Bankoff, Arthur H.

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  • Bankoff, Arthur H. (7)
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Author's Bibliography

Provenance of tin in the Late Bronze Age balkans based on probabilistic and spatial analysis of Sn isotopes

Mason, Andrea; Powell, Wayne; Bankoff, Arthur H.; Mathur, Ryan; Price, M.; Bulatović, Aleksandar; Filipović, Vojislav

(Elsevier Inc., 2020)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Mason, Andrea
AU  - Powell, Wayne
AU  - Bankoff, Arthur H.
AU  - Mathur, Ryan
AU  - Price, M.
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Filipović, Vojislav
PY  - 2020
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/336
AB  - We report the largest published dataset to date of Sn-isotopic compositions of Bronze Age artifacts (338) along with 150 cassiterite samples (75 new) from six potential tin ore sources from which the tin in these artifacts were thought to have likely originated. The artifacts are from a broad area, Central Europe through the Central Balkans, and the six tin sources are Cornwall, three sites in the Erzgebirge, and two sites in Serbia. A clustering analysis on mean site-level isotopic values of δ124Sn identifies regional variation that can be attributed to the use of different tin ore sources in different regions. Therefore, geographically meaningful regions were identified to group the Bronze Age artifact assemblages and a probabilistic, Bayesian analysis was performed to determine the proportional contribution of each tin source to each regional assemblage. Artifacts enriched in heavy isotopes (δ124Sn > 0.7‰) that cluster in west-central Serbia are likely associated with the ores from Mt. Cer in west Serbia. Mixed artifact assemblages (high and low δ124Sn) in this region are attributed to the use of cassiterite from the two Serbian sites (Mt. Cer and Mt. Bukulja). Moderate composition artifacts that occur north of the Middle Danube in Vojvodina, Transylvania, and Central Europe are likely associated primarily with ores from the West Pluton of the Erzgebirge. Compositionally light bronzes (δ124Sn < 0.2‰) in southern Serbia and the lower Danube river valley cannot be linked to a documented ore source. There is no indication of the use of ores from Cornwall or the East Pluton of the Erzgebirge in Central Europe and the Balkans during the Late Bronze Age.
PB  - Elsevier Inc.
T2  - Journal of Archaeological Science
T1  - Provenance of tin in the Late Bronze Age balkans based on probabilistic and spatial analysis of Sn isotopes
VL  - 122
DO  - 10.1016/j.jas.2020.105181
UR  - conv_469
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Mason, Andrea and Powell, Wayne and Bankoff, Arthur H. and Mathur, Ryan and Price, M. and Bulatović, Aleksandar and Filipović, Vojislav",
year = "2020",
abstract = "We report the largest published dataset to date of Sn-isotopic compositions of Bronze Age artifacts (338) along with 150 cassiterite samples (75 new) from six potential tin ore sources from which the tin in these artifacts were thought to have likely originated. The artifacts are from a broad area, Central Europe through the Central Balkans, and the six tin sources are Cornwall, three sites in the Erzgebirge, and two sites in Serbia. A clustering analysis on mean site-level isotopic values of δ124Sn identifies regional variation that can be attributed to the use of different tin ore sources in different regions. Therefore, geographically meaningful regions were identified to group the Bronze Age artifact assemblages and a probabilistic, Bayesian analysis was performed to determine the proportional contribution of each tin source to each regional assemblage. Artifacts enriched in heavy isotopes (δ124Sn > 0.7‰) that cluster in west-central Serbia are likely associated with the ores from Mt. Cer in west Serbia. Mixed artifact assemblages (high and low δ124Sn) in this region are attributed to the use of cassiterite from the two Serbian sites (Mt. Cer and Mt. Bukulja). Moderate composition artifacts that occur north of the Middle Danube in Vojvodina, Transylvania, and Central Europe are likely associated primarily with ores from the West Pluton of the Erzgebirge. Compositionally light bronzes (δ124Sn < 0.2‰) in southern Serbia and the lower Danube river valley cannot be linked to a documented ore source. There is no indication of the use of ores from Cornwall or the East Pluton of the Erzgebirge in Central Europe and the Balkans during the Late Bronze Age.",
publisher = "Elsevier Inc.",
journal = "Journal of Archaeological Science",
title = "Provenance of tin in the Late Bronze Age balkans based on probabilistic and spatial analysis of Sn isotopes",
volume = "122",
doi = "10.1016/j.jas.2020.105181",
url = "conv_469"
}
Mason, A., Powell, W., Bankoff, A. H., Mathur, R., Price, M., Bulatović, A.,& Filipović, V.. (2020). Provenance of tin in the Late Bronze Age balkans based on probabilistic and spatial analysis of Sn isotopes. in Journal of Archaeological Science
Elsevier Inc.., 122.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2020.105181
conv_469
Mason A, Powell W, Bankoff AH, Mathur R, Price M, Bulatović A, Filipović V. Provenance of tin in the Late Bronze Age balkans based on probabilistic and spatial analysis of Sn isotopes. in Journal of Archaeological Science. 2020;122.
doi:10.1016/j.jas.2020.105181
conv_469 .
Mason, Andrea, Powell, Wayne, Bankoff, Arthur H., Mathur, Ryan, Price, M., Bulatović, Aleksandar, Filipović, Vojislav, "Provenance of tin in the Late Bronze Age balkans based on probabilistic and spatial analysis of Sn isotopes" in Journal of Archaeological Science, 122 (2020),
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2020.105181 .,
conv_469 .
9
11
12

Neke zabeleške o genezi ranog eneolita na centralnom Balkanu

Bulatović, Aleksandar; Bulatović, Aleksandar; Bankoff, Arthur H.; Powell, Wayne; Filipović, Vojislav

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2020)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Bankoff, Arthur H.
AU  - Powell, Wayne
AU  - Filipović, Vojislav
PY  - 2020
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/344
AB  - U ovoj studiji reč je o nedovoljno jasno definisanom periodu na kraju neolita i početku eneolita na centralnom Balkanu. Glavna tema ovog teksta nisu razvoj i dezintegracija pozne vinčanske kulture, o čemu je dosta pisano u poslednje vreme, nego karakter i hronologija odnosa između pozne vinčanske kulture i ranoeneolitske grupe koja će je naslediti na ovoj teritoriji (Bubanj - Hum I kao regionalna varijanta kompleksa Bubanj-Salkuca-Krivodol - skraćeno BSK), kao i proces nastanka te grupe. Ova studija, stoga, analizira određene karakteristične keramičke forme koje potiču isključivo sa apsolutno datiranih lokaliteta, jednoslojnih ili onih sa dobro definisanom vertikalnom stratigrafijom, kao i hronologiju (apsolutne datume) kasnovinčanske kulture i grupe Bubanj - Hum I na centralnom Balkanu. Zbog specifičnih geografskih karakteristika centralnog Balkana, ali i radi lakšeg praćenja izlaganja, teritorija centralnog Balkana interpretirana je u radu putem dve zasebne geografske regije - prelazne regije (deo Posavine i Podrinja, baseni Jadra, Kolubare, Tamnave i donjeg toka Velike Morave, planina Cer, kao i pobrđe na jugu i istoku ograničeno planinama Gučevo, Povlen, Maljen, Suvobor i Rudnik) i planinske regije (planinska oblast centralnog Balkana). Analiza stilskih i tipoloških karakteristika keramike ukazala je na brojne zajedničke keramičke forme koje se javljaju kako u vinčanskoj kulturi (posebno kasnoj vinčanskoj kulturi), tako i u grupi Bubanj - Hum I. Razlike se uočavaju u površinskoj obradi, kvalitetu grnčarije i tehnici i motivima ukrašavanja. Teritorija grupe Bubanj - Hum I, takođe, u velikoj meri podudara se sa teritorijom kasnovinčanske kulture, a zanimljivo je da najraniji datumi za BSK kompleks, uključujući grupu Bubanj - Hum I, potiču sa perifernih područja njegove teritorije (Spančevo u dolini Bregalnice, Bodnjik u takozvanoj prelaznoj regiji centralnog Balkana i Ostorvul Corbului u Olteniji), što može da ukazuje na to da je ovaj ranoeneolitski kompleks proistekao iz vinčanske kulture i da se razvijao približno istovremeno u svim regionima počevši od oko 4450-4400. pre n. e. Ovi podaci bi mogli da dovedu u pitanje prethodnu tezu o raspadu vinčanske kulture i formiranju grupe Bubanj - Hum I, koja je isticala ulogu migracija stanovništva sa istoka u tom procesu, te da ukažu na to da je ranoeneolitski kompleks nastao približno istovremeno na celokupnoj svojoj teritoriji, na manje-više jedinstvenim, a najvećim delom autohtonim kulturnim osnovama. Rezultati analiza stilsko-tipoloških odlika karakterističnih keramičkih formi vinčanske kulture i kulturne grupe Bubanj - Hum I, uz osvrt na njihove ekonomske strategije, duhovnu kulturu, industriju okresanog kamena, topografiju i arhitekturu naselja kao i proces metalurgije, pokazuju da je prelazni period od kraja vinčanske kulture do pojave klasične Bubanj - Hum I grupe bio postepen i kontinuiran proces koji se na prostoru centralnog Balkana odvijao uz izvesne kulturne kontakte sa susednim zajednicama, posebno na istoku. Ovaj kulturni proces između 47. i 45. veka pre n. e. rezultirao je formiranjem grupe Bubanj - Hum I, koja će egzistirati tokom druge polovine V milenijuma na najvećem delu teritorije centralnog Balkana.
AB  - The study addresses an imprecisely defined period between the end of the Neolithic and the beginning of the Eneolithic in the Central Balkans. The study primarily refers to the characteristic ceramic forms common to both the Vinča culture and the Early Eneolithic groups, especially the Bubanj-Hum I group. The pottery under consideration originates exclusively from absolutely dated sites, single-layered sites, and sites that possess a well-defined vertical stratigraphy. The analyses of pottery, combined with brief reviews on economic strategies, the chipped stone industry, settlement topography and the process of metallurgy indicate that the transitional period from the Vinča culture to the Bubanj-Hum I group was a gradual process in the Central Balkans, without major external factors, yet continuous cultural contacts with the neighboring communities, especially into the East. This gradual process of vertical genetic transmission between the 47 th and the 45 th century calBC resulted in the formation of the Bubanj-Hum I group.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Neke zabeleške o genezi ranog eneolita na centralnom Balkanu
T1  - Some remarks on the genesis of the Early Eneolithic in the Central Balkans
EP  - 40
IS  - 70
SP  - 9
DO  - 10.2298/STA2070009B
UR  - conv_484
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bulatović, Aleksandar and Bulatović, Aleksandar and Bankoff, Arthur H. and Powell, Wayne and Filipović, Vojislav",
year = "2020",
abstract = "U ovoj studiji reč je o nedovoljno jasno definisanom periodu na kraju neolita i početku eneolita na centralnom Balkanu. Glavna tema ovog teksta nisu razvoj i dezintegracija pozne vinčanske kulture, o čemu je dosta pisano u poslednje vreme, nego karakter i hronologija odnosa između pozne vinčanske kulture i ranoeneolitske grupe koja će je naslediti na ovoj teritoriji (Bubanj - Hum I kao regionalna varijanta kompleksa Bubanj-Salkuca-Krivodol - skraćeno BSK), kao i proces nastanka te grupe. Ova studija, stoga, analizira određene karakteristične keramičke forme koje potiču isključivo sa apsolutno datiranih lokaliteta, jednoslojnih ili onih sa dobro definisanom vertikalnom stratigrafijom, kao i hronologiju (apsolutne datume) kasnovinčanske kulture i grupe Bubanj - Hum I na centralnom Balkanu. Zbog specifičnih geografskih karakteristika centralnog Balkana, ali i radi lakšeg praćenja izlaganja, teritorija centralnog Balkana interpretirana je u radu putem dve zasebne geografske regije - prelazne regije (deo Posavine i Podrinja, baseni Jadra, Kolubare, Tamnave i donjeg toka Velike Morave, planina Cer, kao i pobrđe na jugu i istoku ograničeno planinama Gučevo, Povlen, Maljen, Suvobor i Rudnik) i planinske regije (planinska oblast centralnog Balkana). Analiza stilskih i tipoloških karakteristika keramike ukazala je na brojne zajedničke keramičke forme koje se javljaju kako u vinčanskoj kulturi (posebno kasnoj vinčanskoj kulturi), tako i u grupi Bubanj - Hum I. Razlike se uočavaju u površinskoj obradi, kvalitetu grnčarije i tehnici i motivima ukrašavanja. Teritorija grupe Bubanj - Hum I, takođe, u velikoj meri podudara se sa teritorijom kasnovinčanske kulture, a zanimljivo je da najraniji datumi za BSK kompleks, uključujući grupu Bubanj - Hum I, potiču sa perifernih područja njegove teritorije (Spančevo u dolini Bregalnice, Bodnjik u takozvanoj prelaznoj regiji centralnog Balkana i Ostorvul Corbului u Olteniji), što može da ukazuje na to da je ovaj ranoeneolitski kompleks proistekao iz vinčanske kulture i da se razvijao približno istovremeno u svim regionima počevši od oko 4450-4400. pre n. e. Ovi podaci bi mogli da dovedu u pitanje prethodnu tezu o raspadu vinčanske kulture i formiranju grupe Bubanj - Hum I, koja je isticala ulogu migracija stanovništva sa istoka u tom procesu, te da ukažu na to da je ranoeneolitski kompleks nastao približno istovremeno na celokupnoj svojoj teritoriji, na manje-više jedinstvenim, a najvećim delom autohtonim kulturnim osnovama. Rezultati analiza stilsko-tipoloških odlika karakterističnih keramičkih formi vinčanske kulture i kulturne grupe Bubanj - Hum I, uz osvrt na njihove ekonomske strategije, duhovnu kulturu, industriju okresanog kamena, topografiju i arhitekturu naselja kao i proces metalurgije, pokazuju da je prelazni period od kraja vinčanske kulture do pojave klasične Bubanj - Hum I grupe bio postepen i kontinuiran proces koji se na prostoru centralnog Balkana odvijao uz izvesne kulturne kontakte sa susednim zajednicama, posebno na istoku. Ovaj kulturni proces između 47. i 45. veka pre n. e. rezultirao je formiranjem grupe Bubanj - Hum I, koja će egzistirati tokom druge polovine V milenijuma na najvećem delu teritorije centralnog Balkana., The study addresses an imprecisely defined period between the end of the Neolithic and the beginning of the Eneolithic in the Central Balkans. The study primarily refers to the characteristic ceramic forms common to both the Vinča culture and the Early Eneolithic groups, especially the Bubanj-Hum I group. The pottery under consideration originates exclusively from absolutely dated sites, single-layered sites, and sites that possess a well-defined vertical stratigraphy. The analyses of pottery, combined with brief reviews on economic strategies, the chipped stone industry, settlement topography and the process of metallurgy indicate that the transitional period from the Vinča culture to the Bubanj-Hum I group was a gradual process in the Central Balkans, without major external factors, yet continuous cultural contacts with the neighboring communities, especially into the East. This gradual process of vertical genetic transmission between the 47 th and the 45 th century calBC resulted in the formation of the Bubanj-Hum I group.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Neke zabeleške o genezi ranog eneolita na centralnom Balkanu, Some remarks on the genesis of the Early Eneolithic in the Central Balkans",
pages = "40-9",
number = "70",
doi = "10.2298/STA2070009B",
url = "conv_484"
}
Bulatović, A., Bulatović, A., Bankoff, A. H., Powell, W.,& Filipović, V.. (2020). Neke zabeleške o genezi ranog eneolita na centralnom Balkanu. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(70), 9-40.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA2070009B
conv_484
Bulatović A, Bulatović A, Bankoff AH, Powell W, Filipović V. Neke zabeleške o genezi ranog eneolita na centralnom Balkanu. in Starinar. 2020;(70):9-40.
doi:10.2298/STA2070009B
conv_484 .
Bulatović, Aleksandar, Bulatović, Aleksandar, Bankoff, Arthur H., Powell, Wayne, Filipović, Vojislav, "Neke zabeleške o genezi ranog eneolita na centralnom Balkanu" in Starinar, no. 70 (2020):9-40,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA2070009B .,
conv_484 .
3
2

Još jednom o "Kalaju u jugoistočnoj Evropi?"

Powell, Wayne; Powell, Wayne; Mladenović, Ognjen; Cruse, Steffanie; Bankoff, Arthur H.; Mathur, Ryan

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2020)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Powell, Wayne
AU  - Powell, Wayne
AU  - Mladenović, Ognjen
AU  - Cruse, Steffanie
AU  - Bankoff, Arthur H.
AU  - Mathur, Ryan
PY  - 2020
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/343
AB  - Obnovom arheoloških iskopavanja antičkog kastela Timakum Minus 2019. godine stvorile su se nove mogućnosti za tumačenja njegovih građevina koje su istraživane pre više decenija. Među ostacima građevina oko antičkog kastela Timacum Minus-a posebnu pažnju privlači delimično istražen "objekat sa hipokaustom", naročito u pogledu njegovih konstruktivnih karakteristika. Pored inače čestih antičkih konstrukcija hipokausta i zidnog grejanja, među ostacima ove građevine uočena je i posebna vrsta građevinskih elemenata - keramičke cevi za svodove. Velika količina otkrivenih cevi ukazala je na to da je ova građevina zaista imala svodove izrađene od njih. Iako je pojava cevi za svodove prilikom istraživanja antičkih lokaliteta na tlu jugoistočne Evrope registrovana, ona nije dovoljno dokumentovana, kao što ni sama funkcija cevi često nije prepoznata. Jedan od razloga za to jeste nedovoljna upućenost istraživača u specifične karakteristike cevi za svodove i njihovu funkciju, usled čega se one mešaju sa vodovodnim cevima, tubulusima ili kalemovima vezanim za zidno grejanje - budući da svaki od tih elemenata pripada keramičkim proizvodima koji su namenjeni građevinarstvu. U radu su razmatrane karakteristike cevi za svodove na Timakum Minusu, kao i kontekst u kome su pronađene unutar "objekta sa hipokaustom". Na osnovu nalaza pečata kohorte Aurelije II Daradanorum određeno je da "objekat sa hipokaustom" i konstrukcija svodova od keramičkih cevi potiču iz III veka - u kome je i inače pojava tih svodova širom Rimskog carstva bila česta. Prilikom sistematizacije vrsta keramičkih cevi na Timakum Minusu posebno je izdvojena ona koje je bilo najviše u "objektu sa hipokaustom". U sklopu nje je prepoznat i sasvim specifičan centralni element koji je omogućavao da se dva niza cevi na istom pravcu, ali iz suprotnih smerova, međusobno spoje. Taj element je definisao oblik svoda kojim su bile pokrivene prostorije čiju je rekonstrukciju osnove bilo moguće izvršiti. Arhitektonske analize "objekta sa hipokaustom", kao i karakteristike uočene na samim cevima ukazale su na to da su prostorije bile pokrivene poluobličastim svodom, izgrađenim od lučnih vertikalnih nizova cevi koje su u temenu bile ,,zaključane" centralnim elementom. Rekonstrukcija izgleda cevi i načina njihovog ređanja uklapa se u hronologiju izvođenja objekta i svoda tokom III veka. Daljim statičkim analizama došlo se do još nekoliko saznanja. Pokazalo se da je preko svoda morao biti nanesen određen sloj malterne mase da bi debljina svoda dosegla optimalnu vrednost u opsegu 20-30 cm. Na osnovu proporcija objekta koje su određene u njegovoj osnovi ispitana je visina objekta, gde je grupa slučajeva takođe definisana proporcionalno. Prema našim analizama, zidovi prostorija "objekta sa hipokaustom" u kojima su cevi registrovane mogli su dosezati visinu do 3,08 m, dok je visina prostorija u temenu svoda mogla biti 6,16 m. Ovim istraživanjem pokušali smo da ukažemo na veliki značaj pojedinačnih arhitektonsko-građevinskih elemenata, a među njima i keramičkih cevi za svodove, kojima se često ne pridaje dovoljna pažnja. Nalazi keramičkih cevi za svodove u Timakum Minusu, uz izvršene arhitektonske analize, upotpunjuju sliku otkrivenog "objekta sa hipokaustom" iz više aspekata. Posebno je značajno definisanje njegove visine, koje je veoma teško za antičke građevine profane arhitekture na našem tlu budući da su najčešće sačuvane u prizemnoj ili temeljnoj zoni. Značaj nalaza keramičkih cevi za svodove u Timakum Minusu veliki je stoga što je on omogućio kako konkretno definisanje konteksta njihovog nalaza tako i rekonstrukciju oblika određenih delova građevine pomoću tog elementa, što do sada nije istraživano prilikom analiza antičke arhitekture na tlu jugoistočne Evrope.
AB  - The important role of the Balkans in the origin and development of metallurgy is well established with respect to copper. In addition, Aleksandar Durman, in his 1997 paper "Tin in South-eastern Europe?", essentially initiated studies into the role of the Balkans in Europe's Bronze Age tin economy. He identified six geologically favourable sites for tin mineralisation and associated fluvial placer deposits in the former Yugoslavian republics, and suggested that these may have added to the tin supply of the region. The viability of two of these sites has been confirmed (Mt Cer and Bukulja, Serbia) but the exploitation potential for the other locations has remained untested. River gravels from these four sites (Motajica and Prosara in Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bujanovac in Serbia; Ogražden in North Macedonia) were obtained by stream sluicing and panning. The sites of Prosara and Bujanovac were found to be barren with respect to cassiterite (SnO 2). Streams flowing from Motajica and Ogražden were both found to contain cassiterite, but in amounts several orders of magnitude less than at Mt Cer and Bukulja. Although it is possible that minor tin recovery occurred at Motajica and Ogražden, it is unlikely that they could have contributed meaningfully to regional tin trade. This is supported by the fact that the isotopic signature (d 124 Sn) of cassiterite from Motajica is highly enriched in light isotopes of tin compared to that associated with Late Bronze Age artefacts of the region.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Još jednom o "Kalaju u jugoistočnoj Evropi?"
T1  - Revisiting "Tin in South-eastern Europe?"
EP  - 94
IS  - 70
SP  - 85
DO  - 10.2298/STA2070085P
UR  - conv_483
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Powell, Wayne and Powell, Wayne and Mladenović, Ognjen and Cruse, Steffanie and Bankoff, Arthur H. and Mathur, Ryan",
year = "2020",
abstract = "Obnovom arheoloških iskopavanja antičkog kastela Timakum Minus 2019. godine stvorile su se nove mogućnosti za tumačenja njegovih građevina koje su istraživane pre više decenija. Među ostacima građevina oko antičkog kastela Timacum Minus-a posebnu pažnju privlači delimično istražen "objekat sa hipokaustom", naročito u pogledu njegovih konstruktivnih karakteristika. Pored inače čestih antičkih konstrukcija hipokausta i zidnog grejanja, među ostacima ove građevine uočena je i posebna vrsta građevinskih elemenata - keramičke cevi za svodove. Velika količina otkrivenih cevi ukazala je na to da je ova građevina zaista imala svodove izrađene od njih. Iako je pojava cevi za svodove prilikom istraživanja antičkih lokaliteta na tlu jugoistočne Evrope registrovana, ona nije dovoljno dokumentovana, kao što ni sama funkcija cevi često nije prepoznata. Jedan od razloga za to jeste nedovoljna upućenost istraživača u specifične karakteristike cevi za svodove i njihovu funkciju, usled čega se one mešaju sa vodovodnim cevima, tubulusima ili kalemovima vezanim za zidno grejanje - budući da svaki od tih elemenata pripada keramičkim proizvodima koji su namenjeni građevinarstvu. U radu su razmatrane karakteristike cevi za svodove na Timakum Minusu, kao i kontekst u kome su pronađene unutar "objekta sa hipokaustom". Na osnovu nalaza pečata kohorte Aurelije II Daradanorum određeno je da "objekat sa hipokaustom" i konstrukcija svodova od keramičkih cevi potiču iz III veka - u kome je i inače pojava tih svodova širom Rimskog carstva bila česta. Prilikom sistematizacije vrsta keramičkih cevi na Timakum Minusu posebno je izdvojena ona koje je bilo najviše u "objektu sa hipokaustom". U sklopu nje je prepoznat i sasvim specifičan centralni element koji je omogućavao da se dva niza cevi na istom pravcu, ali iz suprotnih smerova, međusobno spoje. Taj element je definisao oblik svoda kojim su bile pokrivene prostorije čiju je rekonstrukciju osnove bilo moguće izvršiti. Arhitektonske analize "objekta sa hipokaustom", kao i karakteristike uočene na samim cevima ukazale su na to da su prostorije bile pokrivene poluobličastim svodom, izgrađenim od lučnih vertikalnih nizova cevi koje su u temenu bile ,,zaključane" centralnim elementom. Rekonstrukcija izgleda cevi i načina njihovog ređanja uklapa se u hronologiju izvođenja objekta i svoda tokom III veka. Daljim statičkim analizama došlo se do još nekoliko saznanja. Pokazalo se da je preko svoda morao biti nanesen određen sloj malterne mase da bi debljina svoda dosegla optimalnu vrednost u opsegu 20-30 cm. Na osnovu proporcija objekta koje su određene u njegovoj osnovi ispitana je visina objekta, gde je grupa slučajeva takođe definisana proporcionalno. Prema našim analizama, zidovi prostorija "objekta sa hipokaustom" u kojima su cevi registrovane mogli su dosezati visinu do 3,08 m, dok je visina prostorija u temenu svoda mogla biti 6,16 m. Ovim istraživanjem pokušali smo da ukažemo na veliki značaj pojedinačnih arhitektonsko-građevinskih elemenata, a među njima i keramičkih cevi za svodove, kojima se često ne pridaje dovoljna pažnja. Nalazi keramičkih cevi za svodove u Timakum Minusu, uz izvršene arhitektonske analize, upotpunjuju sliku otkrivenog "objekta sa hipokaustom" iz više aspekata. Posebno je značajno definisanje njegove visine, koje je veoma teško za antičke građevine profane arhitekture na našem tlu budući da su najčešće sačuvane u prizemnoj ili temeljnoj zoni. Značaj nalaza keramičkih cevi za svodove u Timakum Minusu veliki je stoga što je on omogućio kako konkretno definisanje konteksta njihovog nalaza tako i rekonstrukciju oblika određenih delova građevine pomoću tog elementa, što do sada nije istraživano prilikom analiza antičke arhitekture na tlu jugoistočne Evrope., The important role of the Balkans in the origin and development of metallurgy is well established with respect to copper. In addition, Aleksandar Durman, in his 1997 paper "Tin in South-eastern Europe?", essentially initiated studies into the role of the Balkans in Europe's Bronze Age tin economy. He identified six geologically favourable sites for tin mineralisation and associated fluvial placer deposits in the former Yugoslavian republics, and suggested that these may have added to the tin supply of the region. The viability of two of these sites has been confirmed (Mt Cer and Bukulja, Serbia) but the exploitation potential for the other locations has remained untested. River gravels from these four sites (Motajica and Prosara in Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bujanovac in Serbia; Ogražden in North Macedonia) were obtained by stream sluicing and panning. The sites of Prosara and Bujanovac were found to be barren with respect to cassiterite (SnO 2). Streams flowing from Motajica and Ogražden were both found to contain cassiterite, but in amounts several orders of magnitude less than at Mt Cer and Bukulja. Although it is possible that minor tin recovery occurred at Motajica and Ogražden, it is unlikely that they could have contributed meaningfully to regional tin trade. This is supported by the fact that the isotopic signature (d 124 Sn) of cassiterite from Motajica is highly enriched in light isotopes of tin compared to that associated with Late Bronze Age artefacts of the region.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Još jednom o "Kalaju u jugoistočnoj Evropi?", Revisiting "Tin in South-eastern Europe?"",
pages = "94-85",
number = "70",
doi = "10.2298/STA2070085P",
url = "conv_483"
}
Powell, W., Powell, W., Mladenović, O., Cruse, S., Bankoff, A. H.,& Mathur, R.. (2020). Još jednom o "Kalaju u jugoistočnoj Evropi?". in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(70), 85-94.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA2070085P
conv_483
Powell W, Powell W, Mladenović O, Cruse S, Bankoff AH, Mathur R. Još jednom o "Kalaju u jugoistočnoj Evropi?". in Starinar. 2020;(70):85-94.
doi:10.2298/STA2070085P
conv_483 .
Powell, Wayne, Powell, Wayne, Mladenović, Ognjen, Cruse, Steffanie, Bankoff, Arthur H., Mathur, Ryan, "Još jednom o "Kalaju u jugoistočnoj Evropi?"" in Starinar, no. 70 (2020):85-94,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA2070085P .,
conv_483 .

Copper isotopes as a means of determining regional metallurgical practices in European prehistory: A reply to Jansen

Powell, Wayne; Mathur, Ryan; Bankoff, Arthur H.; John, J.; Chvojka, O.; Tisucka, M.; Bulatović, Aleksandar; Filipović, Vojislav

(Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London, 2018)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Powell, Wayne
AU  - Mathur, Ryan
AU  - Bankoff, Arthur H.
AU  - John, J.
AU  - Chvojka, O.
AU  - Tisucka, M.
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Filipović, Vojislav
PY  - 2018
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/294
AB  - We present a detailed response to the critique by Mr. Jansen of the paper "Digging Deeper: Insights into Metallurgical Transitions in European Prehistory through Copper Isotopes". When we consider Cu isotope ratios of European Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age artifacts in the context of their local geological settings, climates, and archaeological contexts, Mr. Jansen's hypothesis that Cu-63 enrichment results from the adoption of fahlore ores is untenable. In both Serbia and Central Europe, the earliest copper production is associated with Cu-65-enriched ores and subsequently produced artifacts yield lower ranges delta Cu-65. This shift in Cu isotopic composition correlates with the initial use of predominantly hypogene ores, not with variations in their trace element content. Essentially the expanded dataset supports the conclusions that were presented in the original paper-Cu isotopes are an effective means of delineating the transition from oxide-based smelting to methodologically more complex smelting of sulphide ores in prehistoric Europe with its relatively limited production and trade. Mixing did not mask the critical Cu isotope signatures in this setting. Therefore, Cu isotope compositions of artifacts can be used to interpret the mineralogical character of the ores from which they were produced, regardless of their provenance, as long as trade networks remained within a region of similar climatic history.
PB  - Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London
T2  - Journal of Archaeological Science
T1  - Copper isotopes as a means of determining regional metallurgical practices in European prehistory: A reply to Jansen
EP  - 221
SP  - 216
VL  - 93
DO  - 10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.015
UR  - conv_321
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Powell, Wayne and Mathur, Ryan and Bankoff, Arthur H. and John, J. and Chvojka, O. and Tisucka, M. and Bulatović, Aleksandar and Filipović, Vojislav",
year = "2018",
abstract = "We present a detailed response to the critique by Mr. Jansen of the paper "Digging Deeper: Insights into Metallurgical Transitions in European Prehistory through Copper Isotopes". When we consider Cu isotope ratios of European Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age artifacts in the context of their local geological settings, climates, and archaeological contexts, Mr. Jansen's hypothesis that Cu-63 enrichment results from the adoption of fahlore ores is untenable. In both Serbia and Central Europe, the earliest copper production is associated with Cu-65-enriched ores and subsequently produced artifacts yield lower ranges delta Cu-65. This shift in Cu isotopic composition correlates with the initial use of predominantly hypogene ores, not with variations in their trace element content. Essentially the expanded dataset supports the conclusions that were presented in the original paper-Cu isotopes are an effective means of delineating the transition from oxide-based smelting to methodologically more complex smelting of sulphide ores in prehistoric Europe with its relatively limited production and trade. Mixing did not mask the critical Cu isotope signatures in this setting. Therefore, Cu isotope compositions of artifacts can be used to interpret the mineralogical character of the ores from which they were produced, regardless of their provenance, as long as trade networks remained within a region of similar climatic history.",
publisher = "Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London",
journal = "Journal of Archaeological Science",
title = "Copper isotopes as a means of determining regional metallurgical practices in European prehistory: A reply to Jansen",
pages = "221-216",
volume = "93",
doi = "10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.015",
url = "conv_321"
}
Powell, W., Mathur, R., Bankoff, A. H., John, J., Chvojka, O., Tisucka, M., Bulatović, A.,& Filipović, V.. (2018). Copper isotopes as a means of determining regional metallurgical practices in European prehistory: A reply to Jansen. in Journal of Archaeological Science
Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London., 93, 216-221.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.015
conv_321
Powell W, Mathur R, Bankoff AH, John J, Chvojka O, Tisucka M, Bulatović A, Filipović V. Copper isotopes as a means of determining regional metallurgical practices in European prehistory: A reply to Jansen. in Journal of Archaeological Science. 2018;93:216-221.
doi:10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.015
conv_321 .
Powell, Wayne, Mathur, Ryan, Bankoff, Arthur H., John, J., Chvojka, O., Tisucka, M., Bulatović, Aleksandar, Filipović, Vojislav, "Copper isotopes as a means of determining regional metallurgical practices in European prehistory: A reply to Jansen" in Journal of Archaeological Science, 93 (2018):216-221,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.015 .,
conv_321 .
1
5
5

Digging deeper: Insights into metallurgical transitions in European prehistory through copper isotopes

Powell, Wayne; Mathur, Ryan; Bankoff, Arthur H.; Mason, Andrea; Bulatović, Aleksandar; Filipović, Vojislav; Godfrey, Linda

(Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London, 2017)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Powell, Wayne
AU  - Mathur, Ryan
AU  - Bankoff, Arthur H.
AU  - Mason, Andrea
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Filipović, Vojislav
AU  - Godfrey, Linda
PY  - 2017
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/267
AB  - Southeastern Europe is the birthplace of metallurgy, with evidence of copper smelting at ca. 5000 BCE. There the later Eneolithic (Copper Age) was associated with the casting of massive copper tools. However, copper metallurgy in this region ceased, or significantly decreased, centuries before the dawn of the Bronze Age. Archaeologists continue to be debate whether this hiatus was imposed on early metalworking communities as a result of exhaustion of workable mineral resources, or instead a cultural transition that was associated with changes in depositional practices and material culture. Copper isotopes provide a broadly applicable means of addressing this question. Copper isotopes fractionate in the near-surface environment such that surficial oxide ores can be differentiated from non-weathered sulphide ores that occur at greater depth. This compositional variation is transferred to associated copper artifacts, the final product of the metallurgical process. In the central Balkans, a shift from 65Cu-enriched to 65Cu-depleted copper artifacts occurs across the metallurgical hiatus at the Eneolithic-Bronze Age boundary, ca. 2500 BCE. This indicates that the reemergence of metal production at the beginning of the Bronze Age is associated with pyrotechnical advancements that allowed for the extraction of copper from sulphide ore. Thus copper isotopes provide direct evidence that the copper hiatus was the result of exhaustion of near-surface oxide ores after one-and-a-half millennia of mining, and that the beginning of the Bronze Age in the Balkans is associated with the introduction of more complex smelting techniques for metal extraction from regionally abundant sulphidic deposits.
PB  - Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London
T2  - Journal of Archaeological Science
T1  - Digging deeper: Insights into metallurgical transitions in European prehistory through copper isotopes
EP  - 46
SP  - 37
VL  - 88
DO  - 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.012
UR  - conv_361
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Powell, Wayne and Mathur, Ryan and Bankoff, Arthur H. and Mason, Andrea and Bulatović, Aleksandar and Filipović, Vojislav and Godfrey, Linda",
year = "2017",
abstract = "Southeastern Europe is the birthplace of metallurgy, with evidence of copper smelting at ca. 5000 BCE. There the later Eneolithic (Copper Age) was associated with the casting of massive copper tools. However, copper metallurgy in this region ceased, or significantly decreased, centuries before the dawn of the Bronze Age. Archaeologists continue to be debate whether this hiatus was imposed on early metalworking communities as a result of exhaustion of workable mineral resources, or instead a cultural transition that was associated with changes in depositional practices and material culture. Copper isotopes provide a broadly applicable means of addressing this question. Copper isotopes fractionate in the near-surface environment such that surficial oxide ores can be differentiated from non-weathered sulphide ores that occur at greater depth. This compositional variation is transferred to associated copper artifacts, the final product of the metallurgical process. In the central Balkans, a shift from 65Cu-enriched to 65Cu-depleted copper artifacts occurs across the metallurgical hiatus at the Eneolithic-Bronze Age boundary, ca. 2500 BCE. This indicates that the reemergence of metal production at the beginning of the Bronze Age is associated with pyrotechnical advancements that allowed for the extraction of copper from sulphide ore. Thus copper isotopes provide direct evidence that the copper hiatus was the result of exhaustion of near-surface oxide ores after one-and-a-half millennia of mining, and that the beginning of the Bronze Age in the Balkans is associated with the introduction of more complex smelting techniques for metal extraction from regionally abundant sulphidic deposits.",
publisher = "Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London",
journal = "Journal of Archaeological Science",
title = "Digging deeper: Insights into metallurgical transitions in European prehistory through copper isotopes",
pages = "46-37",
volume = "88",
doi = "10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.012",
url = "conv_361"
}
Powell, W., Mathur, R., Bankoff, A. H., Mason, A., Bulatović, A., Filipović, V.,& Godfrey, L.. (2017). Digging deeper: Insights into metallurgical transitions in European prehistory through copper isotopes. in Journal of Archaeological Science
Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London., 88, 37-46.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.012
conv_361
Powell W, Mathur R, Bankoff AH, Mason A, Bulatović A, Filipović V, Godfrey L. Digging deeper: Insights into metallurgical transitions in European prehistory through copper isotopes. in Journal of Archaeological Science. 2017;88:37-46.
doi:10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.012
conv_361 .
Powell, Wayne, Mathur, Ryan, Bankoff, Arthur H., Mason, Andrea, Bulatović, Aleksandar, Filipović, Vojislav, Godfrey, Linda, "Digging deeper: Insights into metallurgical transitions in European prehistory through copper isotopes" in Journal of Archaeological Science, 88 (2017):37-46,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.012 .,
conv_361 .
13
19
7
20

Tin isotope characterization of bronze artifacts of the central Balkans

Mason, Andrea; Powell, Wayne; Bankoff, Arthur H.; Mathur, Ryan; Bulatović, Aleksandar; Filipović, Vojislav; Ruiz, J.

(Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London, 2016)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Mason, Andrea
AU  - Powell, Wayne
AU  - Bankoff, Arthur H.
AU  - Mathur, Ryan
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Filipović, Vojislav
AU  - Ruiz, J.
PY  - 2016
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/256
AB  - Isotopic analysis has proved to be an effective approach to determine the provenance of copper ore sources for the production of bronze artifacts. More recently, methods for Sn isotopic analysis of bronze have been developed. However, the viability of tin isotopes as a means to define groupings that may be attributed to varying ore sources, production methods, or recycling is still in question. In part, this is due to the numerically and/or geographically limited nature of published datasets. This study reports on the Sn isotopic composition of 52 artifacts from the later Bronze Age (1500-1100 BCE) from Serbia and western Romania. The majority of samples cluster between 0.4 and 0.8 per mil for delta Sn-124, and 0.2 and 0.4 per mil for delta Sn-120 (relative to NIST SRM 3161A), and this isotopic grouping of bronze artifacts occurs across Serbia. However, groupings of isotopically heavier and lighter artifacts are evident, and each corresponds to a more limited geographic range. Artifacts associated with higher delta Sn values are limited to the Vojvodina region of northern Serbia, whereas a cluster of bronzes with lower Sn-isotopic signatures are constrained to the Banat along the Serbia-Romania border, and Transylvania. One low-value outlier corresponds to an uncontextualized find near Krusevac at the southern extent of the study area. Geographic correlation of the low-value cluster with known tin mineralization in Transylvania, and the moderate-value cluster with placer tin deposits of western Serbia, suggests that these distinct bronze Sn-isotopic signatures might reflect exploitation of different tin ores. The small cluster of high Sn-isotopic values from bronzes from the Vojvodina region might reflect bronze recycling in this area that lies furthest from both known tin ore sources.
PB  - Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London
T2  - Journal of Archaeological Science
T1  - Tin isotope characterization of bronze artifacts of the central Balkans
EP  - 117
SP  - 110
VL  - 69
DO  - 10.1016/j.jas.2016.04.012
UR  - conv_367
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Mason, Andrea and Powell, Wayne and Bankoff, Arthur H. and Mathur, Ryan and Bulatović, Aleksandar and Filipović, Vojislav and Ruiz, J.",
year = "2016",
abstract = "Isotopic analysis has proved to be an effective approach to determine the provenance of copper ore sources for the production of bronze artifacts. More recently, methods for Sn isotopic analysis of bronze have been developed. However, the viability of tin isotopes as a means to define groupings that may be attributed to varying ore sources, production methods, or recycling is still in question. In part, this is due to the numerically and/or geographically limited nature of published datasets. This study reports on the Sn isotopic composition of 52 artifacts from the later Bronze Age (1500-1100 BCE) from Serbia and western Romania. The majority of samples cluster between 0.4 and 0.8 per mil for delta Sn-124, and 0.2 and 0.4 per mil for delta Sn-120 (relative to NIST SRM 3161A), and this isotopic grouping of bronze artifacts occurs across Serbia. However, groupings of isotopically heavier and lighter artifacts are evident, and each corresponds to a more limited geographic range. Artifacts associated with higher delta Sn values are limited to the Vojvodina region of northern Serbia, whereas a cluster of bronzes with lower Sn-isotopic signatures are constrained to the Banat along the Serbia-Romania border, and Transylvania. One low-value outlier corresponds to an uncontextualized find near Krusevac at the southern extent of the study area. Geographic correlation of the low-value cluster with known tin mineralization in Transylvania, and the moderate-value cluster with placer tin deposits of western Serbia, suggests that these distinct bronze Sn-isotopic signatures might reflect exploitation of different tin ores. The small cluster of high Sn-isotopic values from bronzes from the Vojvodina region might reflect bronze recycling in this area that lies furthest from both known tin ore sources.",
publisher = "Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London",
journal = "Journal of Archaeological Science",
title = "Tin isotope characterization of bronze artifacts of the central Balkans",
pages = "117-110",
volume = "69",
doi = "10.1016/j.jas.2016.04.012",
url = "conv_367"
}
Mason, A., Powell, W., Bankoff, A. H., Mathur, R., Bulatović, A., Filipović, V.,& Ruiz, J.. (2016). Tin isotope characterization of bronze artifacts of the central Balkans. in Journal of Archaeological Science
Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London., 69, 110-117.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2016.04.012
conv_367
Mason A, Powell W, Bankoff AH, Mathur R, Bulatović A, Filipović V, Ruiz J. Tin isotope characterization of bronze artifacts of the central Balkans. in Journal of Archaeological Science. 2016;69:110-117.
doi:10.1016/j.jas.2016.04.012
conv_367 .
Mason, Andrea, Powell, Wayne, Bankoff, Arthur H., Mathur, Ryan, Bulatović, Aleksandar, Filipović, Vojislav, Ruiz, J., "Tin isotope characterization of bronze artifacts of the central Balkans" in Journal of Archaeological Science, 69 (2016):110-117,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2016.04.012 .,
conv_367 .
4
30
16
30

Placer Tin Ores from Mt. Cer, West Serbia, and Their Potential Exploitation during the Bronze Age

Huska, A.; Powell, Wayne; Mitrović, S.; Bankoff, Arthur H.; Bulatović, Aleksandar; Filipović, Vojislav; Boger, R.

(Wiley, Hoboken, 2014)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Huska, A.
AU  - Powell, Wayne
AU  - Mitrović, S.
AU  - Bankoff, Arthur H.
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Filipović, Vojislav
AU  - Boger, R.
PY  - 2014
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/206
AB  - Tin is a rare metal that is essential for making bronze, the defining technology of the Bronze Age. The source(s) of tin for Aegean bronze is undetermined but several small Bronze Age tin mines have been documented in the circum-Aegean region. The discovery of Bronze Age archaeological sites in West Serbia near a tin placer deposit on the flanks of Mt. Cer led to an investigation of this site as a potential additional Bronze Age tin mine in the region. Geochemical prospecting of stream sediments flowing from Mt. Cer allowed for categorization of streams based on relative tin grade. Tin grade is highest in the Milinska River, a likely combination of a broad catchment area with multiple ore-bearing tributaries, and a topographic profile that favors the accumulation of placer deposits. A survey of cornfields along the southern pluton margin discovered archaeological sites spanning the Neolithic to the Iron Age. Unlike older and younger sites, those of the Bronze Age were found only along the Milinska and Cernica Rivers where placer tin grades are highest, but appear to be absent where tin is scarce or absent. This suggests that these sites were associated with the exploitation of the tin ore.
PB  - Wiley, Hoboken
T2  - Geoarchaeology-An International Journal
T1  - Placer Tin Ores from Mt. Cer, West Serbia, and Their Potential Exploitation during the Bronze Age
EP  - 493
IS  - 6
SP  - 477
VL  - 29
DO  - 10.1002/gea.21488
UR  - conv_373
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Huska, A. and Powell, Wayne and Mitrović, S. and Bankoff, Arthur H. and Bulatović, Aleksandar and Filipović, Vojislav and Boger, R.",
year = "2014",
abstract = "Tin is a rare metal that is essential for making bronze, the defining technology of the Bronze Age. The source(s) of tin for Aegean bronze is undetermined but several small Bronze Age tin mines have been documented in the circum-Aegean region. The discovery of Bronze Age archaeological sites in West Serbia near a tin placer deposit on the flanks of Mt. Cer led to an investigation of this site as a potential additional Bronze Age tin mine in the region. Geochemical prospecting of stream sediments flowing from Mt. Cer allowed for categorization of streams based on relative tin grade. Tin grade is highest in the Milinska River, a likely combination of a broad catchment area with multiple ore-bearing tributaries, and a topographic profile that favors the accumulation of placer deposits. A survey of cornfields along the southern pluton margin discovered archaeological sites spanning the Neolithic to the Iron Age. Unlike older and younger sites, those of the Bronze Age were found only along the Milinska and Cernica Rivers where placer tin grades are highest, but appear to be absent where tin is scarce or absent. This suggests that these sites were associated with the exploitation of the tin ore.",
publisher = "Wiley, Hoboken",
journal = "Geoarchaeology-An International Journal",
title = "Placer Tin Ores from Mt. Cer, West Serbia, and Their Potential Exploitation during the Bronze Age",
pages = "493-477",
number = "6",
volume = "29",
doi = "10.1002/gea.21488",
url = "conv_373"
}
Huska, A., Powell, W., Mitrović, S., Bankoff, A. H., Bulatović, A., Filipović, V.,& Boger, R.. (2014). Placer Tin Ores from Mt. Cer, West Serbia, and Their Potential Exploitation during the Bronze Age. in Geoarchaeology-An International Journal
Wiley, Hoboken., 29(6), 477-493.
https://doi.org/10.1002/gea.21488
conv_373
Huska A, Powell W, Mitrović S, Bankoff AH, Bulatović A, Filipović V, Boger R. Placer Tin Ores from Mt. Cer, West Serbia, and Their Potential Exploitation during the Bronze Age. in Geoarchaeology-An International Journal. 2014;29(6):477-493.
doi:10.1002/gea.21488
conv_373 .
Huska, A., Powell, Wayne, Mitrović, S., Bankoff, Arthur H., Bulatović, Aleksandar, Filipović, Vojislav, Boger, R., "Placer Tin Ores from Mt. Cer, West Serbia, and Their Potential Exploitation during the Bronze Age" in Geoarchaeology-An International Journal, 29, no. 6 (2014):477-493,
https://doi.org/10.1002/gea.21488 .,
conv_373 .
10
4
13