found on the territory of Moesia superior, and Serbian part of Dalmatia and Pannonia inferior: the reasons for their burial
EP  - 554
IS  - 1
SP  - 531
VL  - 7
DO  - 10.14795/j.v7i1_SI.501
UR  - conv_350
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Vojvoda, Mirjana and Redžić, Saša",
year = "2020",
abstract = "The territory of present-day Serbia comprises the area of the former Roman provinces of Moesia Superior, Pannonia Inferior, Dalmatia and Barbaricum (the region between Pannonia Inferior and Dacia). The turbulent events of the 3rd century, which were frequent in the Balkans, left behind numerous coin hoards as significant historical sources. Thus far, 94 coin hoards have been found, ranging from Septimius Severus and Caracalla to Diocletian.",
publisher = "Mega Publishing House, Cluj-Napoca",
journal = "Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology",
title = "Roman coin hoards of the third century ad found on the territory of Moesia superior, and Serbian part of Dalmatia and Pannonia inferior: the reasons for their burial",
pages = "554-531",
number = "1",
volume = "7",
doi = "10.14795/j.v7i1_SI.501",
url = "conv_350"
}
Vojvoda, M.,& Redžić, S.. (2020). Roman coin hoards of the third century ad found on the territory of Moesia superior, and Serbian part of Dalmatia and Pannonia inferior: the reasons for their burial. in Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology
Mega Publishing House, Cluj-Napoca., 7(1), 531-554.
https://doi.org/10.14795/j.v7i1_SI.501
conv_350
Vojvoda M, Redžić S. Roman coin hoards of the third century ad found on the territory of Moesia superior, and Serbian part of Dalmatia and Pannonia inferior: the reasons for their burial. in Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology. 2020;7(1):531-554.
doi:10.14795/j.v7i1_SI.501
conv_350 .
Vojvoda, Mirjana, Redžić, Saša, "Roman coin hoards of the third century ad found on the territory of Moesia superior, and Serbian part of Dalmatia and Pannonia inferior: the reasons for their burial" in Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology, 7, no. 1 (2020):531-554,
https://doi.org/10.14795/j.v7i1_SI.501 .,
conv_350 .

Neronova tetradrahma kovnice Aleksandrija pronađena na nekropoli Pećine (Viminacijum)

Vojvoda, Mirjana

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2019)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Vojvoda, Mirjana
PY  - 2019
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/323
AB  - Tokom zaštitnih arheoloških istraživanja južnih nekropola Viminacijuma 1986. godine na jednoj od njih (Pećine), pronađena je perforirana srebrna tetradrahma Nerona. Pripada emisijama provincijalne kovnice Aleksandrija (Egipat) i iskovana je 65-66. godine. Predstavlja jedini do sada zabeleženi nalaz ove kovnice na Viminacijumu. Pronađena je u okviru grobne celine (G - 4923) pored lobanje pokojnika. Od ostalih nalaza u grobu: zabeleženi su i: ključ-prsten; keramički žižak sa pečatom FLAVI i bronzana alka. Na aversu je bista cara sa egidom i radijalnom krunom, a na reversu bista personifikacije Aleksandrije sa slonovom kožom na glavi. Perforacija je okruglog oblika, načinjena sa strane aversa, što iz estetskih razloga upućuje da je pogledu bio izložen avers. Međutim, osa reversa u odnosu na osu aversa je na 0 stepeni, što znači da je pogledu mogao biti izložen kako avers, tako i revers, jer su ivice perforacije sa strane reversa obrađene i tek neznatno pokazuju tragove bušenja. Jednom perforirana tetradrahma pronađena je pored lobanje, samostalno bez drugih perforiranih predmeta ili perli. Mesto nalaza može upućivati na funkciju priveska na vrvici oko vrata. Na osnovu drugih nalaza iz groba (keramički žižak i ključ-prsten) i njihovog datovanja, možemo pretpostaviti da je sahrana obavljena krajem 2. ili tokom prvih dekada 3. veka. Ne znamo kada je novčić bio perforiran, ali možemo pretpostaviti da je neko vreme korišćen kao privezak oko vrata, pre nego što je položen u grob. Jedini primerak novca iz kovnice Aleksandrija otkriven na Viminacijumu do sada, ne može biti indikator cirkulacije novca između Egipta i Gornje Mezije. Pojava ovog novca u grobu na Pećinama, pre možemo pripisati nekim privatnim razlozima.
AB  - During the rescue archaeological investigations of the southern necropoles at Viminacium, at one of them, Pećine, a silver Nero tetradrachm was discovered in one inhumation grave. The tetradrachm belongs to the series of the provincial mint of Alexandria (Egypt) and represents the only piece from this mint discovered so far in Viminacium.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Arheologija i prirodne nauke
T1  - Neronova tetradrahma kovnice Aleksandrija pronađena na nekropoli Pećine (Viminacijum)
T1  - Nero tetradrachm minted in Alexandria found at Pećine necropolis (Viminacium)
EP  - 75
IS  - 15
SP  - 71
UR  - conv_303
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Vojvoda, Mirjana",
year = "2019",
abstract = "Tokom zaštitnih arheoloških istraživanja južnih nekropola Viminacijuma 1986. godine na jednoj od njih (Pećine), pronađena je perforirana srebrna tetradrahma Nerona. Pripada emisijama provincijalne kovnice Aleksandrija (Egipat) i iskovana je 65-66. godine. Predstavlja jedini do sada zabeleženi nalaz ove kovnice na Viminacijumu. Pronađena je u okviru grobne celine (G - 4923) pored lobanje pokojnika. Od ostalih nalaza u grobu: zabeleženi su i: ključ-prsten; keramički žižak sa pečatom FLAVI i bronzana alka. Na aversu je bista cara sa egidom i radijalnom krunom, a na reversu bista personifikacije Aleksandrije sa slonovom kožom na glavi. Perforacija je okruglog oblika, načinjena sa strane aversa, što iz estetskih razloga upućuje da je pogledu bio izložen avers. Međutim, osa reversa u odnosu na osu aversa je na 0 stepeni, što znači da je pogledu mogao biti izložen kako avers, tako i revers, jer su ivice perforacije sa strane reversa obrađene i tek neznatno pokazuju tragove bušenja. Jednom perforirana tetradrahma pronađena je pored lobanje, samostalno bez drugih perforiranih predmeta ili perli. Mesto nalaza može upućivati na funkciju priveska na vrvici oko vrata. Na osnovu drugih nalaza iz groba (keramički žižak i ključ-prsten) i njihovog datovanja, možemo pretpostaviti da je sahrana obavljena krajem 2. ili tokom prvih dekada 3. veka. Ne znamo kada je novčić bio perforiran, ali možemo pretpostaviti da je neko vreme korišćen kao privezak oko vrata, pre nego što je položen u grob. Jedini primerak novca iz kovnice Aleksandrija otkriven na Viminacijumu do sada, ne može biti indikator cirkulacije novca između Egipta i Gornje Mezije. Pojava ovog novca u grobu na Pećinama, pre možemo pripisati nekim privatnim razlozima., During the rescue archaeological investigations of the southern necropoles at Viminacium, at one of them, Pećine, a silver Nero tetradrachm was discovered in one inhumation grave. The tetradrachm belongs to the series of the provincial mint of Alexandria (Egypt) and represents the only piece from this mint discovered so far in Viminacium.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Arheologija i prirodne nauke",
title = "Neronova tetradrahma kovnice Aleksandrija pronađena na nekropoli Pećine (Viminacijum), Nero tetradrachm minted in Alexandria found at Pećine necropolis (Viminacium)",
pages = "75-71",
number = "15",
url = "conv_303"
}
Vojvoda, M.. (2019). Neronova tetradrahma kovnice Aleksandrija pronađena na nekropoli Pećine (Viminacijum). in Arheologija i prirodne nauke
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(15), 71-75.
conv_303
Vojvoda M. Neronova tetradrahma kovnice Aleksandrija pronađena na nekropoli Pećine (Viminacijum). in Arheologija i prirodne nauke. 2019;(15):71-75.
conv_303 .
Vojvoda, Mirjana, "Neronova tetradrahma kovnice Aleksandrija pronađena na nekropoli Pećine (Viminacijum)" in Arheologija i prirodne nauke, no. 15 (2019):71-75,
conv_303 .

Roman coins discovered during archaeological investigations of thermae at Viminacium (2003-2007)

Vojvoda, Mirjana; Redžić, Saša

(Mega Publishing House, Cluj-Napoca, 2019)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Vojvoda, Mirjana
AU  - Redžić, Saša
PY  - 2019
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/317
AB  - In the course of reviewing archaeological investigations of the Viminacium thermae from 2003 to 2007, 160 monetary finds were discovered, ranging from the Roman Republic (138 BC) to Theodosius II (408-450 AD). With the exception of one specimen that belongs to Roman Republican coinage, imperial issues are the most prevalent ones (149), while provincial coinage comprises a smaller portion of the finds (11).
PB  - Mega Publishing House, Cluj-Napoca
T2  - Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology
T1  - Roman coins discovered during archaeological investigations of thermae at Viminacium (2003-2007)
EP  - 98
IS  - 3
SP  - 79
VL  - 6
DO  - 10.14795/j.v6i3.444
UR  - conv_356
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Vojvoda, Mirjana and Redžić, Saša",
year = "2019",
abstract = "In the course of reviewing archaeological investigations of the Viminacium thermae from 2003 to 2007, 160 monetary finds were discovered, ranging from the Roman Republic (138 BC) to Theodosius II (408-450 AD). With the exception of one specimen that belongs to Roman Republican coinage, imperial issues are the most prevalent ones (149), while provincial coinage comprises a smaller portion of the finds (11).",
publisher = "Mega Publishing House, Cluj-Napoca",
journal = "Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology",
title = "Roman coins discovered during archaeological investigations of thermae at Viminacium (2003-2007)",
pages = "98-79",
number = "3",
volume = "6",
doi = "10.14795/j.v6i3.444",
url = "conv_356"
}
Vojvoda, M.,& Redžić, S.. (2019). Roman coins discovered during archaeological investigations of thermae at Viminacium (2003-2007). in Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology
Mega Publishing House, Cluj-Napoca., 6(3), 79-98.
https://doi.org/10.14795/j.v6i3.444
conv_356
Vojvoda M, Redžić S. Roman coins discovered during archaeological investigations of thermae at Viminacium (2003-2007). in Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology. 2019;6(3):79-98.
doi:10.14795/j.v6i3.444
conv_356 .
Vojvoda, Mirjana, Redžić, Saša, "Roman coins discovered during archaeological investigations of thermae at Viminacium (2003-2007)" in Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology, 6, no. 3 (2019):79-98,
https://doi.org/10.14795/j.v6i3.444 .,
conv_356 .

Circulation of Provincial Coins of the Viminacium Colony

Borić-Brešković, Bojana; Vojvoda, Mirjana

(Belgrade : Institute of Archaeology, 2018)

TY  - CHAP
AU  - Borić-Brešković, Bojana
AU  - Vojvoda, Mirjana
PY  - 2018
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/406
AB  - The provincial mint in Viminacium, despite its short period in operation (239-254/255
AD), is significant for numismatic and historical research in several aspects. From the
very start, it is distinctive for its large monetary production and broad circulatory coverage.
The founding of the mint in Viminacium was the official way to temporarily
solve problems in the functioning of the Empire’s monetary system. On the basis of
registered finds of Viminacium provincial coinage, it is obvious that its circulation in
neighbouring and western provinces was much higher than in eastern ones. A considerable
number of these issues has also been registered in the area of the Barbaricum. Because
of precise chronological data, this currency is among the most reliable sources for
researching the history of the mid-3rd century, when the Danubian and Balkan provinces
were the main theatre of battle for the survival of a part of the Roman Empire.
PB  - Belgrade : Institute of Archaeology
T2  - Vivere Militare Est : From Populus to Emperors - Living on the Frontier
T1  - Circulation of Provincial Coins of the Viminacium Colony
EP  - 100
SP  - 73
VL  - 2
ER  - 
@inbook{
author = "Borić-Brešković, Bojana and Vojvoda, Mirjana",
year = "2018",
abstract = "The provincial mint in Viminacium, despite its short period in operation (239-254/255
AD), is significant for numismatic and historical research in several aspects. From the
very start, it is distinctive for its large monetary production and broad circulatory coverage.
The founding of the mint in Viminacium was the official way to temporarily
solve problems in the functioning of the Empire’s monetary system. On the basis of
registered finds of Viminacium provincial coinage, it is obvious that its circulation in
neighbouring and western provinces was much higher than in eastern ones. A considerable
number of these issues has also been registered in the area of the Barbaricum. Because
of precise chronological data, this currency is among the most reliable sources for
researching the history of the mid-3rd century, when the Danubian and Balkan provinces
were the main theatre of battle for the survival of a part of the Roman Empire.",
publisher = "Belgrade : Institute of Archaeology",
journal = "Vivere Militare Est : From Populus to Emperors - Living on the Frontier",
booktitle = "Circulation of Provincial Coins of the Viminacium Colony",
pages = "100-73",
volume = "2"
}
Borić-Brešković, B.,& Vojvoda, M.. (2018). Circulation of Provincial Coins of the Viminacium Colony. in Vivere Militare Est : From Populus to Emperors - Living on the Frontier
Belgrade : Institute of Archaeology., 2, 73-100.
Borić-Brešković B, Vojvoda M. Circulation of Provincial Coins of the Viminacium Colony. in Vivere Militare Est : From Populus to Emperors - Living on the Frontier. 2018;2:73-100..
Borić-Brešković, Bojana, Vojvoda, Mirjana, "Circulation of Provincial Coins of the Viminacium Colony" in Vivere Militare Est : From Populus to Emperors - Living on the Frontier, 2 (2018):73-100.

Novac bitinijske kovnice Nikeje sa viminacijumske nekropole Pećine

Vojvoda, Mirjana

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2018)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Vojvoda, Mirjana
PY  - 2018
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/292
AB  - Radi izgradnje TE Kostolac 2, na području južnih nekropola Viminacijuma obavljena su, počev od 1977. g., obimna zaštitna arheološka istraživanja. Na nekropoli Pećine otkriveno je ukupno 99 primeraka novca bitinijske kovnice Nikeje, što čini 2,93% od ukupno sačuvanog novca koji je otkriven prilikom istraživanja (3372 kom.). Od 97 primeraka sa nekropole Pećine, 54 primerka (55,67%) pronađeno je u grobovima, a 43 (44,33%) u sloju na nekropoli. Veliki uzorak provincijskog kovanja Nikeje sa viminacijumskih nekropola u celini pruža uvid u monetarnu cirkulaciju tokom prve polovine III v. u tom delu Podunavlja i Gornje Mezije. S druge strane, analiza reversnih tipova pružila je do sada nekoliko novih tipova i brojne varijante postojećih, što upotpunjuje sliku razgranatih ikonografskih motiva na ovim kovanjima. Od 97 primeraka nikejskih kovanja sa nekropole Pećine, najstarija su dva primerka Elagabala (kat. 1-2). Jedan od njih predstavlja redak primerak sa reversnom predstavom jahača na slonu, dok drugi pripada tipovima sa vojnim oznakama (tip 7). Slede brojno zastupljena izdanja Aleksandra Severa (43 kom.), od kojih većina pripada samom Aleksandru Severu (kat. 3-44), a jedno Juliji Mameji (kat. 45). Definisano je: četiri tipa aversnih legendi, sedam tipova reversnih predstava sa vojnim insignijama (1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 i 8), tri variante (6c, 7a i novoustanovljena 30a), kao i jedan primerak sa reversnim motivom agnostičke urne sa palmama. Jedini primerak kovan za Juliju Mameju pripada tipu reversnih predstava 1 sa vojnim insignijama. Od nikejskih emisija Maksimina I, na nekropoli Pećine otkrivena su dva primerka kovana za Maksimusa. Oba pripadaju tipu 8 sa vojnim oznakama (kat. 45-46). Na reversu jednog od njih (kat. 46) nalazi se kontramarka sa predstavom Nike, koja stoji nadesno, zabeleženoj s jednim primerkom u katalogu Britanskog muzeja. Slede, najbrojnije zastupljena, izdanja Gordijana III (52 kom.), od kojih samom izdavaču pripada 50 primeraka (kat. 48-97), a dva Trankvilini (kat. 98-99). U nikejskim emisijama Gordijana III zastupljen je samo jedan tip aversne legende M ANT ΓOPΔIANOC AVΓ. Od reversnih motiva postoje samo oni sa vojnim oznakama - tipovi: 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 18, 28 i varijante: 2b, 6b, 22c, 22d, 27a, 28a, 28c. Kod 14 primeraka nije bilo moguće ustanoviti tip, ali od tog broja 6 pripada tipovima sa tri vojne oznake, 7 tipovima sa četiri, a jedan primerak je bilo nemoguće definisati ni u jednu od ovih grupa. U okviru tipa 28 izdvojena je nova varianta 28c, koja je na nekropoli Pećine zastupljena sa čak četiri primerka (kat. 80-83). Kod dva primerka kovana za Trankvilinu zabeleženi su tip 8 i varijanta 6c. Novac bitinijske kovnice Nikeje prisutan je u većoj meri na teritoriji Gornje Mezije i u nešto manjoj na teritoriji Donje Panonije od kraja Karakaline vladavine, a naročito u vreme Lleksandra Severa. Na smanjenu zastupljenost nikejskih emisija Gordijana III i na njihovu cirkulaciju u balkansko-podunavskim provincijama uticalo je otvaranje kovnice provincijskog novca u Viminacijumu 239. g. i nešto kasnije u Dakiji. Nakon toga, očito je naglo pomanjkanje novca Nikeje u opticaju na teritoriji Gornje Mezije i Donje Panonije, gde je, izgleda, problem nedostatka novca bio najizraženiji. Dosad je već uočeno da je najveća koncentracija nalaza novca Nikeje vezana za Viminacijum i dunavski limes, ali i za savski rečni put. Na značajnu frekvenciju novca iz Vitinije uticala je povećano cirkulisanje vojske tokom prve polovine III veka duž dunavskog limesa, kao i duž puta koji je od Viminacijuma vodio do Vosfora. Nalazi novca iz Viminacijuma, kao prestonice Gornje Mezije i važnog vojnog i trgovačkog centra u tom delu Podunavlja, koji je tokom treće i četvrte decenije III v. na vrhuncu svog napretka, sigurno su dobar pokazatelj cirkulacije novca i u njegovoj široj okolini i dobrom delu provincije. Ne treba zaboraviti ni na ostale nekropole Viminacijuma, kao ni nalaze koji potiču iz vojnog logora i naselja, na kojima je takođe pronađen zapažen broj nikejskih emisija. Njihovo publikovanje u celosti značajno će upotpuniti sliku o cirkulaciji ovog nikejskog novca u tom delu Podunavlja i Gornje Mezije.
AB  - During the large-scale archaeological rescue investigations of the southern necropolises of Viminacium, at one of them, Pećine, 170 specimens of coins of the Bithynian mint of Nicaea were discovered. Of these specimens, 83 were found in the graves, and 87 in the layer at the necropolis. The largest number of them belongs to the emissions of Severus Alexander and Gordian III. Compared to the necropolis of Više grobalja, where 290 specimens of Nicaean coinage were found, the finds from the necropolis of Pećine appear in a smaller percentage.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Novac bitinijske kovnice Nikeje sa viminacijumske nekropole Pećine
T1  - Coins of the Bithynian mint of Nicaea from the Viminacium necropolis of Pećine
EP  - 150
IS  - 68
SP  - 131
DO  - 10.2298/STA1767131V
UR  - conv_109
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Vojvoda, Mirjana",
year = "2018",
abstract = "Radi izgradnje TE Kostolac 2, na području južnih nekropola Viminacijuma obavljena su, počev od 1977. g., obimna zaštitna arheološka istraživanja. Na nekropoli Pećine otkriveno je ukupno 99 primeraka novca bitinijske kovnice Nikeje, što čini 2,93% od ukupno sačuvanog novca koji je otkriven prilikom istraživanja (3372 kom.). Od 97 primeraka sa nekropole Pećine, 54 primerka (55,67%) pronađeno je u grobovima, a 43 (44,33%) u sloju na nekropoli. Veliki uzorak provincijskog kovanja Nikeje sa viminacijumskih nekropola u celini pruža uvid u monetarnu cirkulaciju tokom prve polovine III v. u tom delu Podunavlja i Gornje Mezije. S druge strane, analiza reversnih tipova pružila je do sada nekoliko novih tipova i brojne varijante postojećih, što upotpunjuje sliku razgranatih ikonografskih motiva na ovim kovanjima. Od 97 primeraka nikejskih kovanja sa nekropole Pećine, najstarija su dva primerka Elagabala (kat. 1-2). Jedan od njih predstavlja redak primerak sa reversnom predstavom jahača na slonu, dok drugi pripada tipovima sa vojnim oznakama (tip 7). Slede brojno zastupljena izdanja Aleksandra Severa (43 kom.), od kojih većina pripada samom Aleksandru Severu (kat. 3-44), a jedno Juliji Mameji (kat. 45). Definisano je: četiri tipa aversnih legendi, sedam tipova reversnih predstava sa vojnim insignijama (1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 i 8), tri variante (6c, 7a i novoustanovljena 30a), kao i jedan primerak sa reversnim motivom agnostičke urne sa palmama. Jedini primerak kovan za Juliju Mameju pripada tipu reversnih predstava 1 sa vojnim insignijama. Od nikejskih emisija Maksimina I, na nekropoli Pećine otkrivena su dva primerka kovana za Maksimusa. Oba pripadaju tipu 8 sa vojnim oznakama (kat. 45-46). Na reversu jednog od njih (kat. 46) nalazi se kontramarka sa predstavom Nike, koja stoji nadesno, zabeleženoj s jednim primerkom u katalogu Britanskog muzeja. Slede, najbrojnije zastupljena, izdanja Gordijana III (52 kom.), od kojih samom izdavaču pripada 50 primeraka (kat. 48-97), a dva Trankvilini (kat. 98-99). U nikejskim emisijama Gordijana III zastupljen je samo jedan tip aversne legende M ANT ΓOPΔIANOC AVΓ. Od reversnih motiva postoje samo oni sa vojnim oznakama - tipovi: 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 18, 28 i varijante: 2b, 6b, 22c, 22d, 27a, 28a, 28c. Kod 14 primeraka nije bilo moguće ustanoviti tip, ali od tog broja 6 pripada tipovima sa tri vojne oznake, 7 tipovima sa četiri, a jedan primerak je bilo nemoguće definisati ni u jednu od ovih grupa. U okviru tipa 28 izdvojena je nova varianta 28c, koja je na nekropoli Pećine zastupljena sa čak četiri primerka (kat. 80-83). Kod dva primerka kovana za Trankvilinu zabeleženi su tip 8 i varijanta 6c. Novac bitinijske kovnice Nikeje prisutan je u većoj meri na teritoriji Gornje Mezije i u nešto manjoj na teritoriji Donje Panonije od kraja Karakaline vladavine, a naročito u vreme Lleksandra Severa. Na smanjenu zastupljenost nikejskih emisija Gordijana III i na njihovu cirkulaciju u balkansko-podunavskim provincijama uticalo je otvaranje kovnice provincijskog novca u Viminacijumu 239. g. i nešto kasnije u Dakiji. Nakon toga, očito je naglo pomanjkanje novca Nikeje u opticaju na teritoriji Gornje Mezije i Donje Panonije, gde je, izgleda, problem nedostatka novca bio najizraženiji. Dosad je već uočeno da je najveća koncentracija nalaza novca Nikeje vezana za Viminacijum i dunavski limes, ali i za savski rečni put. Na značajnu frekvenciju novca iz Vitinije uticala je povećano cirkulisanje vojske tokom prve polovine III veka duž dunavskog limesa, kao i duž puta koji je od Viminacijuma vodio do Vosfora. Nalazi novca iz Viminacijuma, kao prestonice Gornje Mezije i važnog vojnog i trgovačkog centra u tom delu Podunavlja, koji je tokom treće i četvrte decenije III v. na vrhuncu svog napretka, sigurno su dobar pokazatelj cirkulacije novca i u njegovoj široj okolini i dobrom delu provincije. Ne treba zaboraviti ni na ostale nekropole Viminacijuma, kao ni nalaze koji potiču iz vojnog logora i naselja, na kojima je takođe pronađen zapažen broj nikejskih emisija. Njihovo publikovanje u celosti značajno će upotpuniti sliku o cirkulaciji ovog nikejskog novca u tom delu Podunavlja i Gornje Mezije., During the large-scale archaeological rescue investigations of the southern necropolises of Viminacium, at one of them, Pećine, 170 specimens of coins of the Bithynian mint of Nicaea were discovered. Of these specimens, 83 were found in the graves, and 87 in the layer at the necropolis. The largest number of them belongs to the emissions of Severus Alexander and Gordian III. Compared to the necropolis of Više grobalja, where 290 specimens of Nicaean coinage were found, the finds from the necropolis of Pećine appear in a smaller percentage.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Novac bitinijske kovnice Nikeje sa viminacijumske nekropole Pećine, Coins of the Bithynian mint of Nicaea from the Viminacium necropolis of Pećine",
pages = "150-131",
number = "68",
doi = "10.2298/STA1767131V",
url = "conv_109"
}
Vojvoda, M.. (2018). Novac bitinijske kovnice Nikeje sa viminacijumske nekropole Pećine. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(68), 131-150.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1767131V
conv_109
Vojvoda M. Novac bitinijske kovnice Nikeje sa viminacijumske nekropole Pećine. in Starinar. 2018;(68):131-150.
doi:10.2298/STA1767131V
conv_109 .
Vojvoda, Mirjana, "Novac bitinijske kovnice Nikeje sa viminacijumske nekropole Pećine" in Starinar, no. 68 (2018):131-150,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1767131V .,
conv_109 .
2

Perforated coins from graves at the Viminacium necropolis of Pećine

Vojvoda, Mirjana

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2018)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Vojvoda, Mirjana
PY  - 2018
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/285
AB  - A common problem that occurs when interpreting finds of perforated Roman
   coins is their function and whether they were perforated in Roman times or
   later. Hence, the specimens which originate from an undisturbed
   archaeological context, as is the case with finds from the Viminacium
   necropolis of Pećine, are indispensable. A total of 45 perforated coins were
   discovered at Pećine: 23 from graves and 22 from sacrificial areas.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Perforated coins from graves at the Viminacium necropolis of Pećine
EP  - 87
IS  - 68
SP  - 65
DO  - 10.2298/STA1868065V
UR  - conv_752
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Vojvoda, Mirjana",
year = "2018",
abstract = "A common problem that occurs when interpreting finds of perforated Roman
   coins is their function and whether they were perforated in Roman times or
   later. Hence, the specimens which originate from an undisturbed
   archaeological context, as is the case with finds from the Viminacium
   necropolis of Pećine, are indispensable. A total of 45 perforated coins were
   discovered at Pećine: 23 from graves and 22 from sacrificial areas.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Perforated coins from graves at the Viminacium necropolis of Pećine",
pages = "87-65",
number = "68",
doi = "10.2298/STA1868065V",
url = "conv_752"
}
Vojvoda, M.. (2018). Perforated coins from graves at the Viminacium necropolis of Pećine. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(68), 65-87.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1868065V
conv_752
Vojvoda M. Perforated coins from graves at the Viminacium necropolis of Pećine. in Starinar. 2018;(68):65-87.
doi:10.2298/STA1868065V
conv_752 .
Vojvoda, Mirjana, "Perforated coins from graves at the Viminacium necropolis of Pećine" in Starinar, no. 68 (2018):65-87,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1868065V .,
conv_752 .

METAL DELM - metal avrelianis contribution to the study of mining coins and anonymous quadrantes

Vojvoda, Mirjana; Petrović, Slavoljub L.

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2016)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Vojvoda, Mirjana
AU  - Petrović, Slavoljub L.
PY  - 2016
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/252
AB  - In the course of rescue archaeological investigations at the Viminacium
   necropolis of Vi{e Grobalja in 1984, one anonymous quadrans of the VIII
   Apollo group was discovered (cat. 1). It was discovered in trench 63 in the
   immediate vicinity of a grave with an inhumation (G 343) that, besides two
   pottery vessels, also yielded as grave offerings one as of Faustina the
   Elder, minted after her death, in AD 141. Other finds presented here are four
   specimens of Roman mining coins from the private collection of Petar Fajfri}
   from [abac (cat. 2-5). All specimens come from the well known site of Duge
   Njive in the area of the village of Banatsko Polje (Bogati} borough) where,
   by all appearances, are the remains of a vicus or smaller settlement. Five
   specimens of mining coins from that site have already been published. Both
   mining coins and anonymous quadrantes represent, in general, rare types of
   numismatic finds. Nine anonymous quadrantes are known so far from the
   territory of Serbia (Table 1) and the provenance is known for three specimens
   from the region of Guberevac-Babe (Kosmaj), housed in the National Museum in
   Belgrade. All three belong to the Minerva group with an owl facing to the
   right represented on the reverse. For two more anonymous quadrantes the place
   of discovery is known: one specimen comes from Singidunum and belongs to the
   Mercury group and the other that was found at Viminacium and is the subject
   of this paper is of the Apollo group. There are four more specimens from
   unknown sites for which it is assumed that they come from the Upper Moesia
   territory. Two of them are from the Vajfert collection and two from the
   Kovačević collection in the National Museum in Belgrade, There has, however,
   been a somewhat greater number (38) of Roman mining coins discovered in
   Serbia (Table 1). We know the finding locations of 25 of them: from the
   Kosmaj area (Babe, Guberevac and Stojnik), the Ibar valley (from the vicinity
   of Trepča and So~anica), Ritopek, Belgrade and Banovo Polje. We do not know
   the provenance for the remaining 13 specimens, but it is assumed that they
   come from the Upper Moesia territory. The anonymous quadrans discovered at
   the Viminacium necropolis of Vi{e Grobalja belongs, as previously mentioned,
   to the Apollo group. The only analogous piece known from the territory of
   Serbia comes from the Kovačević collection in the National Museum in
   Belgrade. Most of the known specimens belong to the Minerva group (3), there
   are two pieces of the Mars group, one of Mercury and one undetermined (Table
   1). The anonymous quadrans from Viminacium is the second of its kind
   discovered along the Upper Moesia section of the Danube limes. The quadrans
   from Singidunum was found in the zone of the Roman Singidunum harbour and
   belongs to the Mercury group. Five specimens of mining coins in the Fajfri}
   collection published earlier belong to the same METAL DELM type with a bust
   of Diana on the obverse and deer on the reverse. To this group should be
   added our specimen cat. 2, and as such this type is the best represented
   group (6) of mining coins from the site of Duge Njive at Banovo Polje. The
   same group, Metalli Delmatici, also includes cat. 3, which has the head of
   Mars on the obverse and armour on the reverse. Then there are the two
   identical quadrantes of the group MetalliAureliani (cat. 4, 5) and their only
   analogy from the territory of Serbia is the quadrans from the Kosmaj area.
   The nine specimens of mining coins from the site of Duge Njive at Banovo
   Polje make up a considerable proportion of the total number of mining coins
   in Serbia. Their importance is even greater because of the fact that seven
   METAL DELM specimens are the first of that group for which we know the
   finding location. Finds of the anonymous quadrans from the Viminacium
   necropolis of Vi{e Grobalja and the mining coins from Banovo Polje complete
   the picture of the topography of this kind of numismatic finds. Their
   publishing is, mainly because of the known provenance, more significant for
   future investigations.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - METAL DELM - metal avrelianis contribution to the study of mining coins and anonymous quadrantes
EP  - 119
IS  - 66
SP  - 111
DO  - 10.2298/STA1666111V
UR  - conv_715
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Vojvoda, Mirjana and Petrović, Slavoljub L.",
year = "2016",
abstract = "In the course of rescue archaeological investigations at the Viminacium
   necropolis of Vi{e Grobalja in 1984, one anonymous quadrans of the VIII
   Apollo group was discovered (cat. 1). It was discovered in trench 63 in the
   immediate vicinity of a grave with an inhumation (G 343) that, besides two
   pottery vessels, also yielded as grave offerings one as of Faustina the
   Elder, minted after her death, in AD 141. Other finds presented here are four
   specimens of Roman mining coins from the private collection of Petar Fajfri}
   from [abac (cat. 2-5). All specimens come from the well known site of Duge
   Njive in the area of the village of Banatsko Polje (Bogati} borough) where,
   by all appearances, are the remains of a vicus or smaller settlement. Five
   specimens of mining coins from that site have already been published. Both
   mining coins and anonymous quadrantes represent, in general, rare types of
   numismatic finds. Nine anonymous quadrantes are known so far from the
   territory of Serbia (Table 1) and the provenance is known for three specimens
   from the region of Guberevac-Babe (Kosmaj), housed in the National Museum in
   Belgrade. All three belong to the Minerva group with an owl facing to the
   right represented on the reverse. For two more anonymous quadrantes the place
   of discovery is known: one specimen comes from Singidunum and belongs to the
   Mercury group and the other that was found at Viminacium and is the subject
   of this paper is of the Apollo group. There are four more specimens from
   unknown sites for which it is assumed that they come from the Upper Moesia
   territory. Two of them are from the Vajfert collection and two from the
   Kovačević collection in the National Museum in Belgrade, There has, however,
   been a somewhat greater number (38) of Roman mining coins discovered in
   Serbia (Table 1). We know the finding locations of 25 of them: from the
   Kosmaj area (Babe, Guberevac and Stojnik), the Ibar valley (from the vicinity
   of Trepča and So~anica), Ritopek, Belgrade and Banovo Polje. We do not know
   the provenance for the remaining 13 specimens, but it is assumed that they
   come from the Upper Moesia territory. The anonymous quadrans discovered at
   the Viminacium necropolis of Vi{e Grobalja belongs, as previously mentioned,
   to the Apollo group. The only analogous piece known from the territory of
   Serbia comes from the Kovačević collection in the National Museum in
   Belgrade. Most of the known specimens belong to the Minerva group (3), there
   are two pieces of the Mars group, one of Mercury and one undetermined (Table
   1). The anonymous quadrans from Viminacium is the second of its kind
   discovered along the Upper Moesia section of the Danube limes. The quadrans
   from Singidunum was found in the zone of the Roman Singidunum harbour and
   belongs to the Mercury group. Five specimens of mining coins in the Fajfri}
   collection published earlier belong to the same METAL DELM type with a bust
   of Diana on the obverse and deer on the reverse. To this group should be
   added our specimen cat. 2, and as such this type is the best represented
   group (6) of mining coins from the site of Duge Njive at Banovo Polje. The
   same group, Metalli Delmatici, also includes cat. 3, which has the head of
   Mars on the obverse and armour on the reverse. Then there are the two
   identical quadrantes of the group MetalliAureliani (cat. 4, 5) and their only
   analogy from the territory of Serbia is the quadrans from the Kosmaj area.
   The nine specimens of mining coins from the site of Duge Njive at Banovo
   Polje make up a considerable proportion of the total number of mining coins
   in Serbia. Their importance is even greater because of the fact that seven
   METAL DELM specimens are the first of that group for which we know the
   finding location. Finds of the anonymous quadrans from the Viminacium
   necropolis of Vi{e Grobalja and the mining coins from Banovo Polje complete
   the picture of the topography of this kind of numismatic finds. Their
   publishing is, mainly because of the known provenance, more significant for
   future investigations.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "METAL DELM - metal avrelianis contribution to the study of mining coins and anonymous quadrantes",
pages = "119-111",
number = "66",
doi = "10.2298/STA1666111V",
url = "conv_715"
}
Vojvoda, M.,& Petrović, S. L.. (2016). METAL DELM - metal avrelianis contribution to the study of mining coins and anonymous quadrantes. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(66), 111-119.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1666111V
conv_715
Vojvoda M, Petrović SL. METAL DELM - metal avrelianis contribution to the study of mining coins and anonymous quadrantes. in Starinar. 2016;(66):111-119.
doi:10.2298/STA1666111V
conv_715 .
Vojvoda, Mirjana, Petrović, Slavoljub L., "METAL DELM - metal avrelianis contribution to the study of mining coins and anonymous quadrantes" in Starinar, no. 66 (2016):111-119,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1666111V .,
conv_715 .

Perforated coins from graves at the Viminacium necropolis of Više Grobalja

Vojvoda, Mirjana

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2015)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Vojvoda, Mirjana
PY  - 2015
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/231
AB  - A common problem that occurs when interpreting finds of perforated Roman
   coins is whether they had been perforated in Roman times or later. Hence, the
   specimens that originate from an undisturbed archaeological context, as is
   the case with finds from the Viminacium necropolis of Više Grobalja, are
   indispensable. A total of 47 perforated coins were discovered: 31 with a
   single and 16 with three perforations. The analysis of the context of the
   finds, in some specimens, allows the confident assertion that they had
   constituted a part of jewellery.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Perforated coins from graves at the Viminacium necropolis of Više Grobalja
EP  - 78
IS  - 65
SP  - 53
DO  - 10.2298/STA1565053V
UR  - conv_739
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Vojvoda, Mirjana",
year = "2015",
abstract = "A common problem that occurs when interpreting finds of perforated Roman
   coins is whether they had been perforated in Roman times or later. Hence, the
   specimens that originate from an undisturbed archaeological context, as is
   the case with finds from the Viminacium necropolis of Više Grobalja, are
   indispensable. A total of 47 perforated coins were discovered: 31 with a
   single and 16 with three perforations. The analysis of the context of the
   finds, in some specimens, allows the confident assertion that they had
   constituted a part of jewellery.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Perforated coins from graves at the Viminacium necropolis of Više Grobalja",
pages = "78-53",
number = "65",
doi = "10.2298/STA1565053V",
url = "conv_739"
}
Vojvoda, M.. (2015). Perforated coins from graves at the Viminacium necropolis of Više Grobalja. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(65), 53-78.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1565053V
conv_739
Vojvoda M. Perforated coins from graves at the Viminacium necropolis of Više Grobalja. in Starinar. 2015;(65):53-78.
doi:10.2298/STA1565053V
conv_739 .
Vojvoda, Mirjana, "Perforated coins from graves at the Viminacium necropolis of Više Grobalja" in Starinar, no. 65 (2015):53-78,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1565053V .,
conv_739 .
1

Novac bitinijske kovnice Nikeje iz Banovog polja u Mačvi

Vojvoda, Mirjana; Petrović, Slavoljub L.

(Narodni muzej, Beograd i Srpsko numizmatičko društvo, Beograd, 2011)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Vojvoda, Mirjana
AU  - Petrović, Slavoljub L.
PY  - 2011
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/130
AB  - Narodni muzej u Šapcu dobio je u posed 44 primerka bronzanih izdanja bitinijske kovnice Nikeje. Svi primerci potiču iz sela Banovo Polje sa lokaliteta Duge njive i nađeni su slučajno prilikom poljoprivrednih radova. Među njima su primerci Aleksandra Severa, Julije Mamee i Gordijana III. Značajan broj pronađenih primeraka u Banovom Polju, upotpunjuje sliku o topografiji novca Nikeje u Srbiji, i u ovom delu zapadne Mačve i Podrinja.
AB  - Thanks to a kind donor, in 2011, the National Museum in Šabac came into possession of 44 bronze coins from the Bithynian mint of Nicaea. They do not represent part of a collective find, but were unearthed one by one during agricultural works over a longer period of time, and originate from the locality of Duge Njive in the village of Banovo Polje (Municipality of Bogatić). The village is located in western Mačva, on the lower course of the River Zasavica, at a distance of approximately 3.5 kilometres from the River Sava, and eight kilometres northeast of the confluence of the Drina and the Sava rivers. The area of Duge Njive is located on the left bank of the Batar, just ahead of where its waters flow into those of the Zasavica (Map 1). This is a well known locality, registered for the first time in 1881 (ref.2). The reconnoitering of Mačva and Podrinje took place during the 1950s, but the biggest contribution was the exploration during the 1960s and 1970s by Milivoje Vasiljević and Vojislav Trbuhović, who also registered this locality (ref. 3). During the 1980s, Miloje Vasić dealt with the issues and systematisation of the Roman localities in Mačva and Podrinje and, in recent times, Slavoljub Petrović presented the money finds from these localities (ref. 4). By all accounts, on the basis of the results of field explorations that have been published so far, the remains found in the area of Duge Njive are that of a vicus or a small settlement. Besides the visible remnants of buildings, ancient money has been unearthed there over the years, of which some pieces are kept in the National Museum in Šabac (ref.5). Moreover, workers dug up an unknown large quantity of Roman coins in 1992 - a hoard by all indications. Unfortunately, the find has been largely dispersed and the Museum obtained eight specimens of the Antoninians of Probus. Three other Roman localities were registered in the immediate neighbourhood of this locality, in the territory of the same village - Crkvine I and II, and Ključevi, recorded as villae rusticae (ref. 7-9). A little to the west, on the border of the territories of Banovo Polje and Crne Bare, the remains of a villa rustica were also discovered, and a hoard of coins (ref. 10). According to known money finds, the possible date of the formation of the vicus in the area of Duge Njive was the middle of the 2nd century, but activity there was the most intense during the 3rd century. This is indicated by the finds of imperial coinage of Marcus Aurelius, Elagabalus and Probus, and the provincial coinage of Nicaea of Alexander Severus and Gordianus III. Besides the mentioned dispersed money hoard, finds of Nicaean coinage which have reached the Museum represent the largest known sample of money from this locality. Although we do not possess information about the archaeological context of these finds, their publication will contribute to a better understanding of the circulation of provincial coinage in Lower Pannonia and the neighbouring provinces during the 3rd century. As mentioned above, the 44 bronze pieces from the mint of Nicaea, in Bythinia, were obtained by the National Museum in Šabac. Of them, 14 belong to Alexander Severus (Cat. 1-14), two to Julia Mamea (coinage under Alexander Severus, Cat. 15-16) and 28 to Gordianus III (Cat. 17-44). Apart from the known obverse legends, one (Cat. 4) is singled out among the pieces of Alexander Severus with M AYPH CEV… in the obverse legend, instead of M AYP CEVH… as is usual. The situation is similar with one specimen of Gordianus III (Cat. 20) which, instead of M ANT ΓOPΔIA[NOC] ... reads M ANT ΓOPΔVA[NOC]. Besides these, there are no other particularities among the obverse legends and presentations. However, the situation is different with the reverse presentations, where we observed several new variants. Among the pieces of Alexander Severus there are four reverse types with three ensigns (types 1, 2, 13 (?) and 8), one type with an aquila between two ensigns (type 18) and two pieces for which it was impossible to determine the type (ref. 13). All defined types are known and represented in the collection of the Museum of the City of Belgrade and in the Viminatium necropolis called Više grobalja. Specimens of Julia Mamea are represented with two known motifs (type 2 and a variant of the type 9c). The first is known both from the collection of the Museum of the City of Belgrade and from the Više grobalja necropolis, while the 9c variant has so far only been found in the coinage of Alexander Severus on one specimen from the Više grobalja necropolis (ref. 14). The following motifs are represented on the coins of Gordianus III: three ensigns (type 5 (?), 9b (?), 11 (?), 12a and 12b), an aquila between two ensigns (types 14, 18, 18a and 18b), an aquila between two legionnaire capricorns (type 24), two legionnaire capricorns between two ensigns (type 27a, 28, 28 a and 28b), a capricorn between two ensigns (type 30 ?), and in three cases it was not possible to determine the type. This, relatively small number of coins of Gordianus III, made it possible to discern as many as four new variants within the types 18, 27 and 28. Two new variants, 18a (Cat. 30, fig. 1) and 18b (Cat. 31, fig. 2) were observed within type 18, variant 27a (Cat. 34-35, fig. 3) within type 27, and variant 28b (Cat. 40, fig. 4) within type 28. It emerges from this that the researcher's attention should be orientated towards the further completion of diverse iconographic motifs with military markings on Nicaean issues. The first to observe this was Nikola Crnobrnja who, while publishing the finds of Nicaean coins from the collection of the National Museum in Belgrade, recognised as many as 28 types in a sample of 155 pieces (ref. 15). Recently, the co-author of this paper, Mirjana Vojvoda, recognised four more new types and 25 variants of types, which were defined earlier by N. Crnobrnja, in a sample of 290 pieces of Nicaean coinage from the Viminatium necropolis of Više grobalja (ref. 16). A paper appeared at the same time, by Ilija Ivanović, who published 15 pieces of Nicaean coinage of Alexander Severus from the collection of the 'Vuk Karadžić' National Library in Veliko Gradište (ref. 17). In addition to these three collections, money from Nicaea has so far not been published separately in our country, except in several cases where it appeared as accompanying material in archaeological excavations, reconnoitering or as parts of private collections, represented by one or two pieces (ref. 19). Multiple conditions arose in the Danube and Balkan provinces in the 3rd century, which led to the mass appearance of Nicaean bronze money in circulation. This was especially true in the third and fourth decade, i.e. during the rule of Alexander Severus and Gordianus III. On the one hand, the appearance of a large quantity of coins from Nicaea in circulation in the Danube and Balkan provinces, was precipitated by the lack of small bronze coins of the Senate issues, which was probably the chief reason for the opening of mints for provincial coins in Viminatium, and then in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia) (ref. 25). It has been observed that after the year 239 and the start of operation of the mint in Viminatium, the Nicaean issues all but disappeared from circulation in the territories of Upper Moesia and Lower Pannonia where, obviously, the problem of the shortage of money was the most evident. The opening of the mint in Viminatium and the entry into circulation of its coins was immediately reflected in the reduced inflow of money of Gordianus III from the Nicaean mint. On the other hand, the highest concentration of money from Nicaea around Viminatium and, generally, along the Danube limes, is connected with the movement of military troops. More frequent movements of troops during the first half of the 3rd century, along the Danube limes and the road that led from Viminatium to Naissus and onwards through Thrace, to the Bosphorus, had influenced the significant frequency of coins from Bythinia. The highest concentration of finds of money from Nicaea is bound to the course of the Danube (Veliko Gradište, Viminatium, Belgrade, Zemun, Batajnica, Novi Banovci, Surduk, Beška, Vukovar, Osijek) (ref. 33). The lower course of the Sava navigable route also had great economic significance, primarily because of the position of Sirmium, which is proven by the numerous finds of coins - among others, Nicaean, which have been found along this route (Ušće, Hrtkovci, Sremska Mitrovica, Banovo Polje) (ref. 35, 36). Besides the natural conditions, the proximity of Sirmium, the most important centre in this part of Lower Pannonia, certainly had an impact on the development of agriculture in this region. The settlement on the locality of Duge Njive in Banovo Polje certainly had a close connection with the mentioned villas in the immediate vicinity (Crkvine I and II, Ključevi), and it is possible that workers employed on the neighbouring holdings lived there (ref. 40). In a wider context, it was definitely also linked with other holdings in the neighbourhood and, naturally, with Sirmium as the centre into which the goods poured and where trading took place. The find of the Nicaean mint's coins in Banovo Polje, although incomplete in the contextual sense, represents a significant contribution to the completion of the topography of such finds in the territory of Serbia.
PB  - Narodni muzej, Beograd i Srpsko numizmatičko društvo, Beograd
T2  - Numizmatičar
T1  - Novac bitinijske kovnice Nikeje iz Banovog polja u Mačvi
T1  - Coins of the Bithynian mint of Nicaea from Banovo polje in Mačva
EP  - 308
IS  - 29
SP  - 283
UR  - conv_169
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Vojvoda, Mirjana and Petrović, Slavoljub L.",
year = "2011",
abstract = "Narodni muzej u Šapcu dobio je u posed 44 primerka bronzanih izdanja bitinijske kovnice Nikeje. Svi primerci potiču iz sela Banovo Polje sa lokaliteta Duge njive i nađeni su slučajno prilikom poljoprivrednih radova. Među njima su primerci Aleksandra Severa, Julije Mamee i Gordijana III. Značajan broj pronađenih primeraka u Banovom Polju, upotpunjuje sliku o topografiji novca Nikeje u Srbiji, i u ovom delu zapadne Mačve i Podrinja., Thanks to a kind donor, in 2011, the National Museum in Šabac came into possession of 44 bronze coins from the Bithynian mint of Nicaea. They do not represent part of a collective find, but were unearthed one by one during agricultural works over a longer period of time, and originate from the locality of Duge Njive in the village of Banovo Polje (Municipality of Bogatić). The village is located in western Mačva, on the lower course of the River Zasavica, at a distance of approximately 3.5 kilometres from the River Sava, and eight kilometres northeast of the confluence of the Drina and the Sava rivers. The area of Duge Njive is located on the left bank of the Batar, just ahead of where its waters flow into those of the Zasavica (Map 1). This is a well known locality, registered for the first time in 1881 (ref.2). The reconnoitering of Mačva and Podrinje took place during the 1950s, but the biggest contribution was the exploration during the 1960s and 1970s by Milivoje Vasiljević and Vojislav Trbuhović, who also registered this locality (ref. 3). During the 1980s, Miloje Vasić dealt with the issues and systematisation of the Roman localities in Mačva and Podrinje and, in recent times, Slavoljub Petrović presented the money finds from these localities (ref. 4). By all accounts, on the basis of the results of field explorations that have been published so far, the remains found in the area of Duge Njive are that of a vicus or a small settlement. Besides the visible remnants of buildings, ancient money has been unearthed there over the years, of which some pieces are kept in the National Museum in Šabac (ref.5). Moreover, workers dug up an unknown large quantity of Roman coins in 1992 - a hoard by all indications. Unfortunately, the find has been largely dispersed and the Museum obtained eight specimens of the Antoninians of Probus. Three other Roman localities were registered in the immediate neighbourhood of this locality, in the territory of the same village - Crkvine I and II, and Ključevi, recorded as villae rusticae (ref. 7-9). A little to the west, on the border of the territories of Banovo Polje and Crne Bare, the remains of a villa rustica were also discovered, and a hoard of coins (ref. 10). According to known money finds, the possible date of the formation of the vicus in the area of Duge Njive was the middle of the 2nd century, but activity there was the most intense during the 3rd century. This is indicated by the finds of imperial coinage of Marcus Aurelius, Elagabalus and Probus, and the provincial coinage of Nicaea of Alexander Severus and Gordianus III. Besides the mentioned dispersed money hoard, finds of Nicaean coinage which have reached the Museum represent the largest known sample of money from this locality. Although we do not possess information about the archaeological context of these finds, their publication will contribute to a better understanding of the circulation of provincial coinage in Lower Pannonia and the neighbouring provinces during the 3rd century. As mentioned above, the 44 bronze pieces from the mint of Nicaea, in Bythinia, were obtained by the National Museum in Šabac. Of them, 14 belong to Alexander Severus (Cat. 1-14), two to Julia Mamea (coinage under Alexander Severus, Cat. 15-16) and 28 to Gordianus III (Cat. 17-44). Apart from the known obverse legends, one (Cat. 4) is singled out among the pieces of Alexander Severus with M AYPH CEV… in the obverse legend, instead of M AYP CEVH… as is usual. The situation is similar with one specimen of Gordianus III (Cat. 20) which, instead of M ANT ΓOPΔIA[NOC] ... reads M ANT ΓOPΔVA[NOC]. Besides these, there are no other particularities among the obverse legends and presentations. However, the situation is different with the reverse presentations, where we observed several new variants. Among the pieces of Alexander Severus there are four reverse types with three ensigns (types 1, 2, 13 (?) and 8), one type with an aquila between two ensigns (type 18) and two pieces for which it was impossible to determine the type (ref. 13). All defined types are known and represented in the collection of the Museum of the City of Belgrade and in the Viminatium necropolis called Više grobalja. Specimens of Julia Mamea are represented with two known motifs (type 2 and a variant of the type 9c). The first is known both from the collection of the Museum of the City of Belgrade and from the Više grobalja necropolis, while the 9c variant has so far only been found in the coinage of Alexander Severus on one specimen from the Više grobalja necropolis (ref. 14). The following motifs are represented on the coins of Gordianus III: three ensigns (type 5 (?), 9b (?), 11 (?), 12a and 12b), an aquila between two ensigns (types 14, 18, 18a and 18b), an aquila between two legionnaire capricorns (type 24), two legionnaire capricorns between two ensigns (type 27a, 28, 28 a and 28b), a capricorn between two ensigns (type 30 ?), and in three cases it was not possible to determine the type. This, relatively small number of coins of Gordianus III, made it possible to discern as many as four new variants within the types 18, 27 and 28. Two new variants, 18a (Cat. 30, fig. 1) and 18b (Cat. 31, fig. 2) were observed within type 18, variant 27a (Cat. 34-35, fig. 3) within type 27, and variant 28b (Cat. 40, fig. 4) within type 28. It emerges from this that the researcher's attention should be orientated towards the further completion of diverse iconographic motifs with military markings on Nicaean issues. The first to observe this was Nikola Crnobrnja who, while publishing the finds of Nicaean coins from the collection of the National Museum in Belgrade, recognised as many as 28 types in a sample of 155 pieces (ref. 15). Recently, the co-author of this paper, Mirjana Vojvoda, recognised four more new types and 25 variants of types, which were defined earlier by N. Crnobrnja, in a sample of 290 pieces of Nicaean coinage from the Viminatium necropolis of Više grobalja (ref. 16). A paper appeared at the same time, by Ilija Ivanović, who published 15 pieces of Nicaean coinage of Alexander Severus from the collection of the 'Vuk Karadžić' National Library in Veliko Gradište (ref. 17). In addition to these three collections, money from Nicaea has so far not been published separately in our country, except in several cases where it appeared as accompanying material in archaeological excavations, reconnoitering or as parts of private collections, represented by one or two pieces (ref. 19). Multiple conditions arose in the Danube and Balkan provinces in the 3rd century, which led to the mass appearance of Nicaean bronze money in circulation. This was especially true in the third and fourth decade, i.e. during the rule of Alexander Severus and Gordianus III. On the one hand, the appearance of a large quantity of coins from Nicaea in circulation in the Danube and Balkan provinces, was precipitated by the lack of small bronze coins of the Senate issues, which was probably the chief reason for the opening of mints for provincial coins in Viminatium, and then in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia) (ref. 25). It has been observed that after the year 239 and the start of operation of the mint in Viminatium, the Nicaean issues all but disappeared from circulation in the territories of Upper Moesia and Lower Pannonia where, obviously, the problem of the shortage of money was the most evident. The opening of the mint in Viminatium and the entry into circulation of its coins was immediately reflected in the reduced inflow of money of Gordianus III from the Nicaean mint. On the other hand, the highest concentration of money from Nicaea around Viminatium and, generally, along the Danube limes, is connected with the movement of military troops. More frequent movements of troops during the first half of the 3rd century, along the Danube limes and the road that led from Viminatium to Naissus and onwards through Thrace, to the Bosphorus, had influenced the significant frequency of coins from Bythinia. The highest concentration of finds of money from Nicaea is bound to the course of the Danube (Veliko Gradište, Viminatium, Belgrade, Zemun, Batajnica, Novi Banovci, Surduk, Beška, Vukovar, Osijek) (ref. 33). The lower course of the Sava navigable route also had great economic significance, primarily because of the position of Sirmium, which is proven by the numerous finds of coins - among others, Nicaean, which have been found along this route (Ušće, Hrtkovci, Sremska Mitrovica, Banovo Polje) (ref. 35, 36). Besides the natural conditions, the proximity of Sirmium, the most important centre in this part of Lower Pannonia, certainly had an impact on the development of agriculture in this region. The settlement on the locality of Duge Njive in Banovo Polje certainly had a close connection with the mentioned villas in the immediate vicinity (Crkvine I and II, Ključevi), and it is possible that workers employed on the neighbouring holdings lived there (ref. 40). In a wider context, it was definitely also linked with other holdings in the neighbourhood and, naturally, with Sirmium as the centre into which the goods poured and where trading took place. The find of the Nicaean mint's coins in Banovo Polje, although incomplete in the contextual sense, represents a significant contribution to the completion of the topography of such finds in the territory of Serbia.",
publisher = "Narodni muzej, Beograd i Srpsko numizmatičko društvo, Beograd",
journal = "Numizmatičar",
title = "Novac bitinijske kovnice Nikeje iz Banovog polja u Mačvi, Coins of the Bithynian mint of Nicaea from Banovo polje in Mačva",
pages = "308-283",
number = "29",
url = "conv_169"
}
Vojvoda, M.,& Petrović, S. L.. (2011). Novac bitinijske kovnice Nikeje iz Banovog polja u Mačvi. in Numizmatičar
Narodni muzej, Beograd i Srpsko numizmatičko društvo, Beograd.(29), 283-308.
conv_169
Vojvoda M, Petrović SL. Novac bitinijske kovnice Nikeje iz Banovog polja u Mačvi. in Numizmatičar. 2011;(29):283-308.
conv_169 .
Vojvoda, Mirjana, Petrović, Slavoljub L., "Novac bitinijske kovnice Nikeje iz Banovog polja u Mačvi" in Numizmatičar, no. 29 (2011):283-308,
conv_169 .

Ostava rimskog novca iz Čortanovaca u Sremu

Borić-Brešković, Bojana; Vojvoda, Mirjana

(Narodni muzej, Beograd i Srpsko numizmatičko društvo, Beograd, 2011)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Borić-Brešković, Bojana
AU  - Vojvoda, Mirjana
PY  - 2011
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/129
AB  - Ostava rimskog novca iz Čortanovaca u Sremu sadrži 2457 denara, jednu likijsku i jednu drahmu iskovanu u pontskoj kovnici Amisus. Otkupljena je za Narodni Muzej u Beogradu početkom 1933, ali nije izvesno da je u punom sastavu došla u Muzej. Najstariji primerci su denari Marka Antonija (32-31. p.n.e.), odnosno Nerona (64-65), a najmlađi Septimija Severa i Karakale pod Severom, datovani u 210. Treća je poznata ostava sa teritorije rimske provincije Donje Panonije iz Severovog vremena. U Gornjoj Panoniji zabeležene su tri, na teritoriji Gornje Mezije jedna, dok se njihov broj umnožava u Donjoj Meziji, Dakiji i posebno barbarikumu (27). Čortanovci su poznati po rimskom vojnom logoru na dunavskom limesu, ali njihovo rimsko ime nije poznato. Pripadali su teritoriji Basijana. Novija istraživanja i rekognosciranja ovog terena pokazala su da u okolini kastela i na trasi puta uz Dunav, od Petrovaradina preko Sremskih Karlovaca do Čortanovaca, postoje vile rustike i drugi ostaci iz rimskog doba, koji se uglavnom vezuju za vreme kasne antike. Osim velike ostave srebrnog rimskog novca, malo je podataka o drugim monetarnim nalazima. Jedan as Faustine II nađen je na lokalitetu Prosjanice u blizini kastela i sa istog lokaliteta potiču antoninijan Klaudija II i 13 primeraka kasnoantičkog bakarnog novca. U nalazu iz Čortanovaca prisutan je novac 25 vladara i članova njihovih porodica u rasponu od 242 godine (32/31. p.n.e. - 210. n.e.). Analiza procentualne zastupljenosti pokazuje da je najveći deo ostave prikupljen tokom II veka (82,87%) i da je tezauracija, započeta u vreme Vespazijana i nastavljena pod Trajanom i Hadrijanom, bila naročito intenzivirana za vladavine Antonina Pija. Pod Markom Aurelijem beleži pad, pokazuje značajniji zastoj u Komodovo vreme i novi uzlet u doba Severa. Kovanja Marka Antonija i izdanja do Trajana predstavljaju uglavnom relikte ranijeg opticajnog novca (Table 2, Graph 1). Podaci o godišnjem prilivu u ostavu razlikuju se kada je reč o kovanju Marka Antonija, Tita i Vespazijana zbog njihove kratkotrajne ili kraće vladavine u poređenju sa dužinom vladavine careva II veka. Godišnji priliv za vladare II veka se ne menja bitno u odnosu na njihovu ukupnu procentualnu zastupljenost osim kod Antonina Pija i Septimija Severa, koji pokazuju najveći godišnji priliv, ali sada u obrnutom odnosu i sa prevagom izdanja iz severijanskog razdoblja (Table 3, Graph 2). Najstariji primerci u nalazu su legionarski denari Marka Antonija iz 32/31. p.n.e. (52), a slede Neronovi (20) kovani između 64/65. i 67/68. Malobrojna izdanja Galbe (1), Otona (1) i Vitelija (3) osetno su ispod prosečne zastupljenosti u ostalim ostavama podunavsko-balkanskih provincija koje obuhvataju sličan vremenski interval. Izdanja Vespazijana i porodice (225) u okvirima su proseka, samostalna Titova (40) ispod proseka, slično kao i Domicijanova (55), kovana između 81/82. i 95/96. i sa hijatom od 82. do 87. Nerva (24) odgovara srednjim vrednostima za njegove emisije u podunavskim ostavama. Trajanova izdanja (289 denara i jedna drahma maloazijske Likije) zastupljena su u istom broju kao Hadrijan i porodica sa razlikom što je Hadrijanova drahma za Sabinu kovana u pontskoj kovnici Amisus. U ostavama sa teritorije Srbije zabeleženo je dosada još šest likijskih, četiri drahme Cezareje kapadokijske i tri drahme Amisusa. Hadrijanovo učešće je u većoj meri nego kod Trajana ispod proseka za podunavsko-balkanske nalaze, izuzimajući gornjopanonske sa sličnim prosekom. Procentualna zastupljenost Antonina Pija i porodice (527) je ponovo niža od vrednosti u ostalim ostavama, kao i Marka Aurelija (308), koja je još niža osim kod ostava iz Donje Mezije, dok su Komodova carska izdanja (112) u granicama proseka za donjopanonske nalaze, ali nadmašuju vrednosti u drugim podunavsko-balkanskim provincijama. Najbrojnija su izdanja severijanskog razdoblja (511) i od tada se pored denara iz rimske kovnice pojavljuju i denari iz istočnih kovnica - Emese i Laodikeje (67), kovani za Septimija Severa i Juliju Domnu. Do severijanskih emisija, osim jednog već poznatog hibridnog primerka (Hadrijan - kat. 978), uočeno je više varijeteta nezabeleženih u referentnom korpusu Roman Imperial Coinage: veći broj varijanti, uglavnom u aversnoj predstavi ili primerci koji nisu pravilno opisani (Trajan, Hadrijan, Antonin Pije i porodica, doba Marka Aurelija, Komod); nekoliko hibridnih denara (cezarska izdanja Marka Aurelija - kat. 1501 i Komoda - kat. 1773) ili hibrid/denar koji upotpunjuje seriju (?) (Domicijan kao cezar - kat. 335); denari koji pokazuju da je isto kovanje u zlatu imalo pandan i u srebru (Trajan - kat. 656, 657, deifikovana Faustina I - kat. 1420, Lucije Ver - kat. 1761); tipovi nezabeleženi u referentnom korpusu (Domicijan - kat. 358, Antonin Pije - kat. 1015, 1017, 1271, Marko Aurelije - kat. 1542, 1693, 1699, 1700, Komod - kat. 1855); neregularno kovanje (A. Pije za Faustinu II - kat. 1528). Pored manjih varijanti već prisutnih u RIC-u (kat. 2396, 2401), najviše novih tipoloških kombinacija pojavljuje se Severovom kovanju i gotovo sve potiču iz istočnih kovnica: Emesa - nepoznati u referentnom korpusu (kat. 2365, 2366, 2372, 2375), hibridni primerak (kat. 2397); Laodikeja - varijante (kat. 2406, 2409), nepoznati u referentnom korpusu (kat. 2403, 2407, 2408), hibrid ili regularno kovanje (kat. 2416); varvarska imitacija (kat. 2418). Među primercima rimske kovnice javlja se još jedna hibridna vrsta sa aversom Karakale i reversom Septimija Severa (kat. 2458). Horizont ostava iz razdoblja Septimija Severa u Donjoj Panoniji, osim čortanovačke, obuhvata samo dve ostave bitno drugačije strukture: ne sadrže novac I veka i obe se završavaju malim brojem Severovih primeraka bez učešća članova porodice zbog čega pokazuju niske procente njegovih emisija - Karejenon (2,64%) i Menden (0,97%). Nizak procenat (0,66%) beleži i nalaz iz okoline Požarevca, jedini sa teritorije Gornje Mezije i datovan u prvu deceniju Severove vlade (tpq. 198. ili 199-200). S druge strane, vrlo visoke vrednosti pokazuju ostave iz Gornje Panonije (22,45%) i Donje Mezije (19,62%), dok se u ostavama iz Dakije i barbarikuma, datovanim uglavnom nešto ranije (193-198) procenat Severovih izdanja kreće od 0,13% do 4,76%. Na osnovu izvedene analize može se uslovno zaključiti (za jedan broj ostava ne raspolažemo potpunim podacima o njihovom sadržaju i datovanju) da se ostava iz Čortanovaca po sastavu izdvaja od drugih nalaza Severovog horizonta sa prostora podunavskih provincija. Zapaža se da kraj njegove vladavine predstavlja prelomnutačku u tezauraciji i da ostave pohranjene tokom II veka i ostale do 211. imaju drugačiju strukturu od ostava zakopanih u kasnijim godinama III veka kada tezauracija započinje uglavnom u vreme Antonina. Najmlađim emisijama u ostavi iz Čortanovaca pripadaju tri denara Septimija Severa iz rimske kovnice sa aversnom legendom SEVERVS PIVS AVG BRIT. Autori RIC-a primerak sa reversom P M TR P XVIII COS III P P (Jupiter) datuju kao drugu seriju iz 210 (kat. 2309), dok druga dva sa reversom VICTORIAE BRIT (Viktorija) uključuju u nedatovanu emisiju iz 210-211 (kat. 2354, 2355). Najmlađi denar Karakale koji u aversnoj titulaturi sadrži takođe naziv BRIT(annicus), a na reversu predstavu Viktorije i isti natpis VICTORIAE BRIT (kat. 2458) vezuju za interval 210-213. Prema novijoj hronologiji F. Hila, koji je izdvojio pet emisija izdatih tokom 210, najmlađi primerci u ovom nalazu bili bi datovani u 210. i razvrstani u 1. emisiju (jan.) - Severov denar sa TR P XVIII i u posebnu emisiju (Victories in Britain 2) - dva Severova i jedan Karakalin denar sa pobedničkim nazivom BRIT na aversu i reversom VICTORIAE BRIT. Tako bi 210. godina, ujedno godina tokom koje je vođena druga Severova britanska kampanja, predstavljala najraniji terminus a quo zakopavanja nalaza iz Čortanovaca. Septimije Sever, Karakala i Geta su dobili titule Britannicus Max(imus) već početkom 210, proslavljajući i posebnim monetarnim serijama uspehe na britanskom tlu od kojih su dve prisutne u nalazu iz Čortanovaca. Posle Severove smrti 4. februara 211. Karakala je sklopio mir sa neprijateljem i počeo pripreme za povratak u Rim. U traženju povoda za pohranjivanja ostave iz Čortanovaca mala je verovatnoća da je reč o nekoj opasnosti od varvarskog upada. To je vreme prosperiteta provincije tokom kojeg je Septimije Sever nastojao da Panoniju povrati od uništenja izazvanih Markomanskim ratovima i obezbedi njen ekonomski napredak. Odgovore bi, najverovatnije, trebalo tražiti u nekim privatnim razlozima, ubiranju poreza, delovanju pljačkaša ili povećanom kretanju stanovništva povezanom sa čestim razmeštanjem vojnih jedinica. Među njima, iako samo u sferi pretpostavki, izvestan oslonac nalazimo u poznatim velikim konfiskacijama zemljišnih poseda, visokim taksama i promenama u sistemu upravljanja sprovođenim za vreme vladavine Septimija Severa.
AB  - The hoard of Roman coins from Čortanovci in Srem contains 2,457 denarii, one Lycian drachma and one drachma minted in the mint of Amisus, in Pontus. The oldest coins in the find are the denarii of Marcus Antonius/Nero, and the latest, those of Septimius Severus and Caracalla under Severus. The terminus a quo of the deposition of the find is provided by the denarii belonging to issue 1 (Jan.) - one denarius of Severus, and the Special Issue (Victories in Britain 2) - two denarii of Severus and one of Caracalla, all dated to 210. As the hoard did not reach the National Museum in its entirety, the possibility remains open for a somewhat later dating. The cause for the deposition of this large find should probably be sought in some reasons that could have been influenced by Severus' internal policy.
PB  - Narodni muzej, Beograd i Srpsko numizmatičko društvo, Beograd
T2  - Numizmatičar
T1  - Ostava rimskog novca iz Čortanovaca u Sremu
T1  - A hoard of roman coins from Čortanovci in Srem
EP  - 281
IS  - 29
SP  - 9
UR  - conv_168
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Borić-Brešković, Bojana and Vojvoda, Mirjana",
year = "2011",
abstract = "Ostava rimskog novca iz Čortanovaca u Sremu sadrži 2457 denara, jednu likijsku i jednu drahmu iskovanu u pontskoj kovnici Amisus. Otkupljena je za Narodni Muzej u Beogradu početkom 1933, ali nije izvesno da je u punom sastavu došla u Muzej. Najstariji primerci su denari Marka Antonija (32-31. p.n.e.), odnosno Nerona (64-65), a najmlađi Septimija Severa i Karakale pod Severom, datovani u 210. Treća je poznata ostava sa teritorije rimske provincije Donje Panonije iz Severovog vremena. U Gornjoj Panoniji zabeležene su tri, na teritoriji Gornje Mezije jedna, dok se njihov broj umnožava u Donjoj Meziji, Dakiji i posebno barbarikumu (27). Čortanovci su poznati po rimskom vojnom logoru na dunavskom limesu, ali njihovo rimsko ime nije poznato. Pripadali su teritoriji Basijana. Novija istraživanja i rekognosciranja ovog terena pokazala su da u okolini kastela i na trasi puta uz Dunav, od Petrovaradina preko Sremskih Karlovaca do Čortanovaca, postoje vile rustike i drugi ostaci iz rimskog doba, koji se uglavnom vezuju za vreme kasne antike. Osim velike ostave srebrnog rimskog novca, malo je podataka o drugim monetarnim nalazima. Jedan as Faustine II nađen je na lokalitetu Prosjanice u blizini kastela i sa istog lokaliteta potiču antoninijan Klaudija II i 13 primeraka kasnoantičkog bakarnog novca. U nalazu iz Čortanovaca prisutan je novac 25 vladara i članova njihovih porodica u rasponu od 242 godine (32/31. p.n.e. - 210. n.e.). Analiza procentualne zastupljenosti pokazuje da je najveći deo ostave prikupljen tokom II veka (82,87%) i da je tezauracija, započeta u vreme Vespazijana i nastavljena pod Trajanom i Hadrijanom, bila naročito intenzivirana za vladavine Antonina Pija. Pod Markom Aurelijem beleži pad, pokazuje značajniji zastoj u Komodovo vreme i novi uzlet u doba Severa. Kovanja Marka Antonija i izdanja do Trajana predstavljaju uglavnom relikte ranijeg opticajnog novca (Table 2, Graph 1). Podaci o godišnjem prilivu u ostavu razlikuju se kada je reč o kovanju Marka Antonija, Tita i Vespazijana zbog njihove kratkotrajne ili kraće vladavine u poređenju sa dužinom vladavine careva II veka. Godišnji priliv za vladare II veka se ne menja bitno u odnosu na njihovu ukupnu procentualnu zastupljenost osim kod Antonina Pija i Septimija Severa, koji pokazuju najveći godišnji priliv, ali sada u obrnutom odnosu i sa prevagom izdanja iz severijanskog razdoblja (Table 3, Graph 2). Najstariji primerci u nalazu su legionarski denari Marka Antonija iz 32/31. p.n.e. (52), a slede Neronovi (20) kovani između 64/65. i 67/68. Malobrojna izdanja Galbe (1), Otona (1) i Vitelija (3) osetno su ispod prosečne zastupljenosti u ostalim ostavama podunavsko-balkanskih provincija koje obuhvataju sličan vremenski interval. Izdanja Vespazijana i porodice (225) u okvirima su proseka, samostalna Titova (40) ispod proseka, slično kao i Domicijanova (55), kovana između 81/82. i 95/96. i sa hijatom od 82. do 87. Nerva (24) odgovara srednjim vrednostima za njegove emisije u podunavskim ostavama. Trajanova izdanja (289 denara i jedna drahma maloazijske Likije) zastupljena su u istom broju kao Hadrijan i porodica sa razlikom što je Hadrijanova drahma za Sabinu kovana u pontskoj kovnici Amisus. U ostavama sa teritorije Srbije zabeleženo je dosada još šest likijskih, četiri drahme Cezareje kapadokijske i tri drahme Amisusa. Hadrijanovo učešće je u većoj meri nego kod Trajana ispod proseka za podunavsko-balkanske nalaze, izuzimajući gornjopanonske sa sličnim prosekom. Procentualna zastupljenost Antonina Pija i porodice (527) je ponovo niža od vrednosti u ostalim ostavama, kao i Marka Aurelija (308), koja je još niža osim kod ostava iz Donje Mezije, dok su Komodova carska izdanja (112) u granicama proseka za donjopanonske nalaze, ali nadmašuju vrednosti u drugim podunavsko-balkanskim provincijama. Najbrojnija su izdanja severijanskog razdoblja (511) i od tada se pored denara iz rimske kovnice pojavljuju i denari iz istočnih kovnica - Emese i Laodikeje (67), kovani za Septimija Severa i Juliju Domnu. Do severijanskih emisija, osim jednog već poznatog hibridnog primerka (Hadrijan - kat. 978), uočeno je više varijeteta nezabeleženih u referentnom korpusu Roman Imperial Coinage: veći broj varijanti, uglavnom u aversnoj predstavi ili primerci koji nisu pravilno opisani (Trajan, Hadrijan, Antonin Pije i porodica, doba Marka Aurelija, Komod); nekoliko hibridnih denara (cezarska izdanja Marka Aurelija - kat. 1501 i Komoda - kat. 1773) ili hibrid/denar koji upotpunjuje seriju (?) (Domicijan kao cezar - kat. 335); denari koji pokazuju da je isto kovanje u zlatu imalo pandan i u srebru (Trajan - kat. 656, 657, deifikovana Faustina I - kat. 1420, Lucije Ver - kat. 1761); tipovi nezabeleženi u referentnom korpusu (Domicijan - kat. 358, Antonin Pije - kat. 1015, 1017, 1271, Marko Aurelije - kat. 1542, 1693, 1699, 1700, Komod - kat. 1855); neregularno kovanje (A. Pije za Faustinu II - kat. 1528). Pored manjih varijanti već prisutnih u RIC-u (kat. 2396, 2401), najviše novih tipoloških kombinacija pojavljuje se Severovom kovanju i gotovo sve potiču iz istočnih kovnica: Emesa - nepoznati u referentnom korpusu (kat. 2365, 2366, 2372, 2375), hibridni primerak (kat. 2397); Laodikeja - varijante (kat. 2406, 2409), nepoznati u referentnom korpusu (kat. 2403, 2407, 2408), hibrid ili regularno kovanje (kat. 2416); varvarska imitacija (kat. 2418). Među primercima rimske kovnice javlja se još jedna hibridna vrsta sa aversom Karakale i reversom Septimija Severa (kat. 2458). Horizont ostava iz razdoblja Septimija Severa u Donjoj Panoniji, osim čortanovačke, obuhvata samo dve ostave bitno drugačije strukture: ne sadrže novac I veka i obe se završavaju malim brojem Severovih primeraka bez učešća članova porodice zbog čega pokazuju niske procente njegovih emisija - Karejenon (2,64%) i Menden (0,97%). Nizak procenat (0,66%) beleži i nalaz iz okoline Požarevca, jedini sa teritorije Gornje Mezije i datovan u prvu deceniju Severove vlade (tpq. 198. ili 199-200). S druge strane, vrlo visoke vrednosti pokazuju ostave iz Gornje Panonije (22,45%) i Donje Mezije (19,62%), dok se u ostavama iz Dakije i barbarikuma, datovanim uglavnom nešto ranije (193-198) procenat Severovih izdanja kreće od 0,13% do 4,76%. Na osnovu izvedene analize može se uslovno zaključiti (za jedan broj ostava ne raspolažemo potpunim podacima o njihovom sadržaju i datovanju) da se ostava iz Čortanovaca po sastavu izdvaja od drugih nalaza Severovog horizonta sa prostora podunavskih provincija. Zapaža se da kraj njegove vladavine predstavlja prelomnutačku u tezauraciji i da ostave pohranjene tokom II veka i ostale do 211. imaju drugačiju strukturu od ostava zakopanih u kasnijim godinama III veka kada tezauracija započinje uglavnom u vreme Antonina. Najmlađim emisijama u ostavi iz Čortanovaca pripadaju tri denara Septimija Severa iz rimske kovnice sa aversnom legendom SEVERVS PIVS AVG BRIT. Autori RIC-a primerak sa reversom P M TR P XVIII COS III P P (Jupiter) datuju kao drugu seriju iz 210 (kat. 2309), dok druga dva sa reversom VICTORIAE BRIT (Viktorija) uključuju u nedatovanu emisiju iz 210-211 (kat. 2354, 2355). Najmlađi denar Karakale koji u aversnoj titulaturi sadrži takođe naziv BRIT(annicus), a na reversu predstavu Viktorije i isti natpis VICTORIAE BRIT (kat. 2458) vezuju za interval 210-213. Prema novijoj hronologiji F. Hila, koji je izdvojio pet emisija izdatih tokom 210, najmlađi primerci u ovom nalazu bili bi datovani u 210. i razvrstani u 1. emisiju (jan.) - Severov denar sa TR P XVIII i u posebnu emisiju (Victories in Britain 2) - dva Severova i jedan Karakalin denar sa pobedničkim nazivom BRIT na aversu i reversom VICTORIAE BRIT. Tako bi 210. godina, ujedno godina tokom koje je vođena druga Severova britanska kampanja, predstavljala najraniji terminus a quo zakopavanja nalaza iz Čortanovaca. Septimije Sever, Karakala i Geta su dobili titule Britannicus Max(imus) već početkom 210, proslavljajući i posebnim monetarnim serijama uspehe na britanskom tlu od kojih su dve prisutne u nalazu iz Čortanovaca. Posle Severove smrti 4. februara 211. Karakala je sklopio mir sa neprijateljem i počeo pripreme za povratak u Rim. U traženju povoda za pohranjivanja ostave iz Čortanovaca mala je verovatnoća da je reč o nekoj opasnosti od varvarskog upada. To je vreme prosperiteta provincije tokom kojeg je Septimije Sever nastojao da Panoniju povrati od uništenja izazvanih Markomanskim ratovima i obezbedi njen ekonomski napredak. Odgovore bi, najverovatnije, trebalo tražiti u nekim privatnim razlozima, ubiranju poreza, delovanju pljačkaša ili povećanom kretanju stanovništva povezanom sa čestim razmeštanjem vojnih jedinica. Među njima, iako samo u sferi pretpostavki, izvestan oslonac nalazimo u poznatim velikim konfiskacijama zemljišnih poseda, visokim taksama i promenama u sistemu upravljanja sprovođenim za vreme vladavine Septimija Severa., The hoard of Roman coins from Čortanovci in Srem contains 2,457 denarii, one Lycian drachma and one drachma minted in the mint of Amisus, in Pontus. The oldest coins in the find are the denarii of Marcus Antonius/Nero, and the latest, those of Septimius Severus and Caracalla under Severus. The terminus a quo of the deposition of the find is provided by the denarii belonging to issue 1 (Jan.) - one denarius of Severus, and the Special Issue (Victories in Britain 2) - two denarii of Severus and one of Caracalla, all dated to 210. As the hoard did not reach the National Museum in its entirety, the possibility remains open for a somewhat later dating. The cause for the deposition of this large find should probably be sought in some reasons that could have been influenced by Severus' internal policy.",
publisher = "Narodni muzej, Beograd i Srpsko numizmatičko društvo, Beograd",
journal = "Numizmatičar",
title = "Ostava rimskog novca iz Čortanovaca u Sremu, A hoard of roman coins from Čortanovci in Srem",
pages = "281-9",
number = "29",
url = "conv_168"
}
Borić-Brešković, B.,& Vojvoda, M.. (2011). Ostava rimskog novca iz Čortanovaca u Sremu. in Numizmatičar
Narodni muzej, Beograd i Srpsko numizmatičko društvo, Beograd.(29), 9-281.
conv_168
Borić-Brešković B, Vojvoda M. Ostava rimskog novca iz Čortanovaca u Sremu. in Numizmatičar. 2011;(29):9-281.
conv_168 .
Borić-Brešković, Bojana, Vojvoda, Mirjana, "Ostava rimskog novca iz Čortanovaca u Sremu" in Numizmatičar, no. 29 (2011):9-281,
conv_168 .