Bikić, Vesna

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737dc39d-34f4-4b63-be66-d9f28716c692
  • Bikić, Vesna (25)
Projects
Urbanisation Processes and Development of Mediaeval Society Electroconducting and redox-active polymers and oligomers: synthesis, structure, properties and applications
Magmatism and geodynamics of the Balkan Peninsula from Mesozoic to present day: significance for the formation of metallic and non-metallic mineral deposits Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)
Hungarian Academy of SciencesHungarian Academy of Sciences Oxide-based environmentally-friendly porous materials for genotoxic substances removal
Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Republic of Serbia, Grant no. 200146 (University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physical Chemistry) Struktura, termodinamičke i elektrohemijske osobine materijala za konverziju energije i nove tehnologije
Strukturne modifikacije i reakcije mikroporoznih i mezoporoznih materijala Procesi dezurbanizacije i urbanizacije na području srpskih zemalja srednjeg veka.
Investigation and Optimization of the Technological and Functional Performance of the Ventilation Mill in the Thermal Power Plant Kostolac B Research and verification of the multidisciplinary forensic methods in
Ministry of Culture and Information of the Republic of Serbia Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development
Projekat Ministarstva za prosvetu, nauku i tehnološki razvoj Republike Srbije, br. IP 391-00-16/2017-16/38 Qatar Foundation for Education, Science, and Community Development through the PhD programme of UCL in Qatar
Royal SocietyRoyal Society of LondonEuropean Commission Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts

Author's Bibliography

Pottery Function in the Archaeology of the Continental Balkans: An Overview

Vuković, Jasna; Bikić, Vesna

(University of Belgrade – Faculty of Philosophy, 2022)

TY  - CHAP
AU  - Vuković, Jasna
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
PY  - 2022
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/394
AB  - Pottery function and use are one of the most complex issues in pottery studies because they comprise the study of different interactions,behaviors, and activities related to ceramic vessels. In the early days ofarchaeology as a discipline, pottery studies were focused on the classification of pots and the establishment of sequences to understand chronological and spatial relations between pottery groups, as the most prominentmarkers of archaeological cultures. Therefore, pottery usage did not attract attention as an important segment of research, except in the earlydays of American archaeology: in the pioneering attempts of pottery classification, evidence of use, such as layers of soot suggesting cooking, weretaken into account (Nelson 1916). Apart from sporadic considerationsabout function, it was not until the ‘80s that studies of pottery functionachieved full recognition. It seems that stressing an obvious fact – thatthe pots are tools (Braun 1983), designed to be used (Skibo 2013, 27), wasnecessary to bring about a shift in considerations about pottery. With theseminal works of D. Hally (1983a,b, 1986), and especially of J. Skibo andM. Schiffer (Schiffer and Skibo 1987, 1989, 2008; Skibo 1992, 2013; Skiboand Blinman 1995), examination of pottery function was theoreticallygrounded, and its methods were fully established, including experimentaland ethnoarchaeological research. In the study of pottery function and use, making a division betweentwo aspects of function – intended and actual use, is of great importance,especially because focused studies aimed exclusively on pottery functionare still rare. Intended function refers to the technical choices potters make related to function (Skibo and Schiffer 2008, 18; Skibo 1992, 35-37; 2013,27) or, in other words, the determination of the suitability of ceramic vessels for specific functions depending on their performance characteristics.These are defined as the “behavioral capabilities that an artifact possess tofulfill its functions in a specific activity” (Schiffer and Skibo 1987, 599), oras the ability of a vessel “to do certain things” (Hally 1986, 268), and theyare mostly related to resistivity to mechanical and thermal stresses duringuse. These mechanical and physical properties depend on vessels’ formalattributes, usually recorded during pottery data processing: fabric, surfacetreatments and decoration, wall thickness, and shape.The significance of shapes was early recognized as important for theconsiderations about function (Linton 1944; cf. Hally 1983b). Some of theperformance characteristics are exclusively connected with vessel forms:capacity (Smith 1985, 273, table 11.2), stability, ease of access, and transportability (Shepard 1956, 237; Rice 1987, 225), among others. Contoursof the vessels’ walls also affect performance, especially its thermal properties: for example, the presence of a low neck – constriction – reducesevaporation and prevents boiling over, and is, therefore, suitable for simmering for longer periods (Smith 1985; Rice 1987, 240; cf. Vuković 2019a)in contrast to open pots, suitable for boiling. Metric parameters (height,volume, and rim, shoulder and base radii) and different indexes – calculated ratios between some of the metric parameters – were also examinedas important indicators of suitability for specific functions (Smith 1985;Hally 1986). Besides the fact that indexes enable strong empirical data,their numerical values are especially useful for comparative analyses ofdifferent assemblages or vessel classes.The potential function or suitability of a vessel for a specific functiondoes not reveal how the vessels were actually used. The actual functionrefers not only to traces of use – use alterations (use-wear and surfaceaccretions), but also to use-related activities, and it is based on the identification of traces and the examination of their distribution and frequency(Skibo 1992; 2013; for an overview, see Forte, this volume). Considerations of some kinds of surface attrition, i.e. mechanical damage, are alsouseful for the identification of re-use and extended use of pots.The analyses of function, including ethnoarchaeological research,were first developed to primarily understand prehistoric pottery. In contrast to assemblages from prehistoric sites, considerations about potteryfunction within the ceramic assemblages from the historical periods arequite rare. Due to many primary sources, which contain data on vesseltypes and their use, the course of ceramic studies was mainly based onissues of typology, production centers, especially in the case of fine wares,and chronology, both of individual types and whole assemblages. Therefore, the issues of function were approached primarily from the aspect offormal attributes and morphology. Along with the shape and wall curvature, much attention was paid to the fabric, i.e. the types of inclusions, andthickness of the vessel walls, as clear indicators of their function.Among the pottery assemblages from historical periods, namely, theClassical era, use-wear analyses were sporadically done. In this regard,Margaret Ward’s (1993) functional analysis of terra sigillata (Samian ware)from the Roman fort at Piercebridge (United Kingdom) is rather representative. The Samian ware collection revealed evidence of frequent andextended use, most probably in a process of mixing ingredients (spices),based on the presence of heavy abrasion on the bases and walls (Ward1993, 19; Peña 2007, 60, Fig. 4.2). The function of Batavian hand-madepottery in the Roman military context of the Augustan castrum in Nijmegen (Netherlands) was also examined (Stoffels 2009, 147-149). Basedon the presence of soot and secondary burning, it was established thatthese pots had actually been used as cooking pots. The presence of twoother functional groups (tableware and storage), and the spatial distribution of vessels, suggest the usage of locally made pottery for cooking,presumably to fulfill the eating habits of the native Batavian auxiliary soldiers in the Roman fort (Stoffels 2009, 153). On the other hand, P. Arthur(2007b) examined cooking-pot types in relation to food resources, including archaeozoological and archaeobotanical remains, to determine thedistribution and application of different cooking techniques in the centuries between Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. He put forwardan interesting thesis that a change in cooking pots, from predominantlyclosed with flat bases to predominantly open forms with convex bases,should be seen as a consequence not only of regionally available meat,cereals, and vegetables but also migrations of people, that is, a culture offood preparation and cooking habits. A similar assumption was made inthe case of tableware, primarily African Red Slip ware, which changed interms of size and typology during the same period. However, the use ofceramic vessels in historic sources, i.e. old cooking texts, challenges Arthur’s model due to a different nomenclature, primarily when it comes tothe function of olla and caccabus (Donelly 2015, 143–144). On the otherhand, during the 5th and 6th centuries, a decrease in the variety of potterytypes, i.e. profiles and sizes (volumes), was recorded. This was largely dueto the economic regression and the disappearance of large-scale potteryproduction (Arthur 2007a, 164-165). This phenomenon, clearly visible inthe archaeological record, coincides with the data in the texts. Nevertheless, Arthur’s model showed that cooking pots can be evidence of cultural(gastronomic) boundaries in antiquity, although due to the unreliability of his conclusions, it was suggested that other methods should be included,primarily analyses of use-alterations and residue analyses (Arthur 2007b,146). Concerning the modes of cooking in late antique pottery, according to the distribution of sooting clouds, it was assumed that pots withrounded bottoms were probably placed on some kind of metal base, trivet,or grid that allowed equal heat distribution, while closed, flat-based cooking-pots were placed by the fire and in front of the hearth or stove; theirthin walls allowed heat to be distributed more evenly on one side without constant mixing (Vroom 2008, 299–301, Figs. 13,15). In contrast, latemedieval cooking-pots, glazed as well as unglazed, exhibit visible sootingclouds on the outside. Although it was suggested that they were placeddirectly in the fire (Vroom 2004, 286), these use-accretions rather indicatethe position of the pot at a distance from the heat source.In early medieval archaeology, the need to examine pottery from theaspect of use was first recognized in the research of the old Slavic settlements. Excavations in Central Europe in the 1970s and ‘80s yielded,among other things, large ceramic assemblages containing whole vessels.They provided a deeper insight into the technological style, but also theuse of pottery in the early Middle Ages. One of the best examples is thesite of Březno near Louny (Czech Republic), a Slavic settlement dated tothe 9th century. Relying on ethnographic studies, an extensive experimentfocused on building old Slavic huts and living in them, including foodpreparation, was conducted (Pleinerová 1986; Pleinerová and Neustupny1987). The research revealed that the pots were placed in front of the ovenopening because of the need for frequent stirring; therefore, half of thecooking pot was exposed to open fire. Additionally, the correlation between mode of use of certain oven types, cooking technique, and the formand size of the vessels was established (Curta 2001, 286, 289–290), revealing some aspects of the household organization of old Slavic communities.Finally, secondary use, reuse, and recycling are important parts ofthe artifacts’ life cycles (Schiffer 1987, 13-15, 271) or use-lives. Reuse – achange in the user or use or form of an artifact following its initial use(Schiffer 1987, 28), or use of an object in a secondary context when it canno longer serve its original function (Deal and Hagstrum 1995, 111), arean important part of dynamic interactions between people and pottery, aswell as an important aspect of formation processes. Recycling – the returnof the artifact to the manufacturing process (Schiffer 1987, 28-32), in thecase of pottery needed to be redefined, and it was proposed that recyclingshould refer to the usage of fragments of pots, as tools, building material,or raw material (Vuković 2015). Important ethnoarchaeological research(Deal 1998) revealed the complexity of ceramic vessels’ use-lives, but theseissues were more rarely examined on pottery revealed from archaeological contexts (for example Sullivan 1989). The usage of ceramic sherds astools attracted some more attention in the research of archeological assemblages (López Varela et al. 2002; Van Gijn and Hofman 2008). An extremely important contribution regarding these stages of vessels’ use-liveswas made by T. Peña (2007), who examined numerous secondary uses ofRoman amphorae, including their reuse in burial customs, and the recycling of their fragments (props for cooking vessels, tools, gaming pieces,weights, etc.).The issue of extended use is usually connected with repairs of thepots. The most frequent ways of mending ceramic vessels were makingperforations along the breakage, and tying together the vessels’ fragmentswith some kind of string, rope, and even with metal wire (Dooijes andNieuwenhuyse 2007, 2009). Roman terra sigillata, for example, was oftenrepaired with rivets and staples (Ward 1993, 19–20), while amphorae weremended using the hole and clamp technique with the use of lead (Peña2007, 237–249) or by filling the cracks with wax, resin, gypsum, crushedceramics or glass, using animal glue, beeswax, or pine resin as adhesives(e.g. 213-215). The repairing of pots was usually connected to their highvalue, and a statistical method, the so-called frequency-of-mending (FreqMend), describing the frequency of repair per pottery type, was developed(Senior 1995). This is why analyses of secondary use, reuse, and extendeduse reveal a deeper insight into lifestyles and common practices of communities of the past.
PB  - University of Belgrade – Faculty of Philosophy
PB  - Institute of Archaeology, Belgrade
T2  - Pottery Function and Use: A Diachronic Perspective
T1  - Pottery Function in the Archaeology of the Continental Balkans: An Overview
EP  - 67
SP  - 37
ER  - 
@inbook{
author = "Vuković, Jasna and Bikić, Vesna",
year = "2022",
abstract = "Pottery function and use are one of the most complex issues in pottery studies because they comprise the study of different interactions,behaviors, and activities related to ceramic vessels. In the early days ofarchaeology as a discipline, pottery studies were focused on the classification of pots and the establishment of sequences to understand chronological and spatial relations between pottery groups, as the most prominentmarkers of archaeological cultures. Therefore, pottery usage did not attract attention as an important segment of research, except in the earlydays of American archaeology: in the pioneering attempts of pottery classification, evidence of use, such as layers of soot suggesting cooking, weretaken into account (Nelson 1916). Apart from sporadic considerationsabout function, it was not until the ‘80s that studies of pottery functionachieved full recognition. It seems that stressing an obvious fact – thatthe pots are tools (Braun 1983), designed to be used (Skibo 2013, 27), wasnecessary to bring about a shift in considerations about pottery. With theseminal works of D. Hally (1983a,b, 1986), and especially of J. Skibo andM. Schiffer (Schiffer and Skibo 1987, 1989, 2008; Skibo 1992, 2013; Skiboand Blinman 1995), examination of pottery function was theoreticallygrounded, and its methods were fully established, including experimentaland ethnoarchaeological research. In the study of pottery function and use, making a division betweentwo aspects of function – intended and actual use, is of great importance,especially because focused studies aimed exclusively on pottery functionare still rare. Intended function refers to the technical choices potters make related to function (Skibo and Schiffer 2008, 18; Skibo 1992, 35-37; 2013,27) or, in other words, the determination of the suitability of ceramic vessels for specific functions depending on their performance characteristics.These are defined as the “behavioral capabilities that an artifact possess tofulfill its functions in a specific activity” (Schiffer and Skibo 1987, 599), oras the ability of a vessel “to do certain things” (Hally 1986, 268), and theyare mostly related to resistivity to mechanical and thermal stresses duringuse. These mechanical and physical properties depend on vessels’ formalattributes, usually recorded during pottery data processing: fabric, surfacetreatments and decoration, wall thickness, and shape.The significance of shapes was early recognized as important for theconsiderations about function (Linton 1944; cf. Hally 1983b). Some of theperformance characteristics are exclusively connected with vessel forms:capacity (Smith 1985, 273, table 11.2), stability, ease of access, and transportability (Shepard 1956, 237; Rice 1987, 225), among others. Contoursof the vessels’ walls also affect performance, especially its thermal properties: for example, the presence of a low neck – constriction – reducesevaporation and prevents boiling over, and is, therefore, suitable for simmering for longer periods (Smith 1985; Rice 1987, 240; cf. Vuković 2019a)in contrast to open pots, suitable for boiling. Metric parameters (height,volume, and rim, shoulder and base radii) and different indexes – calculated ratios between some of the metric parameters – were also examinedas important indicators of suitability for specific functions (Smith 1985;Hally 1986). Besides the fact that indexes enable strong empirical data,their numerical values are especially useful for comparative analyses ofdifferent assemblages or vessel classes.The potential function or suitability of a vessel for a specific functiondoes not reveal how the vessels were actually used. The actual functionrefers not only to traces of use – use alterations (use-wear and surfaceaccretions), but also to use-related activities, and it is based on the identification of traces and the examination of their distribution and frequency(Skibo 1992; 2013; for an overview, see Forte, this volume). Considerations of some kinds of surface attrition, i.e. mechanical damage, are alsouseful for the identification of re-use and extended use of pots.The analyses of function, including ethnoarchaeological research,were first developed to primarily understand prehistoric pottery. In contrast to assemblages from prehistoric sites, considerations about potteryfunction within the ceramic assemblages from the historical periods arequite rare. Due to many primary sources, which contain data on vesseltypes and their use, the course of ceramic studies was mainly based onissues of typology, production centers, especially in the case of fine wares,and chronology, both of individual types and whole assemblages. Therefore, the issues of function were approached primarily from the aspect offormal attributes and morphology. Along with the shape and wall curvature, much attention was paid to the fabric, i.e. the types of inclusions, andthickness of the vessel walls, as clear indicators of their function.Among the pottery assemblages from historical periods, namely, theClassical era, use-wear analyses were sporadically done. In this regard,Margaret Ward’s (1993) functional analysis of terra sigillata (Samian ware)from the Roman fort at Piercebridge (United Kingdom) is rather representative. The Samian ware collection revealed evidence of frequent andextended use, most probably in a process of mixing ingredients (spices),based on the presence of heavy abrasion on the bases and walls (Ward1993, 19; Peña 2007, 60, Fig. 4.2). The function of Batavian hand-madepottery in the Roman military context of the Augustan castrum in Nijmegen (Netherlands) was also examined (Stoffels 2009, 147-149). Basedon the presence of soot and secondary burning, it was established thatthese pots had actually been used as cooking pots. The presence of twoother functional groups (tableware and storage), and the spatial distribution of vessels, suggest the usage of locally made pottery for cooking,presumably to fulfill the eating habits of the native Batavian auxiliary soldiers in the Roman fort (Stoffels 2009, 153). On the other hand, P. Arthur(2007b) examined cooking-pot types in relation to food resources, including archaeozoological and archaeobotanical remains, to determine thedistribution and application of different cooking techniques in the centuries between Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. He put forwardan interesting thesis that a change in cooking pots, from predominantlyclosed with flat bases to predominantly open forms with convex bases,should be seen as a consequence not only of regionally available meat,cereals, and vegetables but also migrations of people, that is, a culture offood preparation and cooking habits. A similar assumption was made inthe case of tableware, primarily African Red Slip ware, which changed interms of size and typology during the same period. However, the use ofceramic vessels in historic sources, i.e. old cooking texts, challenges Arthur’s model due to a different nomenclature, primarily when it comes tothe function of olla and caccabus (Donelly 2015, 143–144). On the otherhand, during the 5th and 6th centuries, a decrease in the variety of potterytypes, i.e. profiles and sizes (volumes), was recorded. This was largely dueto the economic regression and the disappearance of large-scale potteryproduction (Arthur 2007a, 164-165). This phenomenon, clearly visible inthe archaeological record, coincides with the data in the texts. Nevertheless, Arthur’s model showed that cooking pots can be evidence of cultural(gastronomic) boundaries in antiquity, although due to the unreliability of his conclusions, it was suggested that other methods should be included,primarily analyses of use-alterations and residue analyses (Arthur 2007b,146). Concerning the modes of cooking in late antique pottery, according to the distribution of sooting clouds, it was assumed that pots withrounded bottoms were probably placed on some kind of metal base, trivet,or grid that allowed equal heat distribution, while closed, flat-based cooking-pots were placed by the fire and in front of the hearth or stove; theirthin walls allowed heat to be distributed more evenly on one side without constant mixing (Vroom 2008, 299–301, Figs. 13,15). In contrast, latemedieval cooking-pots, glazed as well as unglazed, exhibit visible sootingclouds on the outside. Although it was suggested that they were placeddirectly in the fire (Vroom 2004, 286), these use-accretions rather indicatethe position of the pot at a distance from the heat source.In early medieval archaeology, the need to examine pottery from theaspect of use was first recognized in the research of the old Slavic settlements. Excavations in Central Europe in the 1970s and ‘80s yielded,among other things, large ceramic assemblages containing whole vessels.They provided a deeper insight into the technological style, but also theuse of pottery in the early Middle Ages. One of the best examples is thesite of Březno near Louny (Czech Republic), a Slavic settlement dated tothe 9th century. Relying on ethnographic studies, an extensive experimentfocused on building old Slavic huts and living in them, including foodpreparation, was conducted (Pleinerová 1986; Pleinerová and Neustupny1987). The research revealed that the pots were placed in front of the ovenopening because of the need for frequent stirring; therefore, half of thecooking pot was exposed to open fire. Additionally, the correlation between mode of use of certain oven types, cooking technique, and the formand size of the vessels was established (Curta 2001, 286, 289–290), revealing some aspects of the household organization of old Slavic communities.Finally, secondary use, reuse, and recycling are important parts ofthe artifacts’ life cycles (Schiffer 1987, 13-15, 271) or use-lives. Reuse – achange in the user or use or form of an artifact following its initial use(Schiffer 1987, 28), or use of an object in a secondary context when it canno longer serve its original function (Deal and Hagstrum 1995, 111), arean important part of dynamic interactions between people and pottery, aswell as an important aspect of formation processes. Recycling – the returnof the artifact to the manufacturing process (Schiffer 1987, 28-32), in thecase of pottery needed to be redefined, and it was proposed that recyclingshould refer to the usage of fragments of pots, as tools, building material,or raw material (Vuković 2015). Important ethnoarchaeological research(Deal 1998) revealed the complexity of ceramic vessels’ use-lives, but theseissues were more rarely examined on pottery revealed from archaeological contexts (for example Sullivan 1989). The usage of ceramic sherds astools attracted some more attention in the research of archeological assemblages (López Varela et al. 2002; Van Gijn and Hofman 2008). An extremely important contribution regarding these stages of vessels’ use-liveswas made by T. Peña (2007), who examined numerous secondary uses ofRoman amphorae, including their reuse in burial customs, and the recycling of their fragments (props for cooking vessels, tools, gaming pieces,weights, etc.).The issue of extended use is usually connected with repairs of thepots. The most frequent ways of mending ceramic vessels were makingperforations along the breakage, and tying together the vessels’ fragmentswith some kind of string, rope, and even with metal wire (Dooijes andNieuwenhuyse 2007, 2009). Roman terra sigillata, for example, was oftenrepaired with rivets and staples (Ward 1993, 19–20), while amphorae weremended using the hole and clamp technique with the use of lead (Peña2007, 237–249) or by filling the cracks with wax, resin, gypsum, crushedceramics or glass, using animal glue, beeswax, or pine resin as adhesives(e.g. 213-215). The repairing of pots was usually connected to their highvalue, and a statistical method, the so-called frequency-of-mending (FreqMend), describing the frequency of repair per pottery type, was developed(Senior 1995). This is why analyses of secondary use, reuse, and extendeduse reveal a deeper insight into lifestyles and common practices of communities of the past.",
publisher = "University of Belgrade – Faculty of Philosophy, Institute of Archaeology, Belgrade",
journal = "Pottery Function and Use: A Diachronic Perspective",
booktitle = "Pottery Function in the Archaeology of the Continental Balkans: An Overview",
pages = "67-37"
}
Vuković, J.,& Bikić, V.. (2022). Pottery Function in the Archaeology of the Continental Balkans: An Overview. in Pottery Function and Use: A Diachronic Perspective
University of Belgrade – Faculty of Philosophy., 37-67.
Vuković J, Bikić V. Pottery Function in the Archaeology of the Continental Balkans: An Overview. in Pottery Function and Use: A Diachronic Perspective. 2022;:37-67..
Vuković, Jasna, Bikić, Vesna, "Pottery Function in the Archaeology of the Continental Balkans: An Overview" in Pottery Function and Use: A Diachronic Perspective (2022):37-67.

Archaeology of craft and artisans in the Ottoman Empire: a case of ceramic production in Belgrade during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

Zivkovic, Jelena; Bikić, Vesna; Georgakopoulou, Myrto; Carvajal Lopez, Jose Cristobal

(Springer Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 2021)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Zivkovic, Jelena
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
AU  - Georgakopoulou, Myrto
AU  - Carvajal Lopez, Jose Cristobal
PY  - 2021
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/377
AB  - This paper discusses an archaeology of ceramic craft and artisans in the sixteenth-seventeenth centuries Belgrade and problematises its relation to historical models of urban production in the Ottoman Empire. The study focuses on five common wares, representative of the Middle Danube region, found in well-defined consumption contexts of Belgrade's intra and extra muros settlements. The production technology of these wares, including ceramic bodies, slips, and glazes, was studied with ceramic petrography and chemical analysis, and the results were interpreted using the chaine operatoire conceptual framework. The petrographic study was also used for a preliminary provenance determination of raw materials. It is proposed that Monochrome Glazed Ware, Slip-Painted Ware, and Domestic Unglazed Ware were locally made in Belgrade following the Ottoman conquest in 1521. The emergence of this production coincides with the abrupt cultural change in the Middle Danube region marked by migrations and new socio-economic conditions initiated by the Ottomans. Traits of the local production are compared to the existing corpus of knowledge on the urban craftsmanship and guilds formulated in Ottoman historiography for the purpose of developing a cross-disciplinary approach to crafts and artisans in the Ottoman Empire.
PB  - Springer Heidelberg, Heidelberg
T2  - Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences
T1  - Archaeology of craft and artisans in the Ottoman Empire: a case of ceramic production in Belgrade during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
IS  - 4
VL  - 13
DO  - 10.1007/s12520-021-01306-3
UR  - conv_336
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Zivkovic, Jelena and Bikić, Vesna and Georgakopoulou, Myrto and Carvajal Lopez, Jose Cristobal",
year = "2021",
abstract = "This paper discusses an archaeology of ceramic craft and artisans in the sixteenth-seventeenth centuries Belgrade and problematises its relation to historical models of urban production in the Ottoman Empire. The study focuses on five common wares, representative of the Middle Danube region, found in well-defined consumption contexts of Belgrade's intra and extra muros settlements. The production technology of these wares, including ceramic bodies, slips, and glazes, was studied with ceramic petrography and chemical analysis, and the results were interpreted using the chaine operatoire conceptual framework. The petrographic study was also used for a preliminary provenance determination of raw materials. It is proposed that Monochrome Glazed Ware, Slip-Painted Ware, and Domestic Unglazed Ware were locally made in Belgrade following the Ottoman conquest in 1521. The emergence of this production coincides with the abrupt cultural change in the Middle Danube region marked by migrations and new socio-economic conditions initiated by the Ottomans. Traits of the local production are compared to the existing corpus of knowledge on the urban craftsmanship and guilds formulated in Ottoman historiography for the purpose of developing a cross-disciplinary approach to crafts and artisans in the Ottoman Empire.",
publisher = "Springer Heidelberg, Heidelberg",
journal = "Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences",
title = "Archaeology of craft and artisans in the Ottoman Empire: a case of ceramic production in Belgrade during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries",
number = "4",
volume = "13",
doi = "10.1007/s12520-021-01306-3",
url = "conv_336"
}
Zivkovic, J., Bikić, V., Georgakopoulou, M.,& Carvajal Lopez, J. C.. (2021). Archaeology of craft and artisans in the Ottoman Empire: a case of ceramic production in Belgrade during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. in Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences
Springer Heidelberg, Heidelberg., 13(4).
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-021-01306-3
conv_336
Zivkovic J, Bikić V, Georgakopoulou M, Carvajal Lopez JC. Archaeology of craft and artisans in the Ottoman Empire: a case of ceramic production in Belgrade during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. in Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences. 2021;13(4).
doi:10.1007/s12520-021-01306-3
conv_336 .
Zivkovic, Jelena, Bikić, Vesna, Georgakopoulou, Myrto, Carvajal Lopez, Jose Cristobal, "Archaeology of craft and artisans in the Ottoman Empire: a case of ceramic production in Belgrade during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries" in Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, 13, no. 4 (2021),
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-021-01306-3 .,
conv_336 .
5
3
1
3

Ceramic production on the Middle Danube frontier: Belgrade in the 14th and 15th centuries

Zivkovic, Jelena; Bikić, Vesna; Lopez, Jose Cristobal Carvajal; Georgakopoulou, Myrto

(Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2021)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Zivkovic, Jelena
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
AU  - Lopez, Jose Cristobal Carvajal
AU  - Georgakopoulou, Myrto
PY  - 2021
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/376
AB  - This paper discusses a micro-scale study of the technology, provenance and organisation of ceramic production in Belgrade during the 14th-15th centuries (the Late Medieval period). The study is situated in the context of the Middle Danube frontier and examines the impact of long-term military pressure on local craftsmanship in Belgrade. The production is reconstructed by methods of petrographic and chemical analyses of ceramics consumed in two households of Belgrade?s intra and extra muros settlements. The results indicate that two distinct technological traditions flourished in Belgrade during the 14th and 15th century respectively, each attached to a different community of practice. The production was diversified in the 15th century in a way that suggests that the distribution networks of local workshops were aimed at different social groups. It is suggested that this mode of craft organisation developed as a consequence of social divisions and military events on the frontier.
PB  - Elsevier, Amsterdam
T2  - Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports
T1  - Ceramic production on the Middle Danube frontier: Belgrade in the 14th and 15th centuries
VL  - 36
DO  - 10.1016/j.jasrep.2021.102809
UR  - conv_337
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Zivkovic, Jelena and Bikić, Vesna and Lopez, Jose Cristobal Carvajal and Georgakopoulou, Myrto",
year = "2021",
abstract = "This paper discusses a micro-scale study of the technology, provenance and organisation of ceramic production in Belgrade during the 14th-15th centuries (the Late Medieval period). The study is situated in the context of the Middle Danube frontier and examines the impact of long-term military pressure on local craftsmanship in Belgrade. The production is reconstructed by methods of petrographic and chemical analyses of ceramics consumed in two households of Belgrade?s intra and extra muros settlements. The results indicate that two distinct technological traditions flourished in Belgrade during the 14th and 15th century respectively, each attached to a different community of practice. The production was diversified in the 15th century in a way that suggests that the distribution networks of local workshops were aimed at different social groups. It is suggested that this mode of craft organisation developed as a consequence of social divisions and military events on the frontier.",
publisher = "Elsevier, Amsterdam",
journal = "Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports",
title = "Ceramic production on the Middle Danube frontier: Belgrade in the 14th and 15th centuries",
volume = "36",
doi = "10.1016/j.jasrep.2021.102809",
url = "conv_337"
}
Zivkovic, J., Bikić, V., Lopez, J. C. C.,& Georgakopoulou, M.. (2021). Ceramic production on the Middle Danube frontier: Belgrade in the 14th and 15th centuries. in Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports
Elsevier, Amsterdam., 36.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2021.102809
conv_337
Zivkovic J, Bikić V, Lopez JCC, Georgakopoulou M. Ceramic production on the Middle Danube frontier: Belgrade in the 14th and 15th centuries. in Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. 2021;36.
doi:10.1016/j.jasrep.2021.102809
conv_337 .
Zivkovic, Jelena, Bikić, Vesna, Lopez, Jose Cristobal Carvajal, Georgakopoulou, Myrto, "Ceramic production on the Middle Danube frontier: Belgrade in the 14th and 15th centuries" in Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 36 (2021),
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2021.102809 .,
conv_337 .
4
2
2
2

Mummified animal skin with tar content from the castle of the late medieval town of Novo Brdo (Central Balkans)

Marković, Nemanja; Bikić, Vesna; Temerinski, Zeljka; Vučetić, Snežana; Ranogajec, Jonjaua

(Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2021)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Marković, Nemanja
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
AU  - Temerinski, Zeljka
AU  - Vučetić, Snežana
AU  - Ranogajec, Jonjaua
PY  - 2021
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/382
AB  - Organic materials are rare in the archaeological settlement context of the central Balkan area. A unique assemblage consisting of mummified animal skin with preserved hair, filled with resinous material, and four smaller pieces of animal skin with preserved hair was discovered during archaeological excavations of the Novo Brdo castle in 2015. The late medieval town of Novo Brdo was an important mining centre of the Balkans (and the entire Europe) for the production and distribution of silver ore. The archaeological context for the mummified animal skin was the workshop for the production of lead projectiles, situated in the northeast corner of the castle's Great Hall, and it can be reliably dated to the first half of 1455. The finds were first subjected to macroscopic analysis, which included observations on the skinning method and the details of use. Applying light and SEM microscopy, a comparative set of hair surface structure images from seven mammal species was created, and a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis of resinous material was performed. By comparing it with the reference images of hair microstructure, the animal skin was identified as goat, while the FTIR of the resinous material identified pine tar. The four smaller pieces of skin probably originated from one individual sheep. The tar stored in the goat skin was most likely used in the impregnation of wooden structures or even to illuminate buildings and ramparts of the Novo Brdo castle, although other purposes, such as being used as a lubricant for weapons, cannot be completely ruled out.
PB  - Elsevier, Amsterdam
T2  - Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports
T1  - Mummified animal skin with tar content from the castle of the late medieval town of Novo Brdo (Central Balkans)
VL  - 40
DO  - 10.1016/j.jasrep.2021.103227
UR  - conv_331
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Marković, Nemanja and Bikić, Vesna and Temerinski, Zeljka and Vučetić, Snežana and Ranogajec, Jonjaua",
year = "2021",
abstract = "Organic materials are rare in the archaeological settlement context of the central Balkan area. A unique assemblage consisting of mummified animal skin with preserved hair, filled with resinous material, and four smaller pieces of animal skin with preserved hair was discovered during archaeological excavations of the Novo Brdo castle in 2015. The late medieval town of Novo Brdo was an important mining centre of the Balkans (and the entire Europe) for the production and distribution of silver ore. The archaeological context for the mummified animal skin was the workshop for the production of lead projectiles, situated in the northeast corner of the castle's Great Hall, and it can be reliably dated to the first half of 1455. The finds were first subjected to macroscopic analysis, which included observations on the skinning method and the details of use. Applying light and SEM microscopy, a comparative set of hair surface structure images from seven mammal species was created, and a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis of resinous material was performed. By comparing it with the reference images of hair microstructure, the animal skin was identified as goat, while the FTIR of the resinous material identified pine tar. The four smaller pieces of skin probably originated from one individual sheep. The tar stored in the goat skin was most likely used in the impregnation of wooden structures or even to illuminate buildings and ramparts of the Novo Brdo castle, although other purposes, such as being used as a lubricant for weapons, cannot be completely ruled out.",
publisher = "Elsevier, Amsterdam",
journal = "Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports",
title = "Mummified animal skin with tar content from the castle of the late medieval town of Novo Brdo (Central Balkans)",
volume = "40",
doi = "10.1016/j.jasrep.2021.103227",
url = "conv_331"
}
Marković, N., Bikić, V., Temerinski, Z., Vučetić, S.,& Ranogajec, J.. (2021). Mummified animal skin with tar content from the castle of the late medieval town of Novo Brdo (Central Balkans). in Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports
Elsevier, Amsterdam., 40.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2021.103227
conv_331
Marković N, Bikić V, Temerinski Z, Vučetić S, Ranogajec J. Mummified animal skin with tar content from the castle of the late medieval town of Novo Brdo (Central Balkans). in Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. 2021;40.
doi:10.1016/j.jasrep.2021.103227
conv_331 .
Marković, Nemanja, Bikić, Vesna, Temerinski, Zeljka, Vučetić, Snežana, Ranogajec, Jonjaua, "Mummified animal skin with tar content from the castle of the late medieval town of Novo Brdo (Central Balkans)" in Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 40 (2021),
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2021.103227 .,
conv_331 .

Ottoman Europe

Gerelyes, I.; Vionis, A.; Bikić, Vesna; Dinu, N.; Biliaieva, S.

(Oxford University Press, 2020)

TY  - CHAP
AU  - Gerelyes, I.
AU  - Vionis, A.
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
AU  - Dinu, N.
AU  - Biliaieva, S.
PY  - 2020
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/349
AB  - The expansive territories in South-Eastern and Central Europe that came under Ottoman rule in the 15th and 16th centuries were culturally and religiously diverse. Some of these territories became Ottoman vassal states, and others fell under direct Ottoman rule. Considering the diversity of the Empire’s inhabitants, research on the lands under Ottoman rule belongs only partly to the field of Islamic archaeology. However, in the context of the Ottoman Empire as a whole, it is clear that analysis of the archaeological heritage of the non-Muslim subjects of the Empire has its place in Ottoman archaeological research and, therefore, constitutes a part of Islamic archaeology. The written sources lend background and credibility to archaeological research and investigations of historical monuments. In this sense, archaeological research into the Ottoman period in Europe represents a branch of historical archaeology which is heavily impacted by textual source analysis.
PB  - Oxford University Press
T2  - The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Archaeology
T1  - Ottoman Europe
EP  - 239
SP  - 217
DO  - 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199987870.013.32
UR  - conv_464
ER  - 
@inbook{
author = "Gerelyes, I. and Vionis, A. and Bikić, Vesna and Dinu, N. and Biliaieva, S.",
year = "2020",
abstract = "The expansive territories in South-Eastern and Central Europe that came under Ottoman rule in the 15th and 16th centuries were culturally and religiously diverse. Some of these territories became Ottoman vassal states, and others fell under direct Ottoman rule. Considering the diversity of the Empire’s inhabitants, research on the lands under Ottoman rule belongs only partly to the field of Islamic archaeology. However, in the context of the Ottoman Empire as a whole, it is clear that analysis of the archaeological heritage of the non-Muslim subjects of the Empire has its place in Ottoman archaeological research and, therefore, constitutes a part of Islamic archaeology. The written sources lend background and credibility to archaeological research and investigations of historical monuments. In this sense, archaeological research into the Ottoman period in Europe represents a branch of historical archaeology which is heavily impacted by textual source analysis.",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
journal = "The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Archaeology",
booktitle = "Ottoman Europe",
pages = "239-217",
doi = "10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199987870.013.32",
url = "conv_464"
}
Gerelyes, I., Vionis, A., Bikić, V., Dinu, N.,& Biliaieva, S.. (2020). Ottoman Europe. in The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Archaeology
Oxford University Press., 217-239.
https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199987870.013.32
conv_464
Gerelyes I, Vionis A, Bikić V, Dinu N, Biliaieva S. Ottoman Europe. in The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Archaeology. 2020;:217-239.
doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199987870.013.32
conv_464 .
Gerelyes, I., Vionis, A., Bikić, Vesna, Dinu, N., Biliaieva, S., "Ottoman Europe" in The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Archaeology (2020):217-239,
https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199987870.013.32 .,
conv_464 .

Application of analytical techniques to the unveiling of the glazing technology of medieval pottery from the Belgrade Fortress

Damjanović-Vasilić, Ljiljana; Bikić, Vesna; Stojanovic, Srna; Bajuk-Bogdanovic, Danica; Džodan, Đurđija; Mentuš, Slavko

(Srpsko Hemijsko Društvo, Beograd, 2020)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Damjanović-Vasilić, Ljiljana
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
AU  - Stojanovic, Srna
AU  - Bajuk-Bogdanovic, Danica
AU  - Džodan, Đurđija
AU  - Mentuš, Slavko
PY  - 2020
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/332
AB  - Medieval glazed ceramics, dated to the early 15th century, excavated at the Belgrade Fortress, Serbia, were investigated by combining optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), micro-Raman spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis. The decoration and style of the investigated ceramics were characteristic of workshops from different areas of the medieval Serbian State: Ras, Krusevac and Belgrade/Smederevo. Comparison was made with ceramic samples from the same period excavated at the Studenica Monastery, the hitherto earliest workshop discovered, which were used as reference material for the Ras area. Ceramics from the Belgrade Fortress were covered with a transparent, lead-based glaze. The majority of the glazes were produced by application of mixture of lead oxide and quartz to the clay body, whereas only two samples were glazed by application of lead oxide by itself. The brown colours of the glaze originated from Fe-based spinel, whereas copper and iron were responsible for the colouring of the green and yellow glazes. The obtained results revealed glazing technology taken from Byzantine tradition.
PB  - Srpsko Hemijsko Društvo, Beograd
T2  - Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society
T1  - Application of analytical techniques to the unveiling of the glazing technology of medieval pottery from the Belgrade Fortress
EP  - 1343
IS  - 10
SP  - 1329
VL  - 85
DO  - 10.2298/JSC200401036D
UR  - conv_348
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Damjanović-Vasilić, Ljiljana and Bikić, Vesna and Stojanovic, Srna and Bajuk-Bogdanovic, Danica and Džodan, Đurđija and Mentuš, Slavko",
year = "2020",
abstract = "Medieval glazed ceramics, dated to the early 15th century, excavated at the Belgrade Fortress, Serbia, were investigated by combining optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), micro-Raman spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis. The decoration and style of the investigated ceramics were characteristic of workshops from different areas of the medieval Serbian State: Ras, Krusevac and Belgrade/Smederevo. Comparison was made with ceramic samples from the same period excavated at the Studenica Monastery, the hitherto earliest workshop discovered, which were used as reference material for the Ras area. Ceramics from the Belgrade Fortress were covered with a transparent, lead-based glaze. The majority of the glazes were produced by application of mixture of lead oxide and quartz to the clay body, whereas only two samples were glazed by application of lead oxide by itself. The brown colours of the glaze originated from Fe-based spinel, whereas copper and iron were responsible for the colouring of the green and yellow glazes. The obtained results revealed glazing technology taken from Byzantine tradition.",
publisher = "Srpsko Hemijsko Društvo, Beograd",
journal = "Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society",
title = "Application of analytical techniques to the unveiling of the glazing technology of medieval pottery from the Belgrade Fortress",
pages = "1343-1329",
number = "10",
volume = "85",
doi = "10.2298/JSC200401036D",
url = "conv_348"
}
Damjanović-Vasilić, L., Bikić, V., Stojanovic, S., Bajuk-Bogdanovic, D., Džodan, Đ.,& Mentuš, S.. (2020). Application of analytical techniques to the unveiling of the glazing technology of medieval pottery from the Belgrade Fortress. in Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society
Srpsko Hemijsko Društvo, Beograd., 85(10), 1329-1343.
https://doi.org/10.2298/JSC200401036D
conv_348
Damjanović-Vasilić L, Bikić V, Stojanovic S, Bajuk-Bogdanovic D, Džodan Đ, Mentuš S. Application of analytical techniques to the unveiling of the glazing technology of medieval pottery from the Belgrade Fortress. in Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society. 2020;85(10):1329-1343.
doi:10.2298/JSC200401036D
conv_348 .
Damjanović-Vasilić, Ljiljana, Bikić, Vesna, Stojanovic, Srna, Bajuk-Bogdanovic, Danica, Džodan, Đurđija, Mentuš, Slavko, "Application of analytical techniques to the unveiling of the glazing technology of medieval pottery from the Belgrade Fortress" in Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, 85, no. 10 (2020):1329-1343,
https://doi.org/10.2298/JSC200401036D .,
conv_348 .

Evidence of continuous pottery production during the late Byzantine period in the Studenica Monastery, a UNESCO World Heritage Site

Stojanovic, Srna; Bikić, Vesna; Milicic, Ljiljana; Radosavljević-Evans, Ivana; Scarlett, Nicola V. Y.; Brand, Helen E. A.; Damjanović-Vasilić, Ljiljana

(Elsevier Science Bv, Amsterdam, 2019)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Stojanovic, Srna
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
AU  - Milicic, Ljiljana
AU  - Radosavljević-Evans, Ivana
AU  - Scarlett, Nicola V. Y.
AU  - Brand, Helen E. A.
AU  - Damjanović-Vasilić, Ljiljana
PY  - 2019
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/321
AB  - A collection of 63 pottery shards excavated at the Studenica Monastery, Serbia, originating from two distinct cultural strata (late 12th until the late 13th century, and the 14th and the first half of 15th century) was subject of this work. Mineralogical and chemical composition of body and glaze and production technology of investigated pottery were determined combining optical microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction and multivariate statistical analysis. In addition, clay rod with traces of glaze from the kiln found within the Monastery complex was investigated. The firing temperature was estimated at 600-700 degrees C for the most of cookware and at 800-1000 degrees C for tableware. Pottery, made of non-calcareous clay, was covered with transparent lead based glaze and copper and iron were used as colorants. Combining results of all used techniques no significant differences in mineralogical and chemical composition among samples from two cultural strata were identified indicating continuous pottery production process from 13th until 15th century in Studenica.
PB  - Elsevier Science Bv, Amsterdam
T2  - Microchemical Journal
T1  - Evidence of continuous pottery production during the late Byzantine period in the Studenica Monastery, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
EP  - 567
SP  - 557
VL  - 146
DO  - 10.1016/j.microc.2019.01.056
UR  - conv_353
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Stojanovic, Srna and Bikić, Vesna and Milicic, Ljiljana and Radosavljević-Evans, Ivana and Scarlett, Nicola V. Y. and Brand, Helen E. A. and Damjanović-Vasilić, Ljiljana",
year = "2019",
abstract = "A collection of 63 pottery shards excavated at the Studenica Monastery, Serbia, originating from two distinct cultural strata (late 12th until the late 13th century, and the 14th and the first half of 15th century) was subject of this work. Mineralogical and chemical composition of body and glaze and production technology of investigated pottery were determined combining optical microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction and multivariate statistical analysis. In addition, clay rod with traces of glaze from the kiln found within the Monastery complex was investigated. The firing temperature was estimated at 600-700 degrees C for the most of cookware and at 800-1000 degrees C for tableware. Pottery, made of non-calcareous clay, was covered with transparent lead based glaze and copper and iron were used as colorants. Combining results of all used techniques no significant differences in mineralogical and chemical composition among samples from two cultural strata were identified indicating continuous pottery production process from 13th until 15th century in Studenica.",
publisher = "Elsevier Science Bv, Amsterdam",
journal = "Microchemical Journal",
title = "Evidence of continuous pottery production during the late Byzantine period in the Studenica Monastery, a UNESCO World Heritage Site",
pages = "567-557",
volume = "146",
doi = "10.1016/j.microc.2019.01.056",
url = "conv_353"
}
Stojanovic, S., Bikić, V., Milicic, L., Radosavljević-Evans, I., Scarlett, N. V. Y., Brand, H. E. A.,& Damjanović-Vasilić, L.. (2019). Evidence of continuous pottery production during the late Byzantine period in the Studenica Monastery, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. in Microchemical Journal
Elsevier Science Bv, Amsterdam., 146, 557-567.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2019.01.056
conv_353
Stojanovic S, Bikić V, Milicic L, Radosavljević-Evans I, Scarlett NVY, Brand HEA, Damjanović-Vasilić L. Evidence of continuous pottery production during the late Byzantine period in the Studenica Monastery, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. in Microchemical Journal. 2019;146:557-567.
doi:10.1016/j.microc.2019.01.056
conv_353 .
Stojanovic, Srna, Bikić, Vesna, Milicic, Ljiljana, Radosavljević-Evans, Ivana, Scarlett, Nicola V. Y., Brand, Helen E. A., Damjanović-Vasilić, Ljiljana, "Evidence of continuous pottery production during the late Byzantine period in the Studenica Monastery, a UNESCO World Heritage Site" in Microchemical Journal, 146 (2019):557-567,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2019.01.056 .,
conv_353 .
2
2
2

Istraživanje mogućnosti primene lasera u čišćenju arheoloških metalnih predmeta

Ristić, Slavica; Polić, Suzana; Radojković, Bojana; Linić, Suzana; Bikić, Vesna; Jegdić, Bore; Pavlović, Miloš

(Inženjersko društvo za koroziju, Beograd, 2018)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Ristić, Slavica
AU  - Polić, Suzana
AU  - Radojković, Bojana
AU  - Linić, Suzana
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
AU  - Jegdić, Bore
AU  - Pavlović, Miloš
PY  - 2018
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/284
AB  - U radu su prikazani rezultati laserskog čišćenja korozivnih i drugih naslaga na metalnom arheološkom predmetu koji je nađen u Dunavu. Korišćen je Nd:YAG laser, energije do 750mJ i talasne dužine λ=1064nm i 532nm. Efikasnost čišćenja je ispitivana u funkciji energije lasera, talasne dužine, broja impulsa, odnosno vremena eksponiranja i vlažnosti površine uzorka. Rezultati skidanja nepoželjnih slojeva sa površine uzorka, kao i morfoloških promena na osnovnom materijalu, ispitivani su optičkom i skenirajućom elektronskom mikroskopijom ( OM i SEM), a ispitivanje mikrohemijskih promena izvršeno je pomoću energijske disperzione spektrometrijske analize (EDX) i rendgensko fluorescentnom spektroskopijom (XRF). Pokazano je da za čišćenje ovog uzorka veću efikasnost ima λ= 532nm i da je uticaj vlažnosti površine na efikasnost laserskog čišćenja veoma mali. Istraživanja obavljena na arheološkom uzorku iz Dunava, pokazuju da je primena lasera u čišćenju nepoželjnih slojeva veoma efikasna, bezbedna i ekološki prihvatljiva.
AB  - The paper presents the results of laser cleaning of corrosive and other deposits on a metal archaeological artefact from the Danube. Nd: YAG laser, energy up to 750 mJ and wavelengths λ = 1064 nm and 532 nm is used. The cleaning efficiency was examined in the function of laser energy, wavelength, and number of pulses, i.e. the time of exposure and moist of the surface of the sample. The results of removal of unwanted layers from the surface of the artefact and morphological changes on the base material were examined by optical and scanning electronic microscopy (OM and SEM). Micro-chemical changes have been determined by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). It has been shown that λ = 532 nm has higher efficiency for cleaning this sample and that the surface moisture has very small influence on laser cleaning efficiency. Research carried out on the archaeological object from the Danube shows that the application of lasers in the cleaning of undesirable layers is very efficient, safe and environmentally friendly.
PB  - Inženjersko društvo za koroziju, Beograd
T2  - Zaštita materijala
T1  - Istraživanje mogućnosti primene lasera u čišćenju arheoloških metalnih predmeta
T1  - Laser cleaning of the archaeological metal sample from the Danube
EP  - 421
IS  - 3
SP  - 410
VL  - 59
DO  - 10.5937/zasmat1803410R
UR  - conv_172
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Ristić, Slavica and Polić, Suzana and Radojković, Bojana and Linić, Suzana and Bikić, Vesna and Jegdić, Bore and Pavlović, Miloš",
year = "2018",
abstract = "U radu su prikazani rezultati laserskog čišćenja korozivnih i drugih naslaga na metalnom arheološkom predmetu koji je nađen u Dunavu. Korišćen je Nd:YAG laser, energije do 750mJ i talasne dužine λ=1064nm i 532nm. Efikasnost čišćenja je ispitivana u funkciji energije lasera, talasne dužine, broja impulsa, odnosno vremena eksponiranja i vlažnosti površine uzorka. Rezultati skidanja nepoželjnih slojeva sa površine uzorka, kao i morfoloških promena na osnovnom materijalu, ispitivani su optičkom i skenirajućom elektronskom mikroskopijom ( OM i SEM), a ispitivanje mikrohemijskih promena izvršeno je pomoću energijske disperzione spektrometrijske analize (EDX) i rendgensko fluorescentnom spektroskopijom (XRF). Pokazano je da za čišćenje ovog uzorka veću efikasnost ima λ= 532nm i da je uticaj vlažnosti površine na efikasnost laserskog čišćenja veoma mali. Istraživanja obavljena na arheološkom uzorku iz Dunava, pokazuju da je primena lasera u čišćenju nepoželjnih slojeva veoma efikasna, bezbedna i ekološki prihvatljiva., The paper presents the results of laser cleaning of corrosive and other deposits on a metal archaeological artefact from the Danube. Nd: YAG laser, energy up to 750 mJ and wavelengths λ = 1064 nm and 532 nm is used. The cleaning efficiency was examined in the function of laser energy, wavelength, and number of pulses, i.e. the time of exposure and moist of the surface of the sample. The results of removal of unwanted layers from the surface of the artefact and morphological changes on the base material were examined by optical and scanning electronic microscopy (OM and SEM). Micro-chemical changes have been determined by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). It has been shown that λ = 532 nm has higher efficiency for cleaning this sample and that the surface moisture has very small influence on laser cleaning efficiency. Research carried out on the archaeological object from the Danube shows that the application of lasers in the cleaning of undesirable layers is very efficient, safe and environmentally friendly.",
publisher = "Inženjersko društvo za koroziju, Beograd",
journal = "Zaštita materijala",
title = "Istraživanje mogućnosti primene lasera u čišćenju arheoloških metalnih predmeta, Laser cleaning of the archaeological metal sample from the Danube",
pages = "421-410",
number = "3",
volume = "59",
doi = "10.5937/zasmat1803410R",
url = "conv_172"
}
Ristić, S., Polić, S., Radojković, B., Linić, S., Bikić, V., Jegdić, B.,& Pavlović, M.. (2018). Istraživanje mogućnosti primene lasera u čišćenju arheoloških metalnih predmeta. in Zaštita materijala
Inženjersko društvo za koroziju, Beograd., 59(3), 410-421.
https://doi.org/10.5937/zasmat1803410R
conv_172
Ristić S, Polić S, Radojković B, Linić S, Bikić V, Jegdić B, Pavlović M. Istraživanje mogućnosti primene lasera u čišćenju arheoloških metalnih predmeta. in Zaštita materijala. 2018;59(3):410-421.
doi:10.5937/zasmat1803410R
conv_172 .
Ristić, Slavica, Polić, Suzana, Radojković, Bojana, Linić, Suzana, Bikić, Vesna, Jegdić, Bore, Pavlović, Miloš, "Istraživanje mogućnosti primene lasera u čišćenju arheoloških metalnih predmeta" in Zaštita materijala, 59, no. 3 (2018):410-421,
https://doi.org/10.5937/zasmat1803410R .,
conv_172 .
1

Archaeometric study of 17th/18th century painted pottery from the Belgrade Fortress

Gajić-Kvaščev, Maja; Bikić, Vesna; Wright, Victoria J.; Radosavljević-Evans, Ivana; Damjanović-Vasilić, Ljiljana

(Elsevier France-Editions Scientifiques Medicales Elsevier, Issy-Les-Moulineaux, 2018)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Gajić-Kvaščev, Maja
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
AU  - Wright, Victoria J.
AU  - Radosavljević-Evans, Ivana
AU  - Damjanović-Vasilić, Ljiljana
PY  - 2018
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/286
AB  - The chemical and mineralogical composition of ceramic bodies, glazes and pigments, as well as the firing temperatures of main groups of Austrian period painted pottery excavated at the Belgrade Fortress on the territory of Serbia, two groups of Malhornware and one group of Anabaptist faience, were determined by a combination of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Investigated pottery was uncovered in the same archaeological context and dated the end of 17th/first decade of 18th century. The obtained mineralogical and chemical composition shows the similarities between the Malhornware groups that indicate a similar production technology. Use of calcareous clay fired at temperatures in the range 850-900 degrees C indicates a different production technology for the Anabaptists faience. The compositional data treatment by multivariate statistical analysis reveals heterogeneity in the Anabaptist faience group of samples, suggesting potential interactions between the local potters and the Anabaptist communities.
PB  - Elsevier France-Editions Scientifiques Medicales Elsevier, Issy-Les-Moulineaux
T2  - Journal of Cultural Heritage
T1  - Archaeometric study of 17th/18th century painted pottery from the Belgrade Fortress
EP  - 21
SP  - 9
VL  - 32
DO  - 10.1016/j.culher.2018.01.018
UR  - conv_342
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Gajić-Kvaščev, Maja and Bikić, Vesna and Wright, Victoria J. and Radosavljević-Evans, Ivana and Damjanović-Vasilić, Ljiljana",
year = "2018",
abstract = "The chemical and mineralogical composition of ceramic bodies, glazes and pigments, as well as the firing temperatures of main groups of Austrian period painted pottery excavated at the Belgrade Fortress on the territory of Serbia, two groups of Malhornware and one group of Anabaptist faience, were determined by a combination of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Investigated pottery was uncovered in the same archaeological context and dated the end of 17th/first decade of 18th century. The obtained mineralogical and chemical composition shows the similarities between the Malhornware groups that indicate a similar production technology. Use of calcareous clay fired at temperatures in the range 850-900 degrees C indicates a different production technology for the Anabaptists faience. The compositional data treatment by multivariate statistical analysis reveals heterogeneity in the Anabaptist faience group of samples, suggesting potential interactions between the local potters and the Anabaptist communities.",
publisher = "Elsevier France-Editions Scientifiques Medicales Elsevier, Issy-Les-Moulineaux",
journal = "Journal of Cultural Heritage",
title = "Archaeometric study of 17th/18th century painted pottery from the Belgrade Fortress",
pages = "21-9",
volume = "32",
doi = "10.1016/j.culher.2018.01.018",
url = "conv_342"
}
Gajić-Kvaščev, M., Bikić, V., Wright, V. J., Radosavljević-Evans, I.,& Damjanović-Vasilić, L.. (2018). Archaeometric study of 17th/18th century painted pottery from the Belgrade Fortress. in Journal of Cultural Heritage
Elsevier France-Editions Scientifiques Medicales Elsevier, Issy-Les-Moulineaux., 32, 9-21.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2018.01.018
conv_342
Gajić-Kvaščev M, Bikić V, Wright VJ, Radosavljević-Evans I, Damjanović-Vasilić L. Archaeometric study of 17th/18th century painted pottery from the Belgrade Fortress. in Journal of Cultural Heritage. 2018;32:9-21.
doi:10.1016/j.culher.2018.01.018
conv_342 .
Gajić-Kvaščev, Maja, Bikić, Vesna, Wright, Victoria J., Radosavljević-Evans, Ivana, Damjanović-Vasilić, Ljiljana, "Archaeometric study of 17th/18th century painted pottery from the Belgrade Fortress" in Journal of Cultural Heritage, 32 (2018):9-21,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2018.01.018 .,
conv_342 .
7
8
8

Microstructural, Mineralogical and Petrographical Characteristics of the Medieval Ceramics from the Studenica Monastery (UNESCO World Heritage Site): Implications on the Pottery Technology and Provenance of The Raw Material

Saric, Kristina; Bikić, Vesna; Erić, Suzana

(Cambridge Univ Press, New York, 2018)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Saric, Kristina
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
AU  - Erić, Suzana
PY  - 2018
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/282
AB  - On the basis of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry and X-ray powder diffraction analyses, we present detailed mineralogical and petrographical characteristics of 63 samples of cooking and tablewares, which originate from two Medieval horizons (S1 and S2) in the Studenica Monastery, as well as of three samples of clays regarded as possible pottery raw material. The composition of the ceramic matrix is compatible with the composition of local clay and clasts that reflect the geology of the Studenica's surroundings. This indicates that almost all studied vessels are unequivocally made locally. However, four wares may represent imports because they show similarities with Byzantine sgraffito wares, and ceramics from the Peloponnese (13th century). In terms of technological and morphological characteristics, the studied pottery collection represents a standardized production. Firing temperatures, estimated according to the level of matrix crystallinity, mineral reactions, and the mode of the appearance of fracture surfaces, indicate that most of cooking wares were fired at 600-700 degrees C. All glazed wares, including tablewares and cooking pots from both S1 and S2, were fired at minimum 800-900 degrees C. Along with technological and morphological standardization the characteristics of the studied collection show knowledge of traditional skills as well as trends within the Byzantine artistic craft circle.
PB  - Cambridge Univ Press, New York
T2  - Microscopy and Microanalysis
T1  - Microstructural, Mineralogical and Petrographical Characteristics of the Medieval Ceramics from the Studenica Monastery (UNESCO World Heritage Site): Implications on the Pottery Technology and Provenance of The Raw Material
EP  - 761
IS  - 6
SP  - 744
VL  - 24
DO  - 10.1017/S1431927618015349
UR  - conv_358
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Saric, Kristina and Bikić, Vesna and Erić, Suzana",
year = "2018",
abstract = "On the basis of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry and X-ray powder diffraction analyses, we present detailed mineralogical and petrographical characteristics of 63 samples of cooking and tablewares, which originate from two Medieval horizons (S1 and S2) in the Studenica Monastery, as well as of three samples of clays regarded as possible pottery raw material. The composition of the ceramic matrix is compatible with the composition of local clay and clasts that reflect the geology of the Studenica's surroundings. This indicates that almost all studied vessels are unequivocally made locally. However, four wares may represent imports because they show similarities with Byzantine sgraffito wares, and ceramics from the Peloponnese (13th century). In terms of technological and morphological characteristics, the studied pottery collection represents a standardized production. Firing temperatures, estimated according to the level of matrix crystallinity, mineral reactions, and the mode of the appearance of fracture surfaces, indicate that most of cooking wares were fired at 600-700 degrees C. All glazed wares, including tablewares and cooking pots from both S1 and S2, were fired at minimum 800-900 degrees C. Along with technological and morphological standardization the characteristics of the studied collection show knowledge of traditional skills as well as trends within the Byzantine artistic craft circle.",
publisher = "Cambridge Univ Press, New York",
journal = "Microscopy and Microanalysis",
title = "Microstructural, Mineralogical and Petrographical Characteristics of the Medieval Ceramics from the Studenica Monastery (UNESCO World Heritage Site): Implications on the Pottery Technology and Provenance of The Raw Material",
pages = "761-744",
number = "6",
volume = "24",
doi = "10.1017/S1431927618015349",
url = "conv_358"
}
Saric, K., Bikić, V.,& Erić, S.. (2018). Microstructural, Mineralogical and Petrographical Characteristics of the Medieval Ceramics from the Studenica Monastery (UNESCO World Heritage Site): Implications on the Pottery Technology and Provenance of The Raw Material. in Microscopy and Microanalysis
Cambridge Univ Press, New York., 24(6), 744-761.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S1431927618015349
conv_358
Saric K, Bikić V, Erić S. Microstructural, Mineralogical and Petrographical Characteristics of the Medieval Ceramics from the Studenica Monastery (UNESCO World Heritage Site): Implications on the Pottery Technology and Provenance of The Raw Material. in Microscopy and Microanalysis. 2018;24(6):744-761.
doi:10.1017/S1431927618015349
conv_358 .
Saric, Kristina, Bikić, Vesna, Erić, Suzana, "Microstructural, Mineralogical and Petrographical Characteristics of the Medieval Ceramics from the Studenica Monastery (UNESCO World Heritage Site): Implications on the Pottery Technology and Provenance of The Raw Material" in Microscopy and Microanalysis, 24, no. 6 (2018):744-761,
https://doi.org/10.1017/S1431927618015349 .,
conv_358 .
2
1
2

Female identity at the beginning of the modern age - A brideʼs burial at bubanj near Niš (Serbia)

Bikić, Vesna; Miladinović-Radmilović, Nataša

(Dept. of History, Archeology and Museology, Univ. of Alba Iulia, 2018)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
AU  - Miladinović-Radmilović, Nataša
PY  - 2018
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/276
AB  - This paper studies the social aspects of burial practices at the beginning of the Modern Age, as evidenced in the case of a necropolis in the village of Bubanj near Niš (Serbia). The devastation of the necropolis, which took place over the past decades, and an insufficient number of unearthed skeletons have largely limited anthropological reconstruction and interpretation and precluded the study of internal population dynamics of this group. However, apart from the diseases usual in archaeological populations, a striking presence of congenital spinal and sacral anomalies in women was noticed. So many anomalies are rarely found at a single site; even before the exact etiology of many of them is determined, we can assume that this was a hermetic population or that the anomalies were hereditary. A series of paleopathological changes noted in women's pelvises are likewise uncommon in archaeological populations. Most of them could have occurred as a consequence of pregnancy and childbirth. Dental analyses have revealed a poor oral hygiene and indicated a monotonous diet typical for agricultural societies. Judging by very prominent muscular and ligamentous entheses, squatting facets and Schmorl's nodes, it can be concluded that the members of this population were engaged in hard physical labor, most likely agriculture and everyday household duties. Burial rites practiced at Bubanj reveal the economic and social status of the community. Simple graves covered with planks and modest repertoire of grave goods were common in Christian communities in the Balkans at the beginning of the Modern Age. As such, they should not be taken at face value as illustrative of a poor economic status; persons with higher income who lived in a peaceful environment could be buried in the same manner as well. In such a setting, the grouped burials of women, including a young woman in full wedding attire, with a rich scarf and amulets, reflect not only the complexity of mortuary practices and cultural identity of Christian Serbs under Ottoman rule in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, but also the status of women within the community.
PB  - Dept. of History, Archeology and Museology, Univ. of Alba Iulia
T2  - Annales Universitatis Apulensis. Series Historica
T1  - Female identity at the beginning of the modern age - A brideʼs burial at bubanj near Niš (Serbia)
EP  - 264
IS  - 1
SP  - 241
VL  - 22
UR  - conv_524
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bikić, Vesna and Miladinović-Radmilović, Nataša",
year = "2018",
abstract = "This paper studies the social aspects of burial practices at the beginning of the Modern Age, as evidenced in the case of a necropolis in the village of Bubanj near Niš (Serbia). The devastation of the necropolis, which took place over the past decades, and an insufficient number of unearthed skeletons have largely limited anthropological reconstruction and interpretation and precluded the study of internal population dynamics of this group. However, apart from the diseases usual in archaeological populations, a striking presence of congenital spinal and sacral anomalies in women was noticed. So many anomalies are rarely found at a single site; even before the exact etiology of many of them is determined, we can assume that this was a hermetic population or that the anomalies were hereditary. A series of paleopathological changes noted in women's pelvises are likewise uncommon in archaeological populations. Most of them could have occurred as a consequence of pregnancy and childbirth. Dental analyses have revealed a poor oral hygiene and indicated a monotonous diet typical for agricultural societies. Judging by very prominent muscular and ligamentous entheses, squatting facets and Schmorl's nodes, it can be concluded that the members of this population were engaged in hard physical labor, most likely agriculture and everyday household duties. Burial rites practiced at Bubanj reveal the economic and social status of the community. Simple graves covered with planks and modest repertoire of grave goods were common in Christian communities in the Balkans at the beginning of the Modern Age. As such, they should not be taken at face value as illustrative of a poor economic status; persons with higher income who lived in a peaceful environment could be buried in the same manner as well. In such a setting, the grouped burials of women, including a young woman in full wedding attire, with a rich scarf and amulets, reflect not only the complexity of mortuary practices and cultural identity of Christian Serbs under Ottoman rule in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, but also the status of women within the community.",
publisher = "Dept. of History, Archeology and Museology, Univ. of Alba Iulia",
journal = "Annales Universitatis Apulensis. Series Historica",
title = "Female identity at the beginning of the modern age - A brideʼs burial at bubanj near Niš (Serbia)",
pages = "264-241",
number = "1",
volume = "22",
url = "conv_524"
}
Bikić, V.,& Miladinović-Radmilović, N.. (2018). Female identity at the beginning of the modern age - A brideʼs burial at bubanj near Niš (Serbia). in Annales Universitatis Apulensis. Series Historica
Dept. of History, Archeology and Museology, Univ. of Alba Iulia., 22(1), 241-264.
conv_524
Bikić V, Miladinović-Radmilović N. Female identity at the beginning of the modern age - A brideʼs burial at bubanj near Niš (Serbia). in Annales Universitatis Apulensis. Series Historica. 2018;22(1):241-264.
conv_524 .
Bikić, Vesna, Miladinović-Radmilović, Nataša, "Female identity at the beginning of the modern age - A brideʼs burial at bubanj near Niš (Serbia)" in Annales Universitatis Apulensis. Series Historica, 22, no. 1 (2018):241-264,
conv_524 .

Archaeology of consumption in Ottoman urban centres: the case study of Iznik ware from the Belgrade Fortress in the 16th and 17th centuries

Zivkovic, Jelena; Bikić, Vesna; Georgakopoulou, Myrto

(Routledge Journals, Taylor & Francis Ltd, Abingdon, 2017)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Zivkovic, Jelena
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
AU  - Georgakopoulou, Myrto
PY  - 2017
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/260
AB  - This article advocates a holistic approach to consumption studies in the urban centres of the Middle Danube region during the Ottoman period (16th-17th centuries) using the example of Iznik ware from the Belgrade Fortress. Combined results of archaeological and scientific research provide insight into regional consumption patterns, which is important for the understanding of cultural variability across the Ottoman Empire. This work emphasizes the importance of contextualized studies of archaeological ceramics in the development of post-medieval archaeology.
PB  - Routledge Journals, Taylor & Francis Ltd, Abingdon
T2  - Post-Medieval Archaeology
T1  - Archaeology of consumption in Ottoman urban centres: the case study of Iznik ware from the Belgrade Fortress in the 16th and 17th centuries
EP  - 144
IS  - 1
SP  - 132
VL  - 51
DO  - 10.1080/00794236.2017.1290490
UR  - conv_365
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Zivkovic, Jelena and Bikić, Vesna and Georgakopoulou, Myrto",
year = "2017",
abstract = "This article advocates a holistic approach to consumption studies in the urban centres of the Middle Danube region during the Ottoman period (16th-17th centuries) using the example of Iznik ware from the Belgrade Fortress. Combined results of archaeological and scientific research provide insight into regional consumption patterns, which is important for the understanding of cultural variability across the Ottoman Empire. This work emphasizes the importance of contextualized studies of archaeological ceramics in the development of post-medieval archaeology.",
publisher = "Routledge Journals, Taylor & Francis Ltd, Abingdon",
journal = "Post-Medieval Archaeology",
title = "Archaeology of consumption in Ottoman urban centres: the case study of Iznik ware from the Belgrade Fortress in the 16th and 17th centuries",
pages = "144-132",
number = "1",
volume = "51",
doi = "10.1080/00794236.2017.1290490",
url = "conv_365"
}
Zivkovic, J., Bikić, V.,& Georgakopoulou, M.. (2017). Archaeology of consumption in Ottoman urban centres: the case study of Iznik ware from the Belgrade Fortress in the 16th and 17th centuries. in Post-Medieval Archaeology
Routledge Journals, Taylor & Francis Ltd, Abingdon., 51(1), 132-144.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00794236.2017.1290490
conv_365
Zivkovic J, Bikić V, Georgakopoulou M. Archaeology of consumption in Ottoman urban centres: the case study of Iznik ware from the Belgrade Fortress in the 16th and 17th centuries. in Post-Medieval Archaeology. 2017;51(1):132-144.
doi:10.1080/00794236.2017.1290490
conv_365 .
Zivkovic, Jelena, Bikić, Vesna, Georgakopoulou, Myrto, "Archaeology of consumption in Ottoman urban centres: the case study of Iznik ware from the Belgrade Fortress in the 16th and 17th centuries" in Post-Medieval Archaeology, 51, no. 1 (2017):132-144,
https://doi.org/10.1080/00794236.2017.1290490 .,
conv_365 .
1
1
1

Pottery manufacture in the Studenica Monastery: Preliminary considerations

Bikić, Vesna

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2015)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
PY  - 2015
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/239
AB  - Relying on indicative finds of clay rods, the article examines different
   aspects of pottery production in the Studenica Monastery. Apart from
   identifying the pottery kiln and manufacture area, several questions are
   raised concerning the organization of pottery production and its users.
   Explanation of the production context enables us to understand the place of
   this monastery in the economy of the early Nemanjić state.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Pottery manufacture in the Studenica Monastery: Preliminary considerations
EP  - 144
IS  - 65
SP  - 131
DO  - 10.2298/STA1565131B
UR  - conv_720
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bikić, Vesna",
year = "2015",
abstract = "Relying on indicative finds of clay rods, the article examines different
   aspects of pottery production in the Studenica Monastery. Apart from
   identifying the pottery kiln and manufacture area, several questions are
   raised concerning the organization of pottery production and its users.
   Explanation of the production context enables us to understand the place of
   this monastery in the economy of the early Nemanjić state.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Pottery manufacture in the Studenica Monastery: Preliminary considerations",
pages = "144-131",
number = "65",
doi = "10.2298/STA1565131B",
url = "conv_720"
}
Bikić, V.. (2015). Pottery manufacture in the Studenica Monastery: Preliminary considerations. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(65), 131-144.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1565131B
conv_720
Bikić V. Pottery manufacture in the Studenica Monastery: Preliminary considerations. in Starinar. 2015;(65):131-144.
doi:10.2298/STA1565131B
conv_720 .
Bikić, Vesna, "Pottery manufacture in the Studenica Monastery: Preliminary considerations" in Starinar, no. 65 (2015):131-144,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1565131B .,
conv_720 .
3

Characterization of the early Byzantine pottery from Caricin Grad (South Serbia) in terms of composition and firing temperature

Damjanović, Ljiljana; Bikić, Vesna; Saric, Kristina; Erić, Suzana; Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka

(Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London, 2014)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Damjanović, Ljiljana
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
AU  - Saric, Kristina
AU  - Erić, Suzana
AU  - Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka
PY  - 2014
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/212
AB  - Mineralogical and chemical composition as well as production methods of the pottery from Caricin Grad, a significant early Byzantine urban complex and production centre of the northern Illyricum region, were determined by multi-analytical investigations that comprised optical analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), micro-Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) methods. The obtained data indicate that all investigated pottery samples were made of similar raw material that, most likely, originated from the local geological environment. Estimated firing temperatures for the cooking pots vary between 600 degrees C and 900 degrees C, while for the glazed table and storage vessels they are more uniform, about 900 degrees C. The transparent high lead glaze was obtained by direct application of lead oxide to the ceramic surface.
PB  - Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London
T2  - Journal of Archaeological Science
T1  - Characterization of the early Byzantine pottery from Caricin Grad (South Serbia) in terms of composition and firing temperature
EP  - 172
SP  - 156
VL  - 46
DO  - 10.1016/j.jas.2014.02.031
UR  - conv_374
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Damjanović, Ljiljana and Bikić, Vesna and Saric, Kristina and Erić, Suzana and Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka",
year = "2014",
abstract = "Mineralogical and chemical composition as well as production methods of the pottery from Caricin Grad, a significant early Byzantine urban complex and production centre of the northern Illyricum region, were determined by multi-analytical investigations that comprised optical analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), micro-Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) methods. The obtained data indicate that all investigated pottery samples were made of similar raw material that, most likely, originated from the local geological environment. Estimated firing temperatures for the cooking pots vary between 600 degrees C and 900 degrees C, while for the glazed table and storage vessels they are more uniform, about 900 degrees C. The transparent high lead glaze was obtained by direct application of lead oxide to the ceramic surface.",
publisher = "Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London",
journal = "Journal of Archaeological Science",
title = "Characterization of the early Byzantine pottery from Caricin Grad (South Serbia) in terms of composition and firing temperature",
pages = "172-156",
volume = "46",
doi = "10.1016/j.jas.2014.02.031",
url = "conv_374"
}
Damjanović, L., Bikić, V., Saric, K., Erić, S.,& Holclajtner-Antunović, I.. (2014). Characterization of the early Byzantine pottery from Caricin Grad (South Serbia) in terms of composition and firing temperature. in Journal of Archaeological Science
Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London., 46, 156-172.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2014.02.031
conv_374
Damjanović L, Bikić V, Saric K, Erić S, Holclajtner-Antunović I. Characterization of the early Byzantine pottery from Caricin Grad (South Serbia) in terms of composition and firing temperature. in Journal of Archaeological Science. 2014;46:156-172.
doi:10.1016/j.jas.2014.02.031
conv_374 .
Damjanović, Ljiljana, Bikić, Vesna, Saric, Kristina, Erić, Suzana, Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka, "Characterization of the early Byzantine pottery from Caricin Grad (South Serbia) in terms of composition and firing temperature" in Journal of Archaeological Science, 46 (2014):156-172,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2014.02.031 .,
conv_374 .
2
25
14
27

Ekskluzivno kinesko posuđe na Balkanu - nalazi seladona iz XIV veka sa Beogradske tvrđave

Bikić, Vesna

(Narodni muzej, Beograd, 2013)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
PY  - 2013
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/178
AB  - U toku arheoloških istraživanja na Beogradskoj tvrđavi nađeni su delovi dve činije od seladona, posebne vrste kineskog porcelana. U tekstu se razmatraju okolnosti tih nalaza i njihova hronologija prema utvrđenim odlikama proizvodnih etapa. Takođe, analiziraju se distribucija seladona i kulturni konteksti u kojima se posuđe javlja izvan matičnog regiona, posebno na Istoku i u Evropi, a prema vestima iz pisanih dokumenata i do sada objavljenim arheološkim nalazima. Na osnovu svih raspoloživih podataka pretpostavljeno je da se prisustvo seladona na Beogradskoj tvrđavi može sagledati u okvirima, pre svega, kulturnog miljea na dvoru despota Stefana Lazarevića u ranom XV veku.
AB  - Fragments of two bowls of celadon, distinct kind of Chinese porcelain (fig. 1, 2) have been found in the course of archaeological investigations at the Belgrade fortress. These specimens come from the castle area and from Lower Town, from the filling layers, which could be roughly dated, on the basis of contents, from the 15th to the 17th century. However, considering available data about complete appearance - shapes of the bowls, glaze colors and decoration, vessels of celadon from Belgrade indubitably belong to the production from the time of late Yuan dynasty, i.e. from the second half of the 14th century. In the text are analyzed distribution of celadon and cultural contexts of appearance of these vessels outside home territory, particularly in the East and in Europe, according to the records in written documents and hitherto published archaeological finds. It has been assumed, on the basis of all available data, that occurrence of celadon at the Belgrade fortress could be studied first of all within the cultural milieu at the court of despot Stefan Lazarević in early 15th century. In that light, circumstances and way of arrival in Belgrade could be associated with entire economic development and particularly with stimulation of trade, which resulted in establishing of dynamic cultural milieu resembling the Renaissance courts in Italy and France. So, celadon could have been either acquired during one of regular commercial trips or it could have been a gift from some prominent person who already possessed these vessels. Also, despot Stefan had the opportunity to personally obtain Chinese celadon at least on three occasions when he was staying in the East: first when he accepted vassal obligations at the court of sultan Bayazid I after the battle of Kosovo in 1389/1390, and after that at the court of the Palaiologoi in Constantinople where he was granted title of despot twice, in 1402 and in 1410. Considering high regard for celadon among the Ottoman elite, vessels from Belgrade fortress could be studied also in the context of finds of other kinds of porcelain, which occurred in the archaeological assemblages dating from late 17th and the 18th century. Everything previously said, although indicative, does not allow for drawing founded conclusion about historical, social and cultural context of appearance of celadon in Belgrade. Nevertheless, suggested assumption about valuable celadon vessels at the court of despot Stefan seems realistic, partially also because rather short period of time passed between the production and use of these vessels. It is, however, undeniable that celadon vessels are rare items disregarding the epoch when they had been used. It is very rare in Europe, while it has been recognized in the Balkans only sporadically although it would have been logical that at least some specimens could be found in certain larger centers. Besides other luxurious objects, discovery of valuable Chinese celadon in Belgrade as well as in Buda is of particular significance as it represents both these centers in a different light and gives new dimension to the concept of international trade in the late medieval period.
PB  - Narodni muzej, Beograd
T2  - Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija
T1  - Ekskluzivno kinesko posuđe na Balkanu - nalazi seladona iz XIV veka sa Beogradske tvrđave
T1  - Exclusive Chinese pottery in the Balkans: Finds of 14th century celadon from the Belgrade fortress
EP  - 273
IS  - 21-1
SP  - 253
UR  - conv_207
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bikić, Vesna",
year = "2013",
abstract = "U toku arheoloških istraživanja na Beogradskoj tvrđavi nađeni su delovi dve činije od seladona, posebne vrste kineskog porcelana. U tekstu se razmatraju okolnosti tih nalaza i njihova hronologija prema utvrđenim odlikama proizvodnih etapa. Takođe, analiziraju se distribucija seladona i kulturni konteksti u kojima se posuđe javlja izvan matičnog regiona, posebno na Istoku i u Evropi, a prema vestima iz pisanih dokumenata i do sada objavljenim arheološkim nalazima. Na osnovu svih raspoloživih podataka pretpostavljeno je da se prisustvo seladona na Beogradskoj tvrđavi može sagledati u okvirima, pre svega, kulturnog miljea na dvoru despota Stefana Lazarevića u ranom XV veku., Fragments of two bowls of celadon, distinct kind of Chinese porcelain (fig. 1, 2) have been found in the course of archaeological investigations at the Belgrade fortress. These specimens come from the castle area and from Lower Town, from the filling layers, which could be roughly dated, on the basis of contents, from the 15th to the 17th century. However, considering available data about complete appearance - shapes of the bowls, glaze colors and decoration, vessels of celadon from Belgrade indubitably belong to the production from the time of late Yuan dynasty, i.e. from the second half of the 14th century. In the text are analyzed distribution of celadon and cultural contexts of appearance of these vessels outside home territory, particularly in the East and in Europe, according to the records in written documents and hitherto published archaeological finds. It has been assumed, on the basis of all available data, that occurrence of celadon at the Belgrade fortress could be studied first of all within the cultural milieu at the court of despot Stefan Lazarević in early 15th century. In that light, circumstances and way of arrival in Belgrade could be associated with entire economic development and particularly with stimulation of trade, which resulted in establishing of dynamic cultural milieu resembling the Renaissance courts in Italy and France. So, celadon could have been either acquired during one of regular commercial trips or it could have been a gift from some prominent person who already possessed these vessels. Also, despot Stefan had the opportunity to personally obtain Chinese celadon at least on three occasions when he was staying in the East: first when he accepted vassal obligations at the court of sultan Bayazid I after the battle of Kosovo in 1389/1390, and after that at the court of the Palaiologoi in Constantinople where he was granted title of despot twice, in 1402 and in 1410. Considering high regard for celadon among the Ottoman elite, vessels from Belgrade fortress could be studied also in the context of finds of other kinds of porcelain, which occurred in the archaeological assemblages dating from late 17th and the 18th century. Everything previously said, although indicative, does not allow for drawing founded conclusion about historical, social and cultural context of appearance of celadon in Belgrade. Nevertheless, suggested assumption about valuable celadon vessels at the court of despot Stefan seems realistic, partially also because rather short period of time passed between the production and use of these vessels. It is, however, undeniable that celadon vessels are rare items disregarding the epoch when they had been used. It is very rare in Europe, while it has been recognized in the Balkans only sporadically although it would have been logical that at least some specimens could be found in certain larger centers. Besides other luxurious objects, discovery of valuable Chinese celadon in Belgrade as well as in Buda is of particular significance as it represents both these centers in a different light and gives new dimension to the concept of international trade in the late medieval period.",
publisher = "Narodni muzej, Beograd",
journal = "Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija",
title = "Ekskluzivno kinesko posuđe na Balkanu - nalazi seladona iz XIV veka sa Beogradske tvrđave, Exclusive Chinese pottery in the Balkans: Finds of 14th century celadon from the Belgrade fortress",
pages = "273-253",
number = "21-1",
url = "conv_207"
}
Bikić, V.. (2013). Ekskluzivno kinesko posuđe na Balkanu - nalazi seladona iz XIV veka sa Beogradske tvrđave. in Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija
Narodni muzej, Beograd.(21-1), 253-273.
conv_207
Bikić V. Ekskluzivno kinesko posuđe na Balkanu - nalazi seladona iz XIV veka sa Beogradske tvrđave. in Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija. 2013;(21-1):253-273.
conv_207 .
Bikić, Vesna, "Ekskluzivno kinesko posuđe na Balkanu - nalazi seladona iz XIV veka sa Beogradske tvrđave" in Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija, no. 21-1 (2013):253-273,
conv_207 .

Micro-Raman and infrared analysis of medieval pottery findings from Branicevo, Serbia

Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka; Bajuk-Bogdanovic, Danica; Bikić, Vesna; Marić-Stojanović, Milica

(Wiley, Hoboken, 2012)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka
AU  - Bajuk-Bogdanovic, Danica
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
AU  - Marić-Stojanović, Milica
PY  - 2012
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/170
AB  - A selection of Byzantine table pottery (17 samples) dating from the period between the beginning of the 12th century and the first half of the 13th century, discovered at Branicevo in Serbia, were analysed by Fourier transform infrared, micro-Raman and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy and petrography analysis. The aim of the investigation was to determine the chemical and mineralogical composition of the body and of the glaze and thus to determine the production technology. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provided data for estimating the firing temperature and the basic mineralogical composition, and micro-Raman spectroscopy was applied to study and characterise both the glaze and the body of the analysed sherds. It was found that noncalcareous clays, characterised by a rich mineral assemblage, were fired at temperatures between 700 and 900?degrees C. Oxidizing atmosphere was applied in the production of the red colour pottery. The dark and grey coloured paste of one group of sherds was produced by firing organic matter-rich clays in a reducing environment. The main type of transparent glaze was identified as lead-rich, and two samples were alkalilime glazed.
PB  - Wiley, Hoboken
T2  - Journal of Raman Spectroscopy
T1  - Micro-Raman and infrared analysis of medieval pottery findings from Branicevo, Serbia
EP  - 1110
IS  - 8
SP  - 1101
VL  - 43
DO  - 10.1002/jrs.3129
UR  - conv_377
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka and Bajuk-Bogdanovic, Danica and Bikić, Vesna and Marić-Stojanović, Milica",
year = "2012",
abstract = "A selection of Byzantine table pottery (17 samples) dating from the period between the beginning of the 12th century and the first half of the 13th century, discovered at Branicevo in Serbia, were analysed by Fourier transform infrared, micro-Raman and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy and petrography analysis. The aim of the investigation was to determine the chemical and mineralogical composition of the body and of the glaze and thus to determine the production technology. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provided data for estimating the firing temperature and the basic mineralogical composition, and micro-Raman spectroscopy was applied to study and characterise both the glaze and the body of the analysed sherds. It was found that noncalcareous clays, characterised by a rich mineral assemblage, were fired at temperatures between 700 and 900?degrees C. Oxidizing atmosphere was applied in the production of the red colour pottery. The dark and grey coloured paste of one group of sherds was produced by firing organic matter-rich clays in a reducing environment. The main type of transparent glaze was identified as lead-rich, and two samples were alkalilime glazed.",
publisher = "Wiley, Hoboken",
journal = "Journal of Raman Spectroscopy",
title = "Micro-Raman and infrared analysis of medieval pottery findings from Branicevo, Serbia",
pages = "1110-1101",
number = "8",
volume = "43",
doi = "10.1002/jrs.3129",
url = "conv_377"
}
Holclajtner-Antunović, I., Bajuk-Bogdanovic, D., Bikić, V.,& Marić-Stojanović, M.. (2012). Micro-Raman and infrared analysis of medieval pottery findings from Branicevo, Serbia. in Journal of Raman Spectroscopy
Wiley, Hoboken., 43(8), 1101-1110.
https://doi.org/10.1002/jrs.3129
conv_377
Holclajtner-Antunović I, Bajuk-Bogdanovic D, Bikić V, Marić-Stojanović M. Micro-Raman and infrared analysis of medieval pottery findings from Branicevo, Serbia. in Journal of Raman Spectroscopy. 2012;43(8):1101-1110.
doi:10.1002/jrs.3129
conv_377 .
Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka, Bajuk-Bogdanovic, Danica, Bikić, Vesna, Marić-Stojanović, Milica, "Micro-Raman and infrared analysis of medieval pottery findings from Branicevo, Serbia" in Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 43, no. 8 (2012):1101-1110,
https://doi.org/10.1002/jrs.3129 .,
conv_377 .
7
10
10

Habanska keramika sa beogradske tvrđave - kontekst, hronologija i dizajn

Bikić, Vesna

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2012)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
PY  - 2012
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/163
AB  - U istoriji grnčarskog zanata habanska keramika zauzima veoma značajno mesto, jer na sasvim poseban način objedinjuje aspekte religije, društva i umetnosti. Ona je nazvana po zajednicama njenih tvoraca - pripadnika reformističkog pokreta anabaptista. Razvijala se u zemljama centralne Evrope od kraja 16. pa sve do 19. veka. To je umetnička keramika sa kalajnom glazurom, prepoznatljivog dizajna i kolorita. U toku arheoloških istraživanja na Beogradskoj tvrđavi, posebno u novije vreme, otkrivena je značajna količ ina nalaza koji potiču iz dobro definisanih i precizno datovanih celina. To je povod da se habanska keramika detaljno analizira i da se, uz to, razmotre okolnosti njene pojave u određenom istorijskom trenutku. Habanska keramika se javlja u dve etape, koje zapravo određuju periode austrijske vladavine u Beogradu. Prva etapa, na kraju 17. veka, trajala je svega dve godine, 1688-1690, dok je druga nastupila nakon austrijskog osvajanja grada 1717. godine i trajala je pune dve decenije (do 1739. godine). Vreme prve austrijske etape na Beogradskoj tvrđavi ilustruje materijal iz podruma mitropolijske rezidencije u Donjem gradu, koji je u neizmenjenom vidu koristila i austrijska vojska dve godine nakon zaposedanja tvrđave 1688. godine. Ovde je nađeno približno 20 apotekarskih posuda, kao i još nekoliko bokala sa floralnom dekoracijom (sl. 4, 6, 9a). Osim u podrumu zgrade u Donjem gradu, nalazi habanske keramike iz vremena prve austrijske okupacije registrovani su na još dva mesta. Najpre, to su delovi jednog bokala s floralnim ukrasom i 1689. godinom (sl. 9b) koji su nađeni na prostoru nekadašnjeg Zamka u severozapadnom uglu Gornjeg grada. Iz istog razdoblja je i jedan ulomak tanjira (sl. 8) koji je nađen u Zapadnom podgrađu, u otpadnoj jami u blizini obimnog zida Velikog barutnog magacina. Drugo razdoblje austrijske vlasti u Beogradu započinje velikom pobedom princa Eugena Savojskog i osvajanjem Beograda 1717. godine, a završava se novom turskom opsadom i ugovorom o primirju po kojem je grad predat Turcima 1739. godine. U ovoj drugoj austrijskoj etapi izvršena je temeljna rekonstrukcija tvrđave po principima moderne artiljerijske fortifikacije. Obim promene jasno ilustruje dominantno prisustvo raznovrsnih predmeta svakodnevice iz srednjoevropskog kulturnog kruga na svim prostorima tvrđave. Ipak, po velikoj količini različitih predmeta, a pre svega keramičkih posuda, jedna celina se posebno izdvaja. Reč je o blokhausu - fortifikacionoj građevini sa odbrambenom ulogom na Jugoistočnom bedemu Gornjeg grada, koja je detaljno istražena 2008. godine. U podzemnoj prostoriji blokhausa nađeno je oko 1000 posuda, a od toga oko 50 habanskih (sl. 5, 7, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15b). Osim floralne dekoracije, po kojoj je habanska keramika posebno prepoznatljiva, ima posuda sa hrišćanskim motivima (sl. 11), kao i posuda sa oznakama cehova kovača, bačvara, krojača i mesara (sl. 13-15). U saglasju s graditeljskim aktivnostima, ovaj sloj se datuje između 1717. i 1725. godine. Sličan kontekst se može pretpostaviti i za još neke celine na platou Gornjeg grada. Tako se u jednoj od jama (jama 4), na prostoru između Sahat-kapije i Ali-pašinog turbeta, našao i deo plavog bokala sa golubicama i godinom 1711, napisanom u prepoznatljivom maniru (sl. 12). Zbog svojih karakteristika, naročito osobene dekoracije, habanska keramika na sasvim poseban način ilustruje umetnost renesanse i srednjoevropski kulturni krug. Takođe, ona otkriva širinu anabaptističke 'škole keramike' koja podrazumeva izradu različitih posuda, kako u oblikovnom tako i u dekorativnom smislu. Osobine vrste su u velikoj meri poznate, posebno tehnološki aspekt i dekorativni predlošci. Takođe, uspostavljena je hronologija i izdvojene su etape proizvodnje, pri čemu olakšavajuću okolnost predstavlja ispisivanje datuma na solidnoj količini primeraka. Međutim, pojedini segmenti ovog fenomena su ostali nedovoljno rasvetljeni, posebno oni koji se odnose na organizaciju proizvodnje i dalji život ovog materijala u određenim okolnostima svakodnevice. Na ta i slična pitanja smernice, ali i odgovore, mogu dati upravo arheološki nalazi. U tom smislu, materijal sa Beogradske tvrđave se može posmatrati kao uzoran, budući da ga odlikuje jasan kontekst, pouzdan statistički uzorak i raznovrsnost. S obzirom na to da je nađen na prostoru tvrđave, sasvim je jasno da ovde može biti reč o materijalu koji je nabavljen kupovinom. Pojava habanske keramike na Beogradskoj tvrđavi ima daleko veći značaj, budući da rečito ilustruje razdoblja austrijske vlasti. Prema predočenim rezultatima arheološ kih istraživanja, već u trenutku zaposedanja tvrđave je organizovana priručna apoteka, sa habanskim keramičkim posudama i staklenim bocama, u jednom skrovitom, tamnom podrumu. To što je ova ambalaža doneta u Beograd navodi na pomisao da bi mogla biti u pitanju posebna nabavka za potrebe vojske. S druge strane, veoma kvalitetan i ilustrativan materijal iz blokhausa svedoči o vrstama posuđa koje je tvrđavska posada svakodnevno koristila. U ovoj celini identifikovano je približno 1000 posuda, od čega je habanskih oko 5%, što je polovina ukupne količine trpezne keramike (drugu polovinu čine duboke, višebojno slikane zdele iz mađarskih i austrijskih radionica i, znatno manje, jednobojno glazirani bokali, dok najveću količinu nalaza čine kuhinjski lonci i šerpe na tri nožice). Iako je to tek jedna od vrsta trpezne keramike, među bokalima oni preovlađuju, te ih možemo smatrati veoma traženim, a po ceni prilično pristupačnim. S druge strane, bokali sa cehovskim oznakama nedvosmisleno potvrđuju prisustvo različitih zanatlija, u ovom slučaju kovača, bačvara, krojača i mesara, koji su opsluživali vojsku. S obzirom na raspored građevina u Gornjem gradu, nećemo pogrešiti ako ovu keramičku celinu protumačimo kao inventar iz obližnjih kasarni. On je u podzemnu prostoriju blokhausa mogao dospeti prilikom raščišćavanja kasarni i okolnog prostora, koje je sprovedeno najkasnije do 1725. godine, kada su radovi na ovom delu gornjogradske fortifikacije bili u celini okončani. Iz svega što je rečeno o nalazima sa Beogradske tvrđave, jasno je da fenomen habanske keramike značajno prevazilazi njen tehnološki i dekorativni karakter. Rezultati arheoloških istraživanja, u ovom slučaju konteksti sa keramikom iz austrijskog doba, predstavljaju solidnu podlogu za šira razmatranja u vezi sa snabdevanjem vojnih trupa i uopšte organizovanjem života u zaposednutim tvrđavama. O tome će u skorijoj budućnosti biti još reči, budući da detaljno objavljivanje rezultata istraživanja blokhausa tek predstoji.
AB  - Haban pottery, named after its makers, members of the Anabaptist reform movement, flourished in Central-European countries from the end of the 16th until the 19th century. It is tin-glazed earthenware marked by distinctive decorative expression dominated by floral patterns. Archaeological excavations within the area of the Belgrade Fortress have recovered some eighty pieces of Haban pottery from well-defined and precisely dated contexts. The pottery occurred in two separate phases of Austrian rule over Belgrade. The earlier lasted for only two years, 1688-90, while the later began with the Austrian capture of the city in 1717 and lasted for over two decades, until 1739. These finds make it possible to establish the chronology and repertoire of Haban pottery in Belgrade, contributing to our better knowledge of this distinctive category of earthenware.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Habanska keramika sa beogradske tvrđave - kontekst, hronologija i dizajn
T1  - The Haban pottery from the Belgrade fortress: Archaeological contexts, chronology, decorative designs
EP  - 227
IS  - 62
SP  - 205
DO  - 10.2298/STA1262205B
UR  - conv_690
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bikić, Vesna",
year = "2012",
abstract = "U istoriji grnčarskog zanata habanska keramika zauzima veoma značajno mesto, jer na sasvim poseban način objedinjuje aspekte religije, društva i umetnosti. Ona je nazvana po zajednicama njenih tvoraca - pripadnika reformističkog pokreta anabaptista. Razvijala se u zemljama centralne Evrope od kraja 16. pa sve do 19. veka. To je umetnička keramika sa kalajnom glazurom, prepoznatljivog dizajna i kolorita. U toku arheoloških istraživanja na Beogradskoj tvrđavi, posebno u novije vreme, otkrivena je značajna količ ina nalaza koji potiču iz dobro definisanih i precizno datovanih celina. To je povod da se habanska keramika detaljno analizira i da se, uz to, razmotre okolnosti njene pojave u određenom istorijskom trenutku. Habanska keramika se javlja u dve etape, koje zapravo određuju periode austrijske vladavine u Beogradu. Prva etapa, na kraju 17. veka, trajala je svega dve godine, 1688-1690, dok je druga nastupila nakon austrijskog osvajanja grada 1717. godine i trajala je pune dve decenije (do 1739. godine). Vreme prve austrijske etape na Beogradskoj tvrđavi ilustruje materijal iz podruma mitropolijske rezidencije u Donjem gradu, koji je u neizmenjenom vidu koristila i austrijska vojska dve godine nakon zaposedanja tvrđave 1688. godine. Ovde je nađeno približno 20 apotekarskih posuda, kao i još nekoliko bokala sa floralnom dekoracijom (sl. 4, 6, 9a). Osim u podrumu zgrade u Donjem gradu, nalazi habanske keramike iz vremena prve austrijske okupacije registrovani su na još dva mesta. Najpre, to su delovi jednog bokala s floralnim ukrasom i 1689. godinom (sl. 9b) koji su nađeni na prostoru nekadašnjeg Zamka u severozapadnom uglu Gornjeg grada. Iz istog razdoblja je i jedan ulomak tanjira (sl. 8) koji je nađen u Zapadnom podgrađu, u otpadnoj jami u blizini obimnog zida Velikog barutnog magacina. Drugo razdoblje austrijske vlasti u Beogradu započinje velikom pobedom princa Eugena Savojskog i osvajanjem Beograda 1717. godine, a završava se novom turskom opsadom i ugovorom o primirju po kojem je grad predat Turcima 1739. godine. U ovoj drugoj austrijskoj etapi izvršena je temeljna rekonstrukcija tvrđave po principima moderne artiljerijske fortifikacije. Obim promene jasno ilustruje dominantno prisustvo raznovrsnih predmeta svakodnevice iz srednjoevropskog kulturnog kruga na svim prostorima tvrđave. Ipak, po velikoj količini različitih predmeta, a pre svega keramičkih posuda, jedna celina se posebno izdvaja. Reč je o blokhausu - fortifikacionoj građevini sa odbrambenom ulogom na Jugoistočnom bedemu Gornjeg grada, koja je detaljno istražena 2008. godine. U podzemnoj prostoriji blokhausa nađeno je oko 1000 posuda, a od toga oko 50 habanskih (sl. 5, 7, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15b). Osim floralne dekoracije, po kojoj je habanska keramika posebno prepoznatljiva, ima posuda sa hrišćanskim motivima (sl. 11), kao i posuda sa oznakama cehova kovača, bačvara, krojača i mesara (sl. 13-15). U saglasju s graditeljskim aktivnostima, ovaj sloj se datuje između 1717. i 1725. godine. Sličan kontekst se može pretpostaviti i za još neke celine na platou Gornjeg grada. Tako se u jednoj od jama (jama 4), na prostoru između Sahat-kapije i Ali-pašinog turbeta, našao i deo plavog bokala sa golubicama i godinom 1711, napisanom u prepoznatljivom maniru (sl. 12). Zbog svojih karakteristika, naročito osobene dekoracije, habanska keramika na sasvim poseban način ilustruje umetnost renesanse i srednjoevropski kulturni krug. Takođe, ona otkriva širinu anabaptističke 'škole keramike' koja podrazumeva izradu različitih posuda, kako u oblikovnom tako i u dekorativnom smislu. Osobine vrste su u velikoj meri poznate, posebno tehnološki aspekt i dekorativni predlošci. Takođe, uspostavljena je hronologija i izdvojene su etape proizvodnje, pri čemu olakšavajuću okolnost predstavlja ispisivanje datuma na solidnoj količini primeraka. Međutim, pojedini segmenti ovog fenomena su ostali nedovoljno rasvetljeni, posebno oni koji se odnose na organizaciju proizvodnje i dalji život ovog materijala u određenim okolnostima svakodnevice. Na ta i slična pitanja smernice, ali i odgovore, mogu dati upravo arheološki nalazi. U tom smislu, materijal sa Beogradske tvrđave se može posmatrati kao uzoran, budući da ga odlikuje jasan kontekst, pouzdan statistički uzorak i raznovrsnost. S obzirom na to da je nađen na prostoru tvrđave, sasvim je jasno da ovde može biti reč o materijalu koji je nabavljen kupovinom. Pojava habanske keramike na Beogradskoj tvrđavi ima daleko veći značaj, budući da rečito ilustruje razdoblja austrijske vlasti. Prema predočenim rezultatima arheološ kih istraživanja, već u trenutku zaposedanja tvrđave je organizovana priručna apoteka, sa habanskim keramičkim posudama i staklenim bocama, u jednom skrovitom, tamnom podrumu. To što je ova ambalaža doneta u Beograd navodi na pomisao da bi mogla biti u pitanju posebna nabavka za potrebe vojske. S druge strane, veoma kvalitetan i ilustrativan materijal iz blokhausa svedoči o vrstama posuđa koje je tvrđavska posada svakodnevno koristila. U ovoj celini identifikovano je približno 1000 posuda, od čega je habanskih oko 5%, što je polovina ukupne količine trpezne keramike (drugu polovinu čine duboke, višebojno slikane zdele iz mađarskih i austrijskih radionica i, znatno manje, jednobojno glazirani bokali, dok najveću količinu nalaza čine kuhinjski lonci i šerpe na tri nožice). Iako je to tek jedna od vrsta trpezne keramike, među bokalima oni preovlađuju, te ih možemo smatrati veoma traženim, a po ceni prilično pristupačnim. S druge strane, bokali sa cehovskim oznakama nedvosmisleno potvrđuju prisustvo različitih zanatlija, u ovom slučaju kovača, bačvara, krojača i mesara, koji su opsluživali vojsku. S obzirom na raspored građevina u Gornjem gradu, nećemo pogrešiti ako ovu keramičku celinu protumačimo kao inventar iz obližnjih kasarni. On je u podzemnu prostoriju blokhausa mogao dospeti prilikom raščišćavanja kasarni i okolnog prostora, koje je sprovedeno najkasnije do 1725. godine, kada su radovi na ovom delu gornjogradske fortifikacije bili u celini okončani. Iz svega što je rečeno o nalazima sa Beogradske tvrđave, jasno je da fenomen habanske keramike značajno prevazilazi njen tehnološki i dekorativni karakter. Rezultati arheoloških istraživanja, u ovom slučaju konteksti sa keramikom iz austrijskog doba, predstavljaju solidnu podlogu za šira razmatranja u vezi sa snabdevanjem vojnih trupa i uopšte organizovanjem života u zaposednutim tvrđavama. O tome će u skorijoj budućnosti biti još reči, budući da detaljno objavljivanje rezultata istraživanja blokhausa tek predstoji., Haban pottery, named after its makers, members of the Anabaptist reform movement, flourished in Central-European countries from the end of the 16th until the 19th century. It is tin-glazed earthenware marked by distinctive decorative expression dominated by floral patterns. Archaeological excavations within the area of the Belgrade Fortress have recovered some eighty pieces of Haban pottery from well-defined and precisely dated contexts. The pottery occurred in two separate phases of Austrian rule over Belgrade. The earlier lasted for only two years, 1688-90, while the later began with the Austrian capture of the city in 1717 and lasted for over two decades, until 1739. These finds make it possible to establish the chronology and repertoire of Haban pottery in Belgrade, contributing to our better knowledge of this distinctive category of earthenware.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Habanska keramika sa beogradske tvrđave - kontekst, hronologija i dizajn, The Haban pottery from the Belgrade fortress: Archaeological contexts, chronology, decorative designs",
pages = "227-205",
number = "62",
doi = "10.2298/STA1262205B",
url = "conv_690"
}
Bikić, V.. (2012). Habanska keramika sa beogradske tvrđave - kontekst, hronologija i dizajn. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(62), 205-227.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1262205B
conv_690
Bikić V. Habanska keramika sa beogradske tvrđave - kontekst, hronologija i dizajn. in Starinar. 2012;(62):205-227.
doi:10.2298/STA1262205B
conv_690 .
Bikić, Vesna, "Habanska keramika sa beogradske tvrđave - kontekst, hronologija i dizajn" in Starinar, no. 62 (2012):205-227,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1262205B .,
conv_690 .
2

Vessels from Late Medieval cemeteries in the Central Balkans

Bikić, Vesna

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2011)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
PY  - 2011
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/139
AB  - Although a rare occurrence in late medieval cemeteries, vessels have been
   found on almost all major sites of the period, such as Novo Brdo, Trgovište,
   Reljina Gradina and the churchyard of St Peter’s near Novi Pazar, the
   churchyard of St Nicholas’ at Kuršumlija, the churchyard of St Stephen’s at
   Milentija near Brus, Mali Zvečan, Mirijevo, Vinča. Vessels occur in different
   places, both on top of and in graves. Fragments of pottery and glass vessels
   are relatively abundant in layers of earth filling burial pits and chambers,
   and in those immediately overlaying burial pits or gravestones. The available
   data make it possible to recognize almost all functional types. The most
   frequently found pottery shapes are larger liquid containers - jugs and
   pitchers, and apparently there have also been many pots, both hearth cooking
   and glazed (figs. 1-3; 5-9). Recognizable among the glass vessels are
   bottles, usually those with long fluted necks and biconical, as well as
   infrequent icon lamps. The data about the vessels found buried with the
   deceased is much more detailed. Such finds are recorded at Mačvanska
   Mitrovica (fig. 10/3), Brestovik (fig. 13/3), Mirijevo (fig. 4/1), Vinča
   (figs. 4/2; 10/4), Stragari near Kragujevac, Milentija near Brus, round the
   church of St Peter near Novi Pazar, at the monastery of Končulić (fig. 13/2)
   and the monastery of Gradac. The relatively plentiful and diverse vessels
   discovered at the cemeteries of medieval Trgovište are especially
   illustrative (fig. 10/2, 7). The available descriptions of vessels and
   archaeological contexts provide a general impression about the types of
   vessels recorded in the cemeteries of a late medieval and early modern date
   in the central Balkans. Glass bottles as a rule were laid in graves, while
   earth-fill layers, apart from bottles, contained plentiful shards of drinking
   vessels. As for the bottles, two types were registered: biconical and those
   with long fluted necks (figs. 10; 12/1). Among the glass fragments there were
   parts of bottles with a ring around the neck and a ribbed body
   (Rippenflaschen), generally known in domestic scholarship under the term
   Panik type bottle (fig. 10/8). Also identifiable among the recovered glass
   fragments are drinking vessels of several types, beakers with small or large
   prunts (Nuppenbecher and Krautstrunk) and ribbed (Rippenbecher), common
   especially in the 15th and 16th centuries (figs. 12/1, 3, 5, 6). There are
   also pieces with a blue thread applied around the rim and body, similar to
   the examples from Stalać reproduced herein (fig. 12/3). Quite rarely found
   are drinking vessels of cobalt blue glass, which are mostly small, except for
   a few examples of up to 14 cm in height, which is also the height of the
   abovementioned bottles. Apart from Venice and Dubrovnik (Ragusa), glassware
   was imported from Hungary. The discovered pottery vessels show a greater
   diversity, mostly in terms of shape. In addition to liquid containers - jugs,
   pitchers and beakers, there occur bowls, pots and even apothecary vessels. A
   vast majority belong to the Serbian ware of the 14th and 15th centuries. Most
   are glazed, and frequently painted with spirals, bands and blotches in white,
   green and dark brown or decorated with simple sgrafitto patterns, such as the
   finds from Novo Brdo (fig. 1), St Peter’s (figs 9; 13/1, 4) and the monastery
   of Gradac. By far the most interesting of them is the beaker from Končulić
   with an openwork edge around the base (fig. 12/2), which is commonly found in
   glass beakers of the same period. Deserving of particular attention are three
   cylindrical ceramic bottles from Novo Brdo (fig. 2). The presented material
   allows us to recognize the central issues surrounding the occurrence of
   vessels in the cemeteries of the 14th to 17th century in Serbia. Given the
   small number of recorded cases, the presence of vessels in graves as grave
   goods appears to have been utterly sporadic. Being based on the processed and
   published results, and given the small number of systematically investigated
   and analyzed cemeteries, however, such a conclusion should be taken with
   caution. In most cases, the vessels were laid beside the head of the
   deceased, usually on its left, rarely on the right side, and only
   exceptionally next to the legs or the upper body area. On the other hand, the
   amount of fragments discovered in cemeteries is generally large, as shown,
   for example, by a cursory insight into the excavation records for the site of
   Novo Brdo. This discrepancy is surprising and makes us think over the
   character of the finds, but we shall not get closer to an answer until we
   have detailed context analyses done and the material systematized and
   statistically processed. When it comes to shapes, liquid containers obviously
   predominated - glass bottles and ceramic pitchers, followed by glass and
   ceramic drinking vessels, while ceramic pots and bowls occurred in graves
   only rarely. The vessels are mostly small. The glass bottles are between 14
   and 15 cm in height on average, except the specimen from Mali Zvečan, which
   is more than twice as high (36 cm). The cups show similar heights, between 10
   and 16 cm. The ceramic pitchers and pots are also small, with a height
   usually not exceeding 16 cm. Judging by the available data, it appears that
   shards of larger vessels were found on top of graves (bowls, pitchers, jugs,
   pots), apparently brought for the memorial ceremony held at the grave, while
   graves usually contained small vessels, usually bottles. Apart from Serbia,
   the occurrence of vessels in cemeteries has also been recorded in the
   surrounding areas. Given their very distinctive context and character, the
   finds from Bosnia draw particular attention, as well as those from Croatia,
   where they are concentrated in the broader area of Split. This overview makes
   it plain that the vessels laid in graves differ little from ordinary
   household utensils. Moreover, all can be classified as typical of the 14th to
   17th century - Venetian, Dubrovnik and Hungarian glass, and the ceramic
   kitchen and tableware produced locally, in Serbia. For the sake of
   comparison, we draw attention to similar vessels discovered on fortress,
   settlement and monastery sites, such as Stalać, Belgrade (fig. 14),
   Studenica, Mileševa, Trgovište, Trnava near Čačak. The presented examples,
   combined with all previously gained insights, clearly demonstrate and
   corroborate the assumption that the custom of laying vessels in graves in the
   central Balkans was an uncommon but long-standing phenomenon. Unlike earlier
   periods, when it was pottery vessels that were almost exclusively placed in
   graves, from the 14th century on the ratio of glass to ceramic vessels,
   mostly bottles, pitchers and beakers, becomes virtually equal. Judging by the
   find-spots and other known information, in the late medieval period the
   custom of laying vessels in graves was confined to a few areas along the
   Danube, Morava, Ibar, Drina and Neretva rivers. These areas, in the
   hinterland of Dubrovnik, in Herzegovina, Bosnia and Serbia, are associated
   with major caravan routes, which is relevant in our considerations of the
   glass finds. As it appears from the examples from all aforementioned areas,
   the only difference of some significance concerns the type of glass vessels
   used in funeral rituals - bottles in Serbia and Croatia, and drinking vessels
   in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Even though this seems to give grounds to assume
   certain regional variation in the custom of making offerings to the dead, at
   this point any conclusion would be highly conjectural, especially if based
   only on the available archaeological data. As shown by ethnological research,
   the custom, also sporadic, survived in Serbia and Bulgaria until the late
   19th century. The analysis of the vessels from late medieval and early modern
   cemeteries has revealed a number of features common to the central-Balkan
   region, but also some regional variation. However, given the proportion of
   processed specimens in the entire recovered material, the assumptions and
   results presented here should only be taken as preliminary. The fact that
   some manifestations of the custom are still obscure reduces some of the
   previously proposed interpretations to little more than unfounded
   speculation, which is fertile ground for manipulation. Apart from analyzing
   the archaeological material, what is needed therefore is a thorough study of
   other aspects of the issue, above all the phenomenon of burials topped by
   slabs and stećci, and funerary practices at large.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Vessels from Late Medieval cemeteries in the Central Balkans
EP  - 306
IS  - 61
SP  - 285
DO  - 10.2298/STA1161285B
UR  - conv_652
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bikić, Vesna",
year = "2011",
abstract = "Although a rare occurrence in late medieval cemeteries, vessels have been
   found on almost all major sites of the period, such as Novo Brdo, Trgovište,
   Reljina Gradina and the churchyard of St Peter’s near Novi Pazar, the
   churchyard of St Nicholas’ at Kuršumlija, the churchyard of St Stephen’s at
   Milentija near Brus, Mali Zvečan, Mirijevo, Vinča. Vessels occur in different
   places, both on top of and in graves. Fragments of pottery and glass vessels
   are relatively abundant in layers of earth filling burial pits and chambers,
   and in those immediately overlaying burial pits or gravestones. The available
   data make it possible to recognize almost all functional types. The most
   frequently found pottery shapes are larger liquid containers - jugs and
   pitchers, and apparently there have also been many pots, both hearth cooking
   and glazed (figs. 1-3; 5-9). Recognizable among the glass vessels are
   bottles, usually those with long fluted necks and biconical, as well as
   infrequent icon lamps. The data about the vessels found buried with the
   deceased is much more detailed. Such finds are recorded at Mačvanska
   Mitrovica (fig. 10/3), Brestovik (fig. 13/3), Mirijevo (fig. 4/1), Vinča
   (figs. 4/2; 10/4), Stragari near Kragujevac, Milentija near Brus, round the
   church of St Peter near Novi Pazar, at the monastery of Končulić (fig. 13/2)
   and the monastery of Gradac. The relatively plentiful and diverse vessels
   discovered at the cemeteries of medieval Trgovište are especially
   illustrative (fig. 10/2, 7). The available descriptions of vessels and
   archaeological contexts provide a general impression about the types of
   vessels recorded in the cemeteries of a late medieval and early modern date
   in the central Balkans. Glass bottles as a rule were laid in graves, while
   earth-fill layers, apart from bottles, contained plentiful shards of drinking
   vessels. As for the bottles, two types were registered: biconical and those
   with long fluted necks (figs. 10; 12/1). Among the glass fragments there were
   parts of bottles with a ring around the neck and a ribbed body
   (Rippenflaschen), generally known in domestic scholarship under the term
   Panik type bottle (fig. 10/8). Also identifiable among the recovered glass
   fragments are drinking vessels of several types, beakers with small or large
   prunts (Nuppenbecher and Krautstrunk) and ribbed (Rippenbecher), common
   especially in the 15th and 16th centuries (figs. 12/1, 3, 5, 6). There are
   also pieces with a blue thread applied around the rim and body, similar to
   the examples from Stalać reproduced herein (fig. 12/3). Quite rarely found
   are drinking vessels of cobalt blue glass, which are mostly small, except for
   a few examples of up to 14 cm in height, which is also the height of the
   abovementioned bottles. Apart from Venice and Dubrovnik (Ragusa), glassware
   was imported from Hungary. The discovered pottery vessels show a greater
   diversity, mostly in terms of shape. In addition to liquid containers - jugs,
   pitchers and beakers, there occur bowls, pots and even apothecary vessels. A
   vast majority belong to the Serbian ware of the 14th and 15th centuries. Most
   are glazed, and frequently painted with spirals, bands and blotches in white,
   green and dark brown or decorated with simple sgrafitto patterns, such as the
   finds from Novo Brdo (fig. 1), St Peter’s (figs 9; 13/1, 4) and the monastery
   of Gradac. By far the most interesting of them is the beaker from Končulić
   with an openwork edge around the base (fig. 12/2), which is commonly found in
   glass beakers of the same period. Deserving of particular attention are three
   cylindrical ceramic bottles from Novo Brdo (fig. 2). The presented material
   allows us to recognize the central issues surrounding the occurrence of
   vessels in the cemeteries of the 14th to 17th century in Serbia. Given the
   small number of recorded cases, the presence of vessels in graves as grave
   goods appears to have been utterly sporadic. Being based on the processed and
   published results, and given the small number of systematically investigated
   and analyzed cemeteries, however, such a conclusion should be taken with
   caution. In most cases, the vessels were laid beside the head of the
   deceased, usually on its left, rarely on the right side, and only
   exceptionally next to the legs or the upper body area. On the other hand, the
   amount of fragments discovered in cemeteries is generally large, as shown,
   for example, by a cursory insight into the excavation records for the site of
   Novo Brdo. This discrepancy is surprising and makes us think over the
   character of the finds, but we shall not get closer to an answer until we
   have detailed context analyses done and the material systematized and
   statistically processed. When it comes to shapes, liquid containers obviously
   predominated - glass bottles and ceramic pitchers, followed by glass and
   ceramic drinking vessels, while ceramic pots and bowls occurred in graves
   only rarely. The vessels are mostly small. The glass bottles are between 14
   and 15 cm in height on average, except the specimen from Mali Zvečan, which
   is more than twice as high (36 cm). The cups show similar heights, between 10
   and 16 cm. The ceramic pitchers and pots are also small, with a height
   usually not exceeding 16 cm. Judging by the available data, it appears that
   shards of larger vessels were found on top of graves (bowls, pitchers, jugs,
   pots), apparently brought for the memorial ceremony held at the grave, while
   graves usually contained small vessels, usually bottles. Apart from Serbia,
   the occurrence of vessels in cemeteries has also been recorded in the
   surrounding areas. Given their very distinctive context and character, the
   finds from Bosnia draw particular attention, as well as those from Croatia,
   where they are concentrated in the broader area of Split. This overview makes
   it plain that the vessels laid in graves differ little from ordinary
   household utensils. Moreover, all can be classified as typical of the 14th to
   17th century - Venetian, Dubrovnik and Hungarian glass, and the ceramic
   kitchen and tableware produced locally, in Serbia. For the sake of
   comparison, we draw attention to similar vessels discovered on fortress,
   settlement and monastery sites, such as Stalać, Belgrade (fig. 14),
   Studenica, Mileševa, Trgovište, Trnava near Čačak. The presented examples,
   combined with all previously gained insights, clearly demonstrate and
   corroborate the assumption that the custom of laying vessels in graves in the
   central Balkans was an uncommon but long-standing phenomenon. Unlike earlier
   periods, when it was pottery vessels that were almost exclusively placed in
   graves, from the 14th century on the ratio of glass to ceramic vessels,
   mostly bottles, pitchers and beakers, becomes virtually equal. Judging by the
   find-spots and other known information, in the late medieval period the
   custom of laying vessels in graves was confined to a few areas along the
   Danube, Morava, Ibar, Drina and Neretva rivers. These areas, in the
   hinterland of Dubrovnik, in Herzegovina, Bosnia and Serbia, are associated
   with major caravan routes, which is relevant in our considerations of the
   glass finds. As it appears from the examples from all aforementioned areas,
   the only difference of some significance concerns the type of glass vessels
   used in funeral rituals - bottles in Serbia and Croatia, and drinking vessels
   in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Even though this seems to give grounds to assume
   certain regional variation in the custom of making offerings to the dead, at
   this point any conclusion would be highly conjectural, especially if based
   only on the available archaeological data. As shown by ethnological research,
   the custom, also sporadic, survived in Serbia and Bulgaria until the late
   19th century. The analysis of the vessels from late medieval and early modern
   cemeteries has revealed a number of features common to the central-Balkan
   region, but also some regional variation. However, given the proportion of
   processed specimens in the entire recovered material, the assumptions and
   results presented here should only be taken as preliminary. The fact that
   some manifestations of the custom are still obscure reduces some of the
   previously proposed interpretations to little more than unfounded
   speculation, which is fertile ground for manipulation. Apart from analyzing
   the archaeological material, what is needed therefore is a thorough study of
   other aspects of the issue, above all the phenomenon of burials topped by
   slabs and stećci, and funerary practices at large.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Vessels from Late Medieval cemeteries in the Central Balkans",
pages = "306-285",
number = "61",
doi = "10.2298/STA1161285B",
url = "conv_652"
}
Bikić, V.. (2011). Vessels from Late Medieval cemeteries in the Central Balkans. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(61), 285-306.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1161285B
conv_652
Bikić V. Vessels from Late Medieval cemeteries in the Central Balkans. in Starinar. 2011;(61):285-306.
doi:10.2298/STA1161285B
conv_652 .
Bikić, Vesna, "Vessels from Late Medieval cemeteries in the Central Balkans" in Starinar, no. 61 (2011):285-306,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1161285B .,
conv_652 .
1

Archaeometric study of medieval pottery excavated at Stari (Old) Ras, Serbia

Damjanović, Ljiljana; Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka; Mioč, Ubavka B.; Bikić, Vesna; Milovanović, Dragan; Radosavljević-Evans, Ivana

(Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London, 2011)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Damjanović, Ljiljana
AU  - Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka
AU  - Mioč, Ubavka B.
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
AU  - Milovanović, Dragan
AU  - Radosavljević-Evans, Ivana
PY  - 2011
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/137
AB  - A combined study of a series of polychromatic and monochromatic glazed medieval pottery shards excavated from the archaeological area of Stari (Old) Ras in southern Serbia, including petrographic and chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, allowed us to clearly distinguish between two groups of ceramics. Ras pottery, made of fine-grained well-cleaned clay and characterised by a rich mineral assemblage, was produced by firing in a temperature range between 800 and 900 degrees C. Reljina Gradina ceramics were produced at similar temperatures from materials which, with regard to mineralogical and chemical composition, show clear similarity with local clay, suggesting that these samples are of local origin and production. This work is the first systematic archaeometric study of medieval pottery excavated on the territory of Serbia.
PB  - Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London
T2  - Journal of Archaeological Science
T1  - Archaeometric study of medieval pottery excavated at Stari (Old) Ras, Serbia
EP  - 828
IS  - 4
SP  - 818
VL  - 38
DO  - 10.1016/j.jas.2010.11.004
UR  - conv_378
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Damjanović, Ljiljana and Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka and Mioč, Ubavka B. and Bikić, Vesna and Milovanović, Dragan and Radosavljević-Evans, Ivana",
year = "2011",
abstract = "A combined study of a series of polychromatic and monochromatic glazed medieval pottery shards excavated from the archaeological area of Stari (Old) Ras in southern Serbia, including petrographic and chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, allowed us to clearly distinguish between two groups of ceramics. Ras pottery, made of fine-grained well-cleaned clay and characterised by a rich mineral assemblage, was produced by firing in a temperature range between 800 and 900 degrees C. Reljina Gradina ceramics were produced at similar temperatures from materials which, with regard to mineralogical and chemical composition, show clear similarity with local clay, suggesting that these samples are of local origin and production. This work is the first systematic archaeometric study of medieval pottery excavated on the territory of Serbia.",
publisher = "Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London",
journal = "Journal of Archaeological Science",
title = "Archaeometric study of medieval pottery excavated at Stari (Old) Ras, Serbia",
pages = "828-818",
number = "4",
volume = "38",
doi = "10.1016/j.jas.2010.11.004",
url = "conv_378"
}
Damjanović, L., Holclajtner-Antunović, I., Mioč, U. B., Bikić, V., Milovanović, D.,& Radosavljević-Evans, I.. (2011). Archaeometric study of medieval pottery excavated at Stari (Old) Ras, Serbia. in Journal of Archaeological Science
Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London., 38(4), 818-828.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2010.11.004
conv_378
Damjanović L, Holclajtner-Antunović I, Mioč UB, Bikić V, Milovanović D, Radosavljević-Evans I. Archaeometric study of medieval pottery excavated at Stari (Old) Ras, Serbia. in Journal of Archaeological Science. 2011;38(4):818-828.
doi:10.1016/j.jas.2010.11.004
conv_378 .
Damjanović, Ljiljana, Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka, Mioč, Ubavka B., Bikić, Vesna, Milovanović, Dragan, Radosavljević-Evans, Ivana, "Archaeometric study of medieval pottery excavated at Stari (Old) Ras, Serbia" in Journal of Archaeological Science, 38, no. 4 (2011):818-828,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2010.11.004 .,
conv_378 .
26
14
29

Ponovno razmatranje igara na ploči - mankala na Balkanu

Bikić, Vesna; Vuković, Jasna

(Univerzitet u Beogradu - Filozofski fakultet - Odeljenje za etnologiju i antropologiju, Beograd, 2010)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
AU  - Vuković, Jasna
PY  - 2010
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/125
AB  - Povodom dve table za mankalu - nalaza iz Donjeg grada Beogradske tvrđave, u tekstu se razmatraju pojedini aspekti ove igre, kao i neki raniji zaključci u cilju boljeg razumevanja okolnosti koje su dovele do distribucije mankale na Balkanu. Porodica igara kojoj pripada mankala, odlikuje se igranjem na ploči sa nizovima jarmica uz primenu složene strategije. U dugom trajanju i razvoju igranje mankale imalo je mnoge aspekte, od proricanja i različitih simboličkih značenja do strategije, i svi su tokom vremena razmatrani, manje ili vise detaljno. Mankala je veoma popularna na širokom arealu (Afrika zapadna i jugoistocna Azija, obe Amerike), a činjenica da je raširena isključivo među tradicionalnim zajednicama upućuje na zaključak da je ova igra veoma stara. Poreklo mankale dovodi se u vezu sa počecima neolita na prostoru Afrike i Plodnog polumeseca. Ukoliko se široka oblast severozapadne Afrike i zapadne Azije uzme kao matična oblast nastanka mankale, značajnu ulogu u njenom širenju odigrali su nesumnjivo nosioci islama, koji su je preneli u južnu i jugoistočnu Aziju. Čini se da distribucija mankale u kasnijem periodu označava granice muslimanske kulture i da se običaj igranja mankale najpre odomaćio na Arabijskom poluostrvu i u Egiptu. Sa početkom trgovine robljem iz oblasti zapadne Afrike velike grupe afričkih robova sa sobom u Novi svet donose i igranje mankale. U analizi porekla mankale vazna tema je, osim vremena i mesta nastanka, njena veza i sličnost sa metodama proricanja - geomantije. Veza igara iz porodice mankale sa ceremonijama i ritualima koji su u vezi sa prizivanjem kiše, slavljenjem žetve, posmrtnim običajima, kao i važnim trenucima u životima devojčica i dečaka u periodu inicijacije, nesumnjivo pokazuju jak simbolički karakter ove igre. Igranje mankale, sa jasno utvrđenim setom pravila moglo bi biti onaj konstruktivni element koji pomaže u koheziji zemljoradničko - stočarske zajednice i simbolično prikazuje njene vrednosti i poglede na svet.
AB  - Two mancala (one of the oldest games in the world) boards, which were found in the Lower Town of the Belgrade Fortress in 2006, present so far unique archaeological proof that this game was played in the region of the Balkan peninsula. Considering the fact that the knowledge regarding mancala is still quite modest, in this paper, we have also examined the different aspects of this game: the question of its origin, which is linked to the beginning of the Neolithic Age on the territories of Africa and the Near East; the link with the methods of geomantic divination; the anthropological knowledge regarding playing mancala in traditional communities; the distribution and the directions of its diffusion, as well as the archaeological finds in the area Mediterranean.
PB  - Univerzitet u Beogradu - Filozofski fakultet - Odeljenje za etnologiju i antropologiju, Beograd
T2  - Etnoantropološki problemi, Beograd
T1  - Ponovno razmatranje igara na ploči - mankala na Balkanu
T1  - Board games reconsidered: Mancala in the Balkans
EP  - 209
IS  - 1
SP  - 183
VL  - 5
DO  - 10.21301/eap.v5i1.10
UR  - conv_267
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bikić, Vesna and Vuković, Jasna",
year = "2010",
abstract = "Povodom dve table za mankalu - nalaza iz Donjeg grada Beogradske tvrđave, u tekstu se razmatraju pojedini aspekti ove igre, kao i neki raniji zaključci u cilju boljeg razumevanja okolnosti koje su dovele do distribucije mankale na Balkanu. Porodica igara kojoj pripada mankala, odlikuje se igranjem na ploči sa nizovima jarmica uz primenu složene strategije. U dugom trajanju i razvoju igranje mankale imalo je mnoge aspekte, od proricanja i različitih simboličkih značenja do strategije, i svi su tokom vremena razmatrani, manje ili vise detaljno. Mankala je veoma popularna na širokom arealu (Afrika zapadna i jugoistocna Azija, obe Amerike), a činjenica da je raširena isključivo među tradicionalnim zajednicama upućuje na zaključak da je ova igra veoma stara. Poreklo mankale dovodi se u vezu sa počecima neolita na prostoru Afrike i Plodnog polumeseca. Ukoliko se široka oblast severozapadne Afrike i zapadne Azije uzme kao matična oblast nastanka mankale, značajnu ulogu u njenom širenju odigrali su nesumnjivo nosioci islama, koji su je preneli u južnu i jugoistočnu Aziju. Čini se da distribucija mankale u kasnijem periodu označava granice muslimanske kulture i da se običaj igranja mankale najpre odomaćio na Arabijskom poluostrvu i u Egiptu. Sa početkom trgovine robljem iz oblasti zapadne Afrike velike grupe afričkih robova sa sobom u Novi svet donose i igranje mankale. U analizi porekla mankale vazna tema je, osim vremena i mesta nastanka, njena veza i sličnost sa metodama proricanja - geomantije. Veza igara iz porodice mankale sa ceremonijama i ritualima koji su u vezi sa prizivanjem kiše, slavljenjem žetve, posmrtnim običajima, kao i važnim trenucima u životima devojčica i dečaka u periodu inicijacije, nesumnjivo pokazuju jak simbolički karakter ove igre. Igranje mankale, sa jasno utvrđenim setom pravila moglo bi biti onaj konstruktivni element koji pomaže u koheziji zemljoradničko - stočarske zajednice i simbolično prikazuje njene vrednosti i poglede na svet., Two mancala (one of the oldest games in the world) boards, which were found in the Lower Town of the Belgrade Fortress in 2006, present so far unique archaeological proof that this game was played in the region of the Balkan peninsula. Considering the fact that the knowledge regarding mancala is still quite modest, in this paper, we have also examined the different aspects of this game: the question of its origin, which is linked to the beginning of the Neolithic Age on the territories of Africa and the Near East; the link with the methods of geomantic divination; the anthropological knowledge regarding playing mancala in traditional communities; the distribution and the directions of its diffusion, as well as the archaeological finds in the area Mediterranean.",
publisher = "Univerzitet u Beogradu - Filozofski fakultet - Odeljenje za etnologiju i antropologiju, Beograd",
journal = "Etnoantropološki problemi, Beograd",
title = "Ponovno razmatranje igara na ploči - mankala na Balkanu, Board games reconsidered: Mancala in the Balkans",
pages = "209-183",
number = "1",
volume = "5",
doi = "10.21301/eap.v5i1.10",
url = "conv_267"
}
Bikić, V.,& Vuković, J.. (2010). Ponovno razmatranje igara na ploči - mankala na Balkanu. in Etnoantropološki problemi, Beograd
Univerzitet u Beogradu - Filozofski fakultet - Odeljenje za etnologiju i antropologiju, Beograd., 5(1), 183-209.
https://doi.org/10.21301/eap.v5i1.10
conv_267
Bikić V, Vuković J. Ponovno razmatranje igara na ploči - mankala na Balkanu. in Etnoantropološki problemi, Beograd. 2010;5(1):183-209.
doi:10.21301/eap.v5i1.10
conv_267 .
Bikić, Vesna, Vuković, Jasna, "Ponovno razmatranje igara na ploči - mankala na Balkanu" in Etnoantropološki problemi, Beograd, 5, no. 1 (2010):183-209,
https://doi.org/10.21301/eap.v5i1.10 .,
conv_267 .
3

Hanging chandeliers from the territory of medieval Serbia

Bikić, Vesna

(Znanstveno Raziskovalno Sredisce Republike Slovenije, Koper, 2008)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
PY  - 2008
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/108
AB  - Three hanging chandeliers are known from Serbia's territory - two from Decani and one from the Sopocani monastery. They belong to a specific group of chandeliers shaped like crowns, which were mass-produced in northern Flemish and German workshops from the 14(th) century onwards. Chandeliers from the territory of Serbia were mutually different regarding their shape and, thus, illustrate the character of the Flemish chandelier production quite well. Until today, the best known examples of such chandeliers were from the 15(th) century. Considering that individual identical parts, such as the candle-socket and drip-pan, were used for all shapes of chandeliers, in an instance of finding only individual elements it is hard to determine, whether they belonged to hanging, wall, or freestanding chandeliers. A solid chronology does not exist and has not been established, which is in direct connection with the discovery circumstances of most examples, i.e. the non-existence of a stratigraphical context based on which a more precise dating could be performed. Chandeliers like those from Decani were formed by modification of older wooden and metal horos - polielei. They were primarily made for lighting churches. in the same way and in a similar manner simpler chandeliers were also made, with the body shaped like a profiled small column, such as the find from the Sopocani monastery. Such chandeliers are more often found in middle-class houses, clearly depicted on canvases of Flemish painters. As opposed to the Decani chandelier, the one from Sopocani and pieces similar to it do not carry a distinct symbolic message, except for the six arms possibly being an allusion to the number signifying the making of the world. Up to now, no parallel analyses concerning the composition of the mined raw material or the alloys used in the making of the chandeliers have been conducted, thus, only the region of origin can be determined for our examples, but not the direct workshops in which they were made. Older scientific literature mentions a workshop in Lubeck, although other workshops are known for making various objects from copper, bronze and brass, e.g. in Nurnberg, Aachen or Dinan. The chandeliers came from Flemish workshops via Venetian mediation. They were most likely transported to the inland towns in Serbia by merchants from Dubrovnik, whose routes took them from Dubrovnik, through Trebinje, through the Drina river valley and further on the so-called the so-called Constantinople Road or through some route from the Zeta Littoral, primarily from Kotor. Hanging chandeliers represent exceptionally distinctive finds, which reflect the character of imported goods from distant European lands to the area of medieval Serbia. What yet remains the biggest question is, whether the chandeliers were considered as exclusively practical objects in their new midst, or whether they were considered as symbols, whose meaning could have suited the Population accustomed to Byzantine piety.
PB  - Znanstveno Raziskovalno Sredisce Republike Slovenije, Koper
T2  - Annales-Anali za Istrske in Mediteranske Studije-Series Historia et Sociologia
T1  - Hanging chandeliers from the territory of medieval Serbia
EP  - 368
IS  - 2
SP  - 361
VL  - 18
UR  - conv_411
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bikić, Vesna",
year = "2008",
abstract = "Three hanging chandeliers are known from Serbia's territory - two from Decani and one from the Sopocani monastery. They belong to a specific group of chandeliers shaped like crowns, which were mass-produced in northern Flemish and German workshops from the 14(th) century onwards. Chandeliers from the territory of Serbia were mutually different regarding their shape and, thus, illustrate the character of the Flemish chandelier production quite well. Until today, the best known examples of such chandeliers were from the 15(th) century. Considering that individual identical parts, such as the candle-socket and drip-pan, were used for all shapes of chandeliers, in an instance of finding only individual elements it is hard to determine, whether they belonged to hanging, wall, or freestanding chandeliers. A solid chronology does not exist and has not been established, which is in direct connection with the discovery circumstances of most examples, i.e. the non-existence of a stratigraphical context based on which a more precise dating could be performed. Chandeliers like those from Decani were formed by modification of older wooden and metal horos - polielei. They were primarily made for lighting churches. in the same way and in a similar manner simpler chandeliers were also made, with the body shaped like a profiled small column, such as the find from the Sopocani monastery. Such chandeliers are more often found in middle-class houses, clearly depicted on canvases of Flemish painters. As opposed to the Decani chandelier, the one from Sopocani and pieces similar to it do not carry a distinct symbolic message, except for the six arms possibly being an allusion to the number signifying the making of the world. Up to now, no parallel analyses concerning the composition of the mined raw material or the alloys used in the making of the chandeliers have been conducted, thus, only the region of origin can be determined for our examples, but not the direct workshops in which they were made. Older scientific literature mentions a workshop in Lubeck, although other workshops are known for making various objects from copper, bronze and brass, e.g. in Nurnberg, Aachen or Dinan. The chandeliers came from Flemish workshops via Venetian mediation. They were most likely transported to the inland towns in Serbia by merchants from Dubrovnik, whose routes took them from Dubrovnik, through Trebinje, through the Drina river valley and further on the so-called the so-called Constantinople Road or through some route from the Zeta Littoral, primarily from Kotor. Hanging chandeliers represent exceptionally distinctive finds, which reflect the character of imported goods from distant European lands to the area of medieval Serbia. What yet remains the biggest question is, whether the chandeliers were considered as exclusively practical objects in their new midst, or whether they were considered as symbols, whose meaning could have suited the Population accustomed to Byzantine piety.",
publisher = "Znanstveno Raziskovalno Sredisce Republike Slovenije, Koper",
journal = "Annales-Anali za Istrske in Mediteranske Studije-Series Historia et Sociologia",
title = "Hanging chandeliers from the territory of medieval Serbia",
pages = "368-361",
number = "2",
volume = "18",
url = "conv_411"
}
Bikić, V.. (2008). Hanging chandeliers from the territory of medieval Serbia. in Annales-Anali za Istrske in Mediteranske Studije-Series Historia et Sociologia
Znanstveno Raziskovalno Sredisce Republike Slovenije, Koper., 18(2), 361-368.
conv_411
Bikić V. Hanging chandeliers from the territory of medieval Serbia. in Annales-Anali za Istrske in Mediteranske Studije-Series Historia et Sociologia. 2008;18(2):361-368.
conv_411 .
Bikić, Vesna, "Hanging chandeliers from the territory of medieval Serbia" in Annales-Anali za Istrske in Mediteranske Studije-Series Historia et Sociologia, 18, no. 2 (2008):361-368,
conv_411 .

D. Papanikola-Bakirtzi (ed.): Byzantine glazed ceramics: The art of sgraffito, Katalog izložbe, Greek Ministry of Culture, Museum of Byzantine Culture, Archaeological Receipts Fund, Athens, 1999

Bikić, Vesna

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2000)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
PY  - 2000
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/40
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - D. Papanikola-Bakirtzi (ed.): Byzantine glazed ceramics: The art of sgraffito, Katalog izložbe, Greek Ministry of Culture, Museum of Byzantine Culture, Archaeological Receipts Fund, Athens, 1999
EP  - 324
IS  - 50
SP  - 323
UR  - conv_19
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bikić, Vesna",
year = "2000",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "D. Papanikola-Bakirtzi (ed.): Byzantine glazed ceramics: The art of sgraffito, Katalog izložbe, Greek Ministry of Culture, Museum of Byzantine Culture, Archaeological Receipts Fund, Athens, 1999",
pages = "324-323",
number = "50",
url = "conv_19"
}
Bikić, V.. (2000). D. Papanikola-Bakirtzi (ed.): Byzantine glazed ceramics: The art of sgraffito, Katalog izložbe, Greek Ministry of Culture, Museum of Byzantine Culture, Archaeological Receipts Fund, Athens, 1999. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(50), 323-324.
conv_19
Bikić V. D. Papanikola-Bakirtzi (ed.): Byzantine glazed ceramics: The art of sgraffito, Katalog izložbe, Greek Ministry of Culture, Museum of Byzantine Culture, Archaeological Receipts Fund, Athens, 1999. in Starinar. 2000;(50):323-324.
conv_19 .
Bikić, Vesna, "D. Papanikola-Bakirtzi (ed.): Byzantine glazed ceramics: The art of sgraffito, Katalog izložbe, Greek Ministry of Culture, Museum of Byzantine Culture, Archaeological Receipts Fund, Athens, 1999" in Starinar, no. 50 (2000):323-324,
conv_19 .

Izveštaj o arheološkim iskopavanjima na lokalitetu Romulijana-Gamzigrad u 1998. godini - kula 19

Bikić, Vesna; Šarić, Josip

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2000)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
AU  - Šarić, Josip
PY  - 2000
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/39
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Izveštaj o arheološkim iskopavanjima na lokalitetu Romulijana-Gamzigrad u 1998. godini - kula 19
EP  - 282
IS  - 50
SP  - 280
UR  - conv_15
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bikić, Vesna and Šarić, Josip",
year = "2000",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Izveštaj o arheološkim iskopavanjima na lokalitetu Romulijana-Gamzigrad u 1998. godini - kula 19",
pages = "282-280",
number = "50",
url = "conv_15"
}
Bikić, V.,& Šarić, J.. (2000). Izveštaj o arheološkim iskopavanjima na lokalitetu Romulijana-Gamzigrad u 1998. godini - kula 19. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(50), 280-282.
conv_15
Bikić V, Šarić J. Izveštaj o arheološkim iskopavanjima na lokalitetu Romulijana-Gamzigrad u 1998. godini - kula 19. in Starinar. 2000;(50):280-282.
conv_15 .
Bikić, Vesna, Šarić, Josip, "Izveštaj o arheološkim iskopavanjima na lokalitetu Romulijana-Gamzigrad u 1998. godini - kula 19" in Starinar, no. 50 (2000):280-282,
conv_15 .

Prostor oko južne kapije Gornjeg grada Beogradske tvrđave

Bikić, Vesna; Ivanišević, Vujadin

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 1996)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
AU  - Ivanišević, Vujadin
PY  - 1996
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/25
AB  - This work represents an integration of all previous results of excavation around Medieval South gate, encompassing a space between the Sahat (Clock) Gate and the Tower V, i.e., a part of the Upper town platform which may be observed as a micro unit. Summing up the results of archaeological excavations provided a possibility of complete analysis of the settlement establishment, as well as its further development followed by fortifying of the Upper town. Also, data on original configuration of the terrain are obtained, furnishing an interpretation of deposition process in this space. All this has significantly contributed to understanding of this important segment of the Fortress: the change in its appearance and settlement process in the course of long period since prehistory until modern times. Therefore the space around South gate has been observed over six culture horizons beginning with prehistory until the end of XVII century, i.e. 1688, when the Belgrade fortress has forever lost its Medieval appearance. The last stage covering a period between the end of XVII century until the end of XVIII century when this space has been finally modified, was studied only in relation to the construction of new fortification bastions, as the archaeological layers are not very significant for this epoch. Archaeological excavations of space around South gate represent only a small segment of the large research project, which will furthermore expand to the other parts of Upper town. The results represented here largely correspond to data obtained at other explored parts of the Upper town platform.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Prostor oko južne kapije Gornjeg grada Beogradske tvrđave
T1  - South gate area in the Upper town of Belgrade fortress
EP  - 271
IS  - 47
SP  - 253
UR  - conv_144
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bikić, Vesna and Ivanišević, Vujadin",
year = "1996",
abstract = "This work represents an integration of all previous results of excavation around Medieval South gate, encompassing a space between the Sahat (Clock) Gate and the Tower V, i.e., a part of the Upper town platform which may be observed as a micro unit. Summing up the results of archaeological excavations provided a possibility of complete analysis of the settlement establishment, as well as its further development followed by fortifying of the Upper town. Also, data on original configuration of the terrain are obtained, furnishing an interpretation of deposition process in this space. All this has significantly contributed to understanding of this important segment of the Fortress: the change in its appearance and settlement process in the course of long period since prehistory until modern times. Therefore the space around South gate has been observed over six culture horizons beginning with prehistory until the end of XVII century, i.e. 1688, when the Belgrade fortress has forever lost its Medieval appearance. The last stage covering a period between the end of XVII century until the end of XVIII century when this space has been finally modified, was studied only in relation to the construction of new fortification bastions, as the archaeological layers are not very significant for this epoch. Archaeological excavations of space around South gate represent only a small segment of the large research project, which will furthermore expand to the other parts of Upper town. The results represented here largely correspond to data obtained at other explored parts of the Upper town platform.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Prostor oko južne kapije Gornjeg grada Beogradske tvrđave, South gate area in the Upper town of Belgrade fortress",
pages = "271-253",
number = "47",
url = "conv_144"
}
Bikić, V.,& Ivanišević, V.. (1996). Prostor oko južne kapije Gornjeg grada Beogradske tvrđave. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(47), 253-271.
conv_144
Bikić V, Ivanišević V. Prostor oko južne kapije Gornjeg grada Beogradske tvrđave. in Starinar. 1996;(47):253-271.
conv_144 .
Bikić, Vesna, Ivanišević, Vujadin, "Prostor oko južne kapije Gornjeg grada Beogradske tvrđave" in Starinar, no. 47 (1996):253-271,
conv_144 .

Prilog kulturnoj stratigrafiji manastira Svetih arhanđela kod Prizrena

Bikić, Vesna

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 1996)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bikić, Vesna
PY  - 1996
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/24
AB  - The traces of monastery complex of the Holly Archangels at Prizren are drawing the scholars' attention for decades. The assessments of architects and art historians based upon field research, contributed greatly to the study of this important edifice. Archaeological research, however, has not been advanced since the first exploration of R. Grujić in 1927. The basic objective of all previous research was to obtain the data on monastery architecture and its conservation, and hence the earlier archaeological layers were not explored. Therefore a problem of what preceded to the construction of this remarkable lega on the role of this place in earlier Medieval epochs. Based upon the present survey of culture stratigraphy, this contribution focuses on data obtained from the analysis of ceramic material which may lead to a different approach to the research of this complex.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Prilog kulturnoj stratigrafiji manastira Svetih arhanđela kod Prizrena
T1  - A contribution to the culture stratigraphy of the monastery of the Holy Archangels at Prizren
EP  - 286
IS  - 47
SP  - 279
UR  - conv_145
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bikić, Vesna",
year = "1996",
abstract = "The traces of monastery complex of the Holly Archangels at Prizren are drawing the scholars' attention for decades. The assessments of architects and art historians based upon field research, contributed greatly to the study of this important edifice. Archaeological research, however, has not been advanced since the first exploration of R. Grujić in 1927. The basic objective of all previous research was to obtain the data on monastery architecture and its conservation, and hence the earlier archaeological layers were not explored. Therefore a problem of what preceded to the construction of this remarkable lega on the role of this place in earlier Medieval epochs. Based upon the present survey of culture stratigraphy, this contribution focuses on data obtained from the analysis of ceramic material which may lead to a different approach to the research of this complex.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Prilog kulturnoj stratigrafiji manastira Svetih arhanđela kod Prizrena, A contribution to the culture stratigraphy of the monastery of the Holy Archangels at Prizren",
pages = "286-279",
number = "47",
url = "conv_145"
}
Bikić, V.. (1996). Prilog kulturnoj stratigrafiji manastira Svetih arhanđela kod Prizrena. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(47), 279-286.
conv_145
Bikić V. Prilog kulturnoj stratigrafiji manastira Svetih arhanđela kod Prizrena. in Starinar. 1996;(47):279-286.
conv_145 .
Bikić, Vesna, "Prilog kulturnoj stratigrafiji manastira Svetih arhanđela kod Prizrena" in Starinar, no. 47 (1996):279-286,
conv_145 .