Kapuran, Aleksandar

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Authority KeyName Variants
3d5454ce-d730-44e4-9e68-a74c886ff74c
  • Kapuran, Aleksandar (27)
Projects
Serbian archaeology: cultural identity, integration factors, technological processes and the role of the central Balkans in the development of European prehistory Cultural changes and population movements in the early Prehistory of the central Balkans
Austrian science fundAustrian Science Fund (FWF) [P32095] Romanization, urbanization and transformation of urban centres of civil, military and residential character in Roman provinces on territory of Serbia
The paper represents a result of the project "New insight in Bronze Age metal producing societies", supported by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF-Project 32096_G25). The paper represents a result of the project "Visualizing the unknown Balkans", supported by the Innovation Fond "Research, Science and Society" of the Austrian Academy of Sciences.
We graciously thank the following institutions and individuals who contributed to the research leading to this publication of the data from Foeni-Sălaş. Funding for the excavations at Foeni-Sălaş between 1992 and 1994 was provided through a grant to Haskel J. Greenfield from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (Ottawa), International Research and Exchanges Board (Washington, DC), the National Academy of Sciences (Washington, DC), and the Museum of the Banat, Timişoara, Romania. Permits for the excavation were obtained through the efforts of Florin Draşovean and the Museum of the Banat-Timişoara, whom we thank for permission to excavate and report on the site. The excavations were directed by Haskel Greenfield (with occasional visits by the Romanian co-director, Florin Draşovean); the lab director was Tina Jongsma-Greenfield; and photography was by Zev Greenfield. The Post-Neolithic ceramic culture historical analysis was carried out by Dimitrije Madas, while Alexander Kapuran conducted the post-Neolithic ceramic typological analysis.

Author's Bibliography

Emergence of monopoly–Copper exchange networks during the Late Bronze Age in the western and central Balkans

Gavranović, Mario; Mehofer, Mathias; Kapuran, Aleksandar; Koledin, J.; Mitrović, Jovan D.; Papazovska, A.; Pravidur, A.; Orđević, A.; Jacanović, D.

(Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2022)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Gavranović, Mario
AU  - Mehofer, Mathias
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
AU  - Koledin, J.
AU  - Mitrović, Jovan D.
AU  - Papazovska, A.
AU  - Pravidur, A.
AU  - Orđević, A.
AU  - Jacanović, D.
PY  - 2022
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/393
AB  - In this paper we present the first results of an interdisciplinary research project focused on Late Bronze Age metallurgy in the western and central Balkans. The comprehensive chemical and lead isotope analysis, and a strict consideration of archaeological criteria, has provided a deeper insight into supra regional metal exchange networks between the 14th and 9th century BC in this part of Europe. Particularly interesting and surprising are results regarding the provenance of raw materials for copper production, which have a chemical composition and lead isotope ratios that closely correspond to ore deposits in the southern Alps (North Italy). Based on the examination of 57 objects of different functions, chronology and distribution, it becomes apparent that copper from the southern Alps was almost an omnipresent raw material in the territories of the western and central Balkans with only a few finds from North Macedonia to indicate alternative sources. The analyses demonstrate that the reuse of fahlore-based copper is attested for the first time in the regions under study. The remarkable fact that other archaeological parameters do not indicate such an intensive connection between the Balkan area and Northern Italy raises a number of questions. The sustained and long-lasting networks of raw material procurement stand in contrast to the expected cultural interaction between metal producing and metal consuming prehistoric societies. The results of this work also highlight the currently underestimated role of the southern Alps as one of the main copper producing areas in Bronze Age Europe, and demonstrate for the first time that the region of western and central Balkans was one of the major recipients.
PB  - Public Library of Science (PLoS)
T2  - PLoS One
T1  - Emergence of monopoly–Copper exchange networks during the Late Bronze Age in the western and central Balkans
IS  - 3 March
VL  - 17
DO  - 10.1371/journal.pone.0263823
UR  - conv_429
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Gavranović, Mario and Mehofer, Mathias and Kapuran, Aleksandar and Koledin, J. and Mitrović, Jovan D. and Papazovska, A. and Pravidur, A. and Orđević, A. and Jacanović, D.",
year = "2022",
abstract = "In this paper we present the first results of an interdisciplinary research project focused on Late Bronze Age metallurgy in the western and central Balkans. The comprehensive chemical and lead isotope analysis, and a strict consideration of archaeological criteria, has provided a deeper insight into supra regional metal exchange networks between the 14th and 9th century BC in this part of Europe. Particularly interesting and surprising are results regarding the provenance of raw materials for copper production, which have a chemical composition and lead isotope ratios that closely correspond to ore deposits in the southern Alps (North Italy). Based on the examination of 57 objects of different functions, chronology and distribution, it becomes apparent that copper from the southern Alps was almost an omnipresent raw material in the territories of the western and central Balkans with only a few finds from North Macedonia to indicate alternative sources. The analyses demonstrate that the reuse of fahlore-based copper is attested for the first time in the regions under study. The remarkable fact that other archaeological parameters do not indicate such an intensive connection between the Balkan area and Northern Italy raises a number of questions. The sustained and long-lasting networks of raw material procurement stand in contrast to the expected cultural interaction between metal producing and metal consuming prehistoric societies. The results of this work also highlight the currently underestimated role of the southern Alps as one of the main copper producing areas in Bronze Age Europe, and demonstrate for the first time that the region of western and central Balkans was one of the major recipients.",
publisher = "Public Library of Science (PLoS)",
journal = "PLoS One",
title = "Emergence of monopoly–Copper exchange networks during the Late Bronze Age in the western and central Balkans",
number = "3 March",
volume = "17",
doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0263823",
url = "conv_429"
}
Gavranović, M., Mehofer, M., Kapuran, A., Koledin, J., Mitrović, J. D., Papazovska, A., Pravidur, A., Orđević, A.,& Jacanović, D.. (2022). Emergence of monopoly–Copper exchange networks during the Late Bronze Age in the western and central Balkans. in PLoS One
Public Library of Science (PLoS)., 17(3 March).
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0263823
conv_429
Gavranović M, Mehofer M, Kapuran A, Koledin J, Mitrović JD, Papazovska A, Pravidur A, Orđević A, Jacanović D. Emergence of monopoly–Copper exchange networks during the Late Bronze Age in the western and central Balkans. in PLoS One. 2022;17(3 March).
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0263823
conv_429 .
Gavranović, Mario, Mehofer, Mathias, Kapuran, Aleksandar, Koledin, J., Mitrović, Jovan D., Papazovska, A., Pravidur, A., Orđević, A., Jacanović, D., "Emergence of monopoly–Copper exchange networks during the Late Bronze Age in the western and central Balkans" in PLoS One, 17, no. 3 March (2022),
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0263823 .,
conv_429 .
27

Size doesn’t matter: Foeni-sălaş, a small multi-period settlement in the Romanian Banat

Greenfield, H.J.; Kapuran, Aleksandar

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2021)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Greenfield, H.J.
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
PY  - 2021
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/388
AB  - Systematic archaeological excavations at the multicultural site of Foeni-Sălaş in the Romanian Banat conducted during the first half of the 1990s uncovered evidence that the site was inhabited during the Early Neolithic, Copper, Bronze, Early Iron, Late Antique and Medieval Ages. This paper summarises the cultural history of the settlement at the site and describes the relevant deposits and material culture in each period.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Size doesn’t matter: Foeni-sălaş, a small multi-period settlement in the Romanian Banat
EP  - 60
IS  - 71
SP  - 21
DO  - 10.2298/STA2171021G
UR  - conv_452
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Greenfield, H.J. and Kapuran, Aleksandar",
year = "2021",
abstract = "Systematic archaeological excavations at the multicultural site of Foeni-Sălaş in the Romanian Banat conducted during the first half of the 1990s uncovered evidence that the site was inhabited during the Early Neolithic, Copper, Bronze, Early Iron, Late Antique and Medieval Ages. This paper summarises the cultural history of the settlement at the site and describes the relevant deposits and material culture in each period.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Size doesn’t matter: Foeni-sălaş, a small multi-period settlement in the Romanian Banat",
pages = "60-21",
number = "71",
doi = "10.2298/STA2171021G",
url = "conv_452"
}
Greenfield, H.J.,& Kapuran, A.. (2021). Size doesn’t matter: Foeni-sălaş, a small multi-period settlement in the Romanian Banat. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(71), 21-60.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA2171021G
conv_452
Greenfield H, Kapuran A. Size doesn’t matter: Foeni-sălaş, a small multi-period settlement in the Romanian Banat. in Starinar. 2021;(71):21-60.
doi:10.2298/STA2171021G
conv_452 .
Greenfield, H.J., Kapuran, Aleksandar, "Size doesn’t matter: Foeni-sălaş, a small multi-period settlement in the Romanian Banat" in Starinar, no. 71 (2021):21-60,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA2171021G .,
conv_452 .

Copper production and supra-regional exchange networks ? Cu-matte smelting in the Balkans between 2000 and 1500 BC

Mehofer, Mathias; Gavranović, Mario; Kapuran, Aleksandar; Mitrović, Jovan D.; Putica, Anđelka

(Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London, 2021)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Mehofer, Mathias
AU  - Gavranović, Mario
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
AU  - Mitrović, Jovan D.
AU  - Putica, Anđelka
PY  - 2021
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/378
AB  - The Balkan Peninsula played a crucial role for the introduction of metallurgy during the Copper Age and numerous archaeometallurgical examinations have delivered highly interesting insights on this topic. However, there is a lack of systematic analytical research on copper ore smelting and metal exchange for the later Bronze Age. In this paper we focus on the first archaeometallurgical results of slags from the sites Ruz?ana, Trnjane and C?oka Njica, Eastern Serbia, complimented by the discussion of XRF and lead isotope analyses carried out on 28 copper-based artefacts. Importantly, radiocarbon dating from these sites points to copper production already being undertaken at the end of the Early Bronze Age (19th?18th centuries BC), more than 500 years earlier than previously assumed. This enables us to investigate the flow of metal during the 1st half of the 2nd millennium BC. The analyses of the metallurgical slags indicate a copper matte smelting process in small open pit furnaces and the use of local sulfidic copper ore sources. The fact that these intensive smelting activities in Eastern Serbia can be paralleled with the early production hotspots in central Europe e.g. on the Hochko?nig (Mitterberg mining areas) sheds new light on the development of copper based metallurgy in Europe. At the same time, the evidence from Eastern Serbia shows that this area was a source of raw material for copper and bronze alloys providing a regional and supra-regional perspective. Furthermore, our analyses revealed the remarkable result, that by the start of the Middle Bronze Age (ca. 1700 BC) copper from the Northern Italian mining areas in the Trentino region also reached the western and central Balkans.
PB  - Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London
T2  - Journal of Archaeological Science
T1  - Copper production and supra-regional exchange networks ? Cu-matte smelting in the Balkans between 2000 and 1500 BC
VL  - 129
DO  - 10.1016/j.jas.2021.105378
UR  - conv_335
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Mehofer, Mathias and Gavranović, Mario and Kapuran, Aleksandar and Mitrović, Jovan D. and Putica, Anđelka",
year = "2021",
abstract = "The Balkan Peninsula played a crucial role for the introduction of metallurgy during the Copper Age and numerous archaeometallurgical examinations have delivered highly interesting insights on this topic. However, there is a lack of systematic analytical research on copper ore smelting and metal exchange for the later Bronze Age. In this paper we focus on the first archaeometallurgical results of slags from the sites Ruz?ana, Trnjane and C?oka Njica, Eastern Serbia, complimented by the discussion of XRF and lead isotope analyses carried out on 28 copper-based artefacts. Importantly, radiocarbon dating from these sites points to copper production already being undertaken at the end of the Early Bronze Age (19th?18th centuries BC), more than 500 years earlier than previously assumed. This enables us to investigate the flow of metal during the 1st half of the 2nd millennium BC. The analyses of the metallurgical slags indicate a copper matte smelting process in small open pit furnaces and the use of local sulfidic copper ore sources. The fact that these intensive smelting activities in Eastern Serbia can be paralleled with the early production hotspots in central Europe e.g. on the Hochko?nig (Mitterberg mining areas) sheds new light on the development of copper based metallurgy in Europe. At the same time, the evidence from Eastern Serbia shows that this area was a source of raw material for copper and bronze alloys providing a regional and supra-regional perspective. Furthermore, our analyses revealed the remarkable result, that by the start of the Middle Bronze Age (ca. 1700 BC) copper from the Northern Italian mining areas in the Trentino region also reached the western and central Balkans.",
publisher = "Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London",
journal = "Journal of Archaeological Science",
title = "Copper production and supra-regional exchange networks ? Cu-matte smelting in the Balkans between 2000 and 1500 BC",
volume = "129",
doi = "10.1016/j.jas.2021.105378",
url = "conv_335"
}
Mehofer, M., Gavranović, M., Kapuran, A., Mitrović, J. D.,& Putica, A.. (2021). Copper production and supra-regional exchange networks ? Cu-matte smelting in the Balkans between 2000 and 1500 BC. in Journal of Archaeological Science
Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd, London., 129.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2021.105378
conv_335
Mehofer M, Gavranović M, Kapuran A, Mitrović JD, Putica A. Copper production and supra-regional exchange networks ? Cu-matte smelting in the Balkans between 2000 and 1500 BC. in Journal of Archaeological Science. 2021;129.
doi:10.1016/j.jas.2021.105378
conv_335 .
Mehofer, Mathias, Gavranović, Mario, Kapuran, Aleksandar, Mitrović, Jovan D., Putica, Anđelka, "Copper production and supra-regional exchange networks ? Cu-matte smelting in the Balkans between 2000 and 1500 BC" in Journal of Archaeological Science, 129 (2021),
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2021.105378 .,
conv_335 .
14
2
2

Late Hallstatt Female Head/Hair Decoration in the Southern Carpathian Basin. Temple Rings of the Ciumbrud and Donja Dolina Types

Dizdar, M.; Kapuran, Aleksandar

(Verlag der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2021)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Dizdar, M.
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
PY  - 2021
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/383
AB  - The Late Hallstatt period in the southern Carpathian Basin is marked by complex cultural relations for which the current knowledge is mostly based on the analyses of cemeteries. One of the most prolific forms of female jewellery in graves is bronze and silver temple rings that were used to decorate the head or hair. This is testified to by finds from the inhumation graves in Donja Dolina, where several pairs of temple rings, often of different forms, were located on both sides of the women's heads. Four basic types have been distinguished according to differences in the design of the terminals, and there are different variants according to the method of shaping the body. The oldest burial phases in Donja Dolina are characterized by smooth temple rings with a conical thickening at the terminals (Ciumbrud type), which have been found in the highest numbers in the inhumation graves in Transylvania. Temple rings of the Ciumbrud type from Donja Dolina should probably be seen as a reflection of established contacts and cultural transfer, but we should not completely rule out the possibility of the individual mobility of women. The reconstruction of how they were worn makes it possible to analyse the female bodily ornamentation, indicating that these are gender-specific items, which became an important part of the visual identity of women.
PB  - Verlag der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
T2  - Archaeologia Austriaca
T1  - Late Hallstatt Female Head/Hair Decoration in the Southern Carpathian Basin. Temple Rings of the Ciumbrud and Donja Dolina Types
EP  - 204
SP  - 149
VL  - Band 105/2021
DO  - 10.1553/archaeologia105s149
UR  - conv_456
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Dizdar, M. and Kapuran, Aleksandar",
year = "2021",
abstract = "The Late Hallstatt period in the southern Carpathian Basin is marked by complex cultural relations for which the current knowledge is mostly based on the analyses of cemeteries. One of the most prolific forms of female jewellery in graves is bronze and silver temple rings that were used to decorate the head or hair. This is testified to by finds from the inhumation graves in Donja Dolina, where several pairs of temple rings, often of different forms, were located on both sides of the women's heads. Four basic types have been distinguished according to differences in the design of the terminals, and there are different variants according to the method of shaping the body. The oldest burial phases in Donja Dolina are characterized by smooth temple rings with a conical thickening at the terminals (Ciumbrud type), which have been found in the highest numbers in the inhumation graves in Transylvania. Temple rings of the Ciumbrud type from Donja Dolina should probably be seen as a reflection of established contacts and cultural transfer, but we should not completely rule out the possibility of the individual mobility of women. The reconstruction of how they were worn makes it possible to analyse the female bodily ornamentation, indicating that these are gender-specific items, which became an important part of the visual identity of women.",
publisher = "Verlag der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften",
journal = "Archaeologia Austriaca",
title = "Late Hallstatt Female Head/Hair Decoration in the Southern Carpathian Basin. Temple Rings of the Ciumbrud and Donja Dolina Types",
pages = "204-149",
volume = "Band 105/2021",
doi = "10.1553/archaeologia105s149",
url = "conv_456"
}
Dizdar, M.,& Kapuran, A.. (2021). Late Hallstatt Female Head/Hair Decoration in the Southern Carpathian Basin. Temple Rings of the Ciumbrud and Donja Dolina Types. in Archaeologia Austriaca
Verlag der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften., Band 105/2021, 149-204.
https://doi.org/10.1553/archaeologia105s149
conv_456
Dizdar M, Kapuran A. Late Hallstatt Female Head/Hair Decoration in the Southern Carpathian Basin. Temple Rings of the Ciumbrud and Donja Dolina Types. in Archaeologia Austriaca. 2021;Band 105/2021:149-204.
doi:10.1553/archaeologia105s149
conv_456 .
Dizdar, M., Kapuran, Aleksandar, "Late Hallstatt Female Head/Hair Decoration in the Southern Carpathian Basin. Temple Rings of the Ciumbrud and Donja Dolina Types" in Archaeologia Austriaca, Band 105/2021 (2021):149-204,
https://doi.org/10.1553/archaeologia105s149 .,
conv_456 .

Naselje i nekropola iz bronzanog doba u Trnjanu kod Bora - revizija starih rezultata i rezultati novih istraživanja

Kapuran, Aleksandar; Kapuran, Aleksandar; Gavranović, Mario; Mehofer, Mathias

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2020)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
AU  - Gavranović, Mario
AU  - Mehofer, Mathias
PY  - 2020
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/341
AB  - Lokalitet Trnjane kod Bora otkriven je 1984. godine, a prva sistematska istraživanja naselja i nekropole započeta su 1985. i trajala su do 1989. godine. Arheološka iskopavanja sprovođena su u okviru projekta "Istraživanje starog rudarstva i metalurgije u široj zoni timočkog eruptivnog basena" koji je realizovan saradnjom Muzeja rudarstva i metalurgije u Boru i Arheološkog instituta u Beogradu. Istraživanja na Trnjanu bila su u inicijalnoj fazi fokusirana na naselje, prvenstveno zbog velikih količina šljake što se nalazila na površini kao i u arheološkim slojevima, a kasnije su se orijentisala na susednu nekropolu sa spaljenim pokojnicima. Nakon pauze od tri decenije istraživanja su nastavljena 2017. godine, i to u okviru novog projekta "Bronzano doba u severoistočnoj Srbiji - metalurgija, naselja i nekropole", u kojem sada, osim prethodno navedenih institucija, učestvuje i Institut za orijentalnu i evropsku arheologiju iz Beča. Nakon izvršene geofizičke prospekcije 2018. godine nastavljena su sistematska istraživanja naselja, a dobijeni su i apsolutni datumi za dva groba sa nekropole i iz tri uzorka sa naselja. Nekropola na Trnjanu predstavljala je sredinom osamdesetih godina prošlog veka neočekivano otkriće, budući da je bila prva u nizu nekropola koje su kasnije konstatovane na području Bora i Zaječara. Nekropolu je činila veća grupa kružnih kamenih konstrukcija (1,5-4 m u prečniku) u čijem se centru nalaze urne sa ostacima spaljenih pokojnika. Na ovoj nekropoli ih je konstatovano 43, a antropološki su obrađeni samo oni grobovi u kojima se nalazila referentna količina antropoloških ostataka. Pokojnike su predstavljali svi uzrasti, među kojima i jedna trudna žena. Pogrebni prilozi su izuzetno retki, a predstavljaju ih keramički pehari, pršljenci, keramičke lampe i jedan bronzani nož. Objedinjeni rezultati starih i ovih istraživanja naselja na lokalitetu Trnjane ukazuju na to da se izdvajaju pet stratigrafski različitih konteksta, označenih od SU1 do SU5. Nadzemne kuće su s vremenom nestale, usled intenzivne zemljoradnje i uticaja erozije, te su samo u dve sonde iz 1985. i 1987. godine otkrivene zone sa očuvanim podnim lepom i kućnim inventarom. Takođe, postoji mogućnost da su poluukopane stambene objekte mogli da predstavljaju veći ukopi koji u ispuni sadrže veću količinu keramike i lepa, kao što je bio slučaj u sondi 7/2018. Nalaze materijalne kulture čine keramika i kamene alatke, dok je zbog kiselosti zemlje otkriven izuzetno Mali broj životinjskih kostiju. Keramičku produkciju predstavljaju lonci, zdele, pehari, šolje i piraunosi. Posebnu pažnju privlači veliki broj piraunosa i lampi manjih dimenzija (ranije identifikovanih kao kašike), kao i pršljenaka različitih oblika. Keramička produkcija pokazuje dva stilsko-tipološka karaktera - jedan sa uticajima Vatina i drugi sa karakteristikama Paraćinske kulture. Od ostalih nalaza materijalne kulture izdvajamo brojne fragmentovane kamene žrvnjeve i rastirače kao i kamene sekire, a zanimljiva su i dva nalaza jezgra od kamena što su nastala kao nusprodukt obušenja sekira za umetanje držalje. Predmeti od bronze izuzetno su retki, a predstavljaju ih dve šivaće igle, jedan jednosekli nož i, verovatno, još jedan predmet sličan nožu ali prekriven korozijom. Veoma bitne nalaze u postojećim kontekstima na lokalitetu Trnjane predstavljaju metalične šljake (na nekropoli je otkriveno ukupno 18,1 kg, a na naselju 10,3 kg). Morfološke karakteristike ovih šljaka ukazuju na to da su nastajale tokom tri različite faze topljenja sulfidnih ruda, najverovatnije kovelita. Prvu grupu čine komadi većih dimenzija i nepravilnog oblika, sa tragovima uglja, balončićima vazduha i krupnijim zrnima bakra, koji karakterišu prvu fazu topljenja sulfidnih ruda. Drugu grupu (ujedno i drugu fazu topljenja) predstavljaju šljake manjih debljina i u obliku polulopte, a sadrže manju količinu balončića u strukturi i manje bakarnih zrnaca u sebi. Treća vrsta šljaka jesu one što pripadaju finalnom procesu dobijanja ingota i imaju izuzetno tanku profilaciju, pri čemu su ravne, metaličnog sjaja i kompaktne strukture, tako da najviše liče na obojeno staklo. Pretpostavljamo da su mogući izvori rude bakra bili udaljeni najviše 1-2 dana hoda od lokaliteta Trnjane, što bi trebalo da potvrde buduća rekognosciranja. Kulturno-hronološka opredeljenja zajednica koje su živele na prostoru Timočke Krajine menjala su se tokom vremena pod uticajima kako novih otkrića tako i autora koji su se ovom problematikom bavili. Tako su B. Jovanović i I. Janković u prvoj interpretaciji nekropolu Trnjane odredili kao Timočku grupu i datovali je u period srednjeg bronzanog doba, a kasnije su promenili mišljenje i premestili je u kasno bronzano doba, odnosno Paraćinsku kulturu. Za razliku od njih, D. Srejović i M. Lazić su, prema nalazima sa nekropole Magura i naselja na Banjskoj steni kod Gamzigrada, celu kulturu nazvali gamzigradska grupa i opredelili je u srednje i kasno bronzano doba (1700-1300. pre n. e.). A. Bulatović i J. Stankovski istu kulturu ipak opredeljuju kao Timočku grupu, koja je vezana za fazu Bubanj - Hum IV razvijenog bronzanog doba u Pomoravlju. Naše je mišljenje da je za identifikovanje kulturnog uticaja na razvoj grupa naselja i nekropola u Timočkoj Krajini ključni momenat bio uticaj Vatinske kulture, čije se karakteristike jasno prepoznaju na brojnim nalazima keramike ne samo na Trnjanu već i na nekropoli Hajdučka česma i lokalitetima Ružana 1 i 2 u Banjskom Polju kod Bora. Da bi se dobio precizniji hronološki okvir u kome se odvijao život na lokalitetu Trnjane, urađeni su dva apsolutna datuma iz grobova sa nekropole kao i apsolutni datumi iz životinjske kosti, jedne semenke sačuvane u profilu keramičke posude i gareži iz najstarijih kulturnih slojeva u naselju. Apsolutni datum iz groba 10 pokazuje starost iz 1950-1900. godine pre n. e., dok uzorak iz groba 28 (u kome se kao prilog nalazio bronzani nož) pripada periodu 1762-1627. godine pre n. e. Apsolutni datumi iz različitih konteksta u naselju ukazuju na vremenski okvir koji obuhvata razdoblje od druge polovine 18. pa sve do ranog 17. veka pre n. e., što je gotovo identičan datum sa onim dobijenim u grobu 28. Predstavljeni datumi ukazuju na to da su naselje i nekropola na lokalitetu Trnjane, i pored toga što je određena količina keramike imala sličnosti sa paraćinskom kulturom, najverovatnije predstavljali jednu varijantu vatinske kulture koja se razvijala u zaleđu Đerdapa u razdoblju između 19. i 17. veka pre n. e. U približno istom periodu zabeležena je povećana metalurška aktivnost i u alpskoj regiji i na teritoriji severne Italije. Naselje na Trnjanu pokazuje da su zajednice srednjeg bronzanog doba na prostoru severoistočne Srbije imale važnu ulogu u uspostavljanju proizvodnje i distribucije bakra u jugoistočnoj Evropi s početka II milenijuma pre n. e.
AB  - In archaeological literature, the site of Trnjane, near Bor in Eastern Serbia is known as an urn necropolis, with 43 discovered urn graves. The excavations in Trnjane took place between 1985 and 1987-1989, and continued in 1998. The investigations also included an excavation of a nearby settlement, but the results of this research were never published. In most of the previous studies, Trnjane was assigned to the Middle and Late Bronze Age, while the necropolis was often connected with the spread of the Urnfield Phenomena from Central Europe toward the Balkans. New investigations started in 2017 as cooperation between the Archaeological Institute in Belgrade and the Institute for Oriental and European Archaeology (OREA) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences shed new light on the chronology and cultural assignment of Trnjane and other similar surrounding sites in the region of Eastern Serbia. The excavation of the settlement area in 2017 and 2018 yielded numerous finds indicating metallurgical activities connected with copper ore smelting (slag and ores), while pottery finds showed a typological resemblance with an Early and Middle Bronze Age repertoire. The radiocarbon dates from the settlement area and from urn graves of the neighbouring necropolis also point to a much earlier time than previously assumed. The new chronological determination of Trnjane raises a set of new questions, especially regarding the cultural connections between Central Europe and the Balkans and transfers of copper ore smelting technology in the Bronze Age.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Naselje i nekropola iz bronzanog doba u Trnjanu kod Bora - revizija starih rezultata i rezultati novih istraživanja
T1  - Bronze Age settlement and necropolis of Trnjane, near Bor: Revision and new research results
EP  - 84
IS  - 70
SP  - 51
DO  - 10.2298/STA2070051K
UR  - conv_481
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Kapuran, Aleksandar and Kapuran, Aleksandar and Gavranović, Mario and Mehofer, Mathias",
year = "2020",
abstract = "Lokalitet Trnjane kod Bora otkriven je 1984. godine, a prva sistematska istraživanja naselja i nekropole započeta su 1985. i trajala su do 1989. godine. Arheološka iskopavanja sprovođena su u okviru projekta "Istraživanje starog rudarstva i metalurgije u široj zoni timočkog eruptivnog basena" koji je realizovan saradnjom Muzeja rudarstva i metalurgije u Boru i Arheološkog instituta u Beogradu. Istraživanja na Trnjanu bila su u inicijalnoj fazi fokusirana na naselje, prvenstveno zbog velikih količina šljake što se nalazila na površini kao i u arheološkim slojevima, a kasnije su se orijentisala na susednu nekropolu sa spaljenim pokojnicima. Nakon pauze od tri decenije istraživanja su nastavljena 2017. godine, i to u okviru novog projekta "Bronzano doba u severoistočnoj Srbiji - metalurgija, naselja i nekropole", u kojem sada, osim prethodno navedenih institucija, učestvuje i Institut za orijentalnu i evropsku arheologiju iz Beča. Nakon izvršene geofizičke prospekcije 2018. godine nastavljena su sistematska istraživanja naselja, a dobijeni su i apsolutni datumi za dva groba sa nekropole i iz tri uzorka sa naselja. Nekropola na Trnjanu predstavljala je sredinom osamdesetih godina prošlog veka neočekivano otkriće, budući da je bila prva u nizu nekropola koje su kasnije konstatovane na području Bora i Zaječara. Nekropolu je činila veća grupa kružnih kamenih konstrukcija (1,5-4 m u prečniku) u čijem se centru nalaze urne sa ostacima spaljenih pokojnika. Na ovoj nekropoli ih je konstatovano 43, a antropološki su obrađeni samo oni grobovi u kojima se nalazila referentna količina antropoloških ostataka. Pokojnike su predstavljali svi uzrasti, među kojima i jedna trudna žena. Pogrebni prilozi su izuzetno retki, a predstavljaju ih keramički pehari, pršljenci, keramičke lampe i jedan bronzani nož. Objedinjeni rezultati starih i ovih istraživanja naselja na lokalitetu Trnjane ukazuju na to da se izdvajaju pet stratigrafski različitih konteksta, označenih od SU1 do SU5. Nadzemne kuće su s vremenom nestale, usled intenzivne zemljoradnje i uticaja erozije, te su samo u dve sonde iz 1985. i 1987. godine otkrivene zone sa očuvanim podnim lepom i kućnim inventarom. Takođe, postoji mogućnost da su poluukopane stambene objekte mogli da predstavljaju veći ukopi koji u ispuni sadrže veću količinu keramike i lepa, kao što je bio slučaj u sondi 7/2018. Nalaze materijalne kulture čine keramika i kamene alatke, dok je zbog kiselosti zemlje otkriven izuzetno Mali broj životinjskih kostiju. Keramičku produkciju predstavljaju lonci, zdele, pehari, šolje i piraunosi. Posebnu pažnju privlači veliki broj piraunosa i lampi manjih dimenzija (ranije identifikovanih kao kašike), kao i pršljenaka različitih oblika. Keramička produkcija pokazuje dva stilsko-tipološka karaktera - jedan sa uticajima Vatina i drugi sa karakteristikama Paraćinske kulture. Od ostalih nalaza materijalne kulture izdvajamo brojne fragmentovane kamene žrvnjeve i rastirače kao i kamene sekire, a zanimljiva su i dva nalaza jezgra od kamena što su nastala kao nusprodukt obušenja sekira za umetanje držalje. Predmeti od bronze izuzetno su retki, a predstavljaju ih dve šivaće igle, jedan jednosekli nož i, verovatno, još jedan predmet sličan nožu ali prekriven korozijom. Veoma bitne nalaze u postojećim kontekstima na lokalitetu Trnjane predstavljaju metalične šljake (na nekropoli je otkriveno ukupno 18,1 kg, a na naselju 10,3 kg). Morfološke karakteristike ovih šljaka ukazuju na to da su nastajale tokom tri različite faze topljenja sulfidnih ruda, najverovatnije kovelita. Prvu grupu čine komadi većih dimenzija i nepravilnog oblika, sa tragovima uglja, balončićima vazduha i krupnijim zrnima bakra, koji karakterišu prvu fazu topljenja sulfidnih ruda. Drugu grupu (ujedno i drugu fazu topljenja) predstavljaju šljake manjih debljina i u obliku polulopte, a sadrže manju količinu balončića u strukturi i manje bakarnih zrnaca u sebi. Treća vrsta šljaka jesu one što pripadaju finalnom procesu dobijanja ingota i imaju izuzetno tanku profilaciju, pri čemu su ravne, metaličnog sjaja i kompaktne strukture, tako da najviše liče na obojeno staklo. Pretpostavljamo da su mogući izvori rude bakra bili udaljeni najviše 1-2 dana hoda od lokaliteta Trnjane, što bi trebalo da potvrde buduća rekognosciranja. Kulturno-hronološka opredeljenja zajednica koje su živele na prostoru Timočke Krajine menjala su se tokom vremena pod uticajima kako novih otkrića tako i autora koji su se ovom problematikom bavili. Tako su B. Jovanović i I. Janković u prvoj interpretaciji nekropolu Trnjane odredili kao Timočku grupu i datovali je u period srednjeg bronzanog doba, a kasnije su promenili mišljenje i premestili je u kasno bronzano doba, odnosno Paraćinsku kulturu. Za razliku od njih, D. Srejović i M. Lazić su, prema nalazima sa nekropole Magura i naselja na Banjskoj steni kod Gamzigrada, celu kulturu nazvali gamzigradska grupa i opredelili je u srednje i kasno bronzano doba (1700-1300. pre n. e.). A. Bulatović i J. Stankovski istu kulturu ipak opredeljuju kao Timočku grupu, koja je vezana za fazu Bubanj - Hum IV razvijenog bronzanog doba u Pomoravlju. Naše je mišljenje da je za identifikovanje kulturnog uticaja na razvoj grupa naselja i nekropola u Timočkoj Krajini ključni momenat bio uticaj Vatinske kulture, čije se karakteristike jasno prepoznaju na brojnim nalazima keramike ne samo na Trnjanu već i na nekropoli Hajdučka česma i lokalitetima Ružana 1 i 2 u Banjskom Polju kod Bora. Da bi se dobio precizniji hronološki okvir u kome se odvijao život na lokalitetu Trnjane, urađeni su dva apsolutna datuma iz grobova sa nekropole kao i apsolutni datumi iz životinjske kosti, jedne semenke sačuvane u profilu keramičke posude i gareži iz najstarijih kulturnih slojeva u naselju. Apsolutni datum iz groba 10 pokazuje starost iz 1950-1900. godine pre n. e., dok uzorak iz groba 28 (u kome se kao prilog nalazio bronzani nož) pripada periodu 1762-1627. godine pre n. e. Apsolutni datumi iz različitih konteksta u naselju ukazuju na vremenski okvir koji obuhvata razdoblje od druge polovine 18. pa sve do ranog 17. veka pre n. e., što je gotovo identičan datum sa onim dobijenim u grobu 28. Predstavljeni datumi ukazuju na to da su naselje i nekropola na lokalitetu Trnjane, i pored toga što je određena količina keramike imala sličnosti sa paraćinskom kulturom, najverovatnije predstavljali jednu varijantu vatinske kulture koja se razvijala u zaleđu Đerdapa u razdoblju između 19. i 17. veka pre n. e. U približno istom periodu zabeležena je povećana metalurška aktivnost i u alpskoj regiji i na teritoriji severne Italije. Naselje na Trnjanu pokazuje da su zajednice srednjeg bronzanog doba na prostoru severoistočne Srbije imale važnu ulogu u uspostavljanju proizvodnje i distribucije bakra u jugoistočnoj Evropi s početka II milenijuma pre n. e., In archaeological literature, the site of Trnjane, near Bor in Eastern Serbia is known as an urn necropolis, with 43 discovered urn graves. The excavations in Trnjane took place between 1985 and 1987-1989, and continued in 1998. The investigations also included an excavation of a nearby settlement, but the results of this research were never published. In most of the previous studies, Trnjane was assigned to the Middle and Late Bronze Age, while the necropolis was often connected with the spread of the Urnfield Phenomena from Central Europe toward the Balkans. New investigations started in 2017 as cooperation between the Archaeological Institute in Belgrade and the Institute for Oriental and European Archaeology (OREA) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences shed new light on the chronology and cultural assignment of Trnjane and other similar surrounding sites in the region of Eastern Serbia. The excavation of the settlement area in 2017 and 2018 yielded numerous finds indicating metallurgical activities connected with copper ore smelting (slag and ores), while pottery finds showed a typological resemblance with an Early and Middle Bronze Age repertoire. The radiocarbon dates from the settlement area and from urn graves of the neighbouring necropolis also point to a much earlier time than previously assumed. The new chronological determination of Trnjane raises a set of new questions, especially regarding the cultural connections between Central Europe and the Balkans and transfers of copper ore smelting technology in the Bronze Age.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Naselje i nekropola iz bronzanog doba u Trnjanu kod Bora - revizija starih rezultata i rezultati novih istraživanja, Bronze Age settlement and necropolis of Trnjane, near Bor: Revision and new research results",
pages = "84-51",
number = "70",
doi = "10.2298/STA2070051K",
url = "conv_481"
}
Kapuran, A., Kapuran, A., Gavranović, M.,& Mehofer, M.. (2020). Naselje i nekropola iz bronzanog doba u Trnjanu kod Bora - revizija starih rezultata i rezultati novih istraživanja. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(70), 51-84.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA2070051K
conv_481
Kapuran A, Kapuran A, Gavranović M, Mehofer M. Naselje i nekropola iz bronzanog doba u Trnjanu kod Bora - revizija starih rezultata i rezultati novih istraživanja. in Starinar. 2020;(70):51-84.
doi:10.2298/STA2070051K
conv_481 .
Kapuran, Aleksandar, Kapuran, Aleksandar, Gavranović, Mario, Mehofer, Mathias, "Naselje i nekropola iz bronzanog doba u Trnjanu kod Bora - revizija starih rezultata i rezultati novih istraživanja" in Starinar, no. 70 (2020):51-84,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA2070051K .,
conv_481 .
3
3

Livački kalupi iz Velebita i metalni nakovnji iz Bronzanog doba u Evropi

Armbruster, Barbara; Jockenhövel, Albrecht; Kapuran, Aleksandar; Ramadanski, Raško

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2019)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Armbruster, Barbara
AU  - Jockenhövel, Albrecht
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
AU  - Ramadanski, Raško
PY  - 2019
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/298
AB  - Pre skoro pola veka izvedena su sistematska istraživanja nekropole iz bronzanog doba i kasne antike / ranog srednjeg veka na jednom lokalitetu koji se nalazio na ulazu u selo Velebit kod Kanjiže. Tom prilikom otkrivena je jedna praistorijska ostava kamenih kalupa za livenje predmeta od bronze, među kojima se izdvajao jedan tip za koji je profesor A. Jokenhovel potvrdio da pripada kalupu za izradu nakovanja. Stariji horizont sahranjivanja na ovoj nekropoli pripadao je Kulturi grobnih humki srednjeg bronzanog doba u centralnoj Evropi, a navedeni kalup iz tog konteksta predstavlja za sada jedini nalaz koji se povezuje s postojanjem nakovanja na teritoriji centralnog Balkana u bronzanom dobu, tako da je cilj ovoga rada da ukaže na veze koje je ovaj prostor imao sa razvojem produkcije bronzanih predmeta na celoj teritoriji Evrope. Istorija istraživanja nakovanja iz praistorije počinje u 19. veku prvim radovima na tu temu čiji je autor V. G. Čajld, a nastavljaju je svojim radovima J. Nikolard, G. Gušer, M. R. Erenberg i D. Jancen. Isprva su nakovnje predstavljali primerci od kamena, kao uostalom i ostale alatke za obradu bronzanih poluproizvoda tokom perioda Kulture zvonastih pehara i ranog bronzanog doba u Evropi, kao i u Çukuriçi Höyük u Anadoliji, a njihova upotreba se produžava kroz celokupno trajanje bronzanog doba. Čak se u pojedinim kontekstima zajedno može naći kameni i metalni alat za obradu metala, kao što je primer na lokalitetu Génelard u Francuskoj. Zbog terminoloških razlika u nazivu za nakovnje, u ovom radu je korišćen termin anvil, koji podrazumeva različite vrste statičnih podloga, sačinjenih od drvenog i metalnog dela, koje se koriste u procesu iskucavanja. Nakovnje smo podelili u sledeće kategorije i potkategorije: Kategorija 1: Pljosnati i piramidalni nakovnji (frustrum) - ravni nakovnji Brett-, Blockambosse); Potkategorija 1a: Pljosnato-ravni nakovnji (Brettambosse), sl. 6; Potkategorija 1b: Piramidalni (frustum) nakovnji (sl. 7); Potklasa 1c: Nakovnji s jednom radnom površinom (sl. 8); Potklasa 1d: Pljosnati nakovnji petougaonog preseka sa usadnikom (sl. 8); Potklasa 1e: Nakovnji u obliku "pečurke" (sl. 9); Potklasa 1f: Nakovnji sa ravnom ili kalotastom glavom (sl. 9); Klasa 2: Nakovnji s jednim ili dva rožasta ispupčenja (Hornambosse); Potklasa 2a1: Nakovnji s jednim lateralnim klinastim ispupčenjem koje se nalazi na istom nivou sa radnom površinom (sl. 10); Potklasa 2a2: Nakovnji s jednim lateralnim klinastim ispupčenjem koje se nalazi blizu radne površine (sl. 11); Potklasa 2b: Nakovnji sa dva lateralna klinasta ispupčenja koja su fiksirana na središnjem delu (sl. 12); Potklasa 2c: Nakovnji sa dve radne površine i sa dva lateralna klinasta ispupčenja (nakovnji u obliku slova "T" / tip Chalon-sur-Saône/Gray), sl. 13/1-6; Potklasa 2d: Nakovnji s jednom radnom površinom, jednim klinastim ispupčenjem i jednim usadnikom (tip Fresnè-la-Mère), sl. 13/7-10; Klasa 3: Ravni nakovnji sa ispupčenjima i udubljenjima (Riefenanken, Kugelanken), sl. 14/1-6; Klasa 4: Nakovnji savijeni pod uglom Biegestöcke), sl. 14/7-11; Klasa 5: Nakovnji za iskucavanje (Treibfäuste), sl. 15/1-3; Nakovnji specifičnih oblika (sl. 15/5-8); Ad hoc nakovnji (sl. 16); Nakovnji u obliku čekića sa usadnikom (Tüllenambosse), sl. 17. Do sada je konstatovano oko 124 predmeta što su imala funkciju nakovnja, i to pretežno u bronzanim ostavama, dok su pojedini nalaženi i na lokalitetima kao i u kontekstu sahrana. Najveća količina ovih predmeta potiče sa britanskih ostrva i iz Irske, Francuske kao i pojedinih delova Švajcarske. Manje količine su konstatovane u Italiji, Istočnim Alpima, Podunavlju, Panoniji i zapadnom Karpatskom basenu. Kalup za izradu nakovanja sa Velebita predstavlja prvi primerak u Srbiji i najstariji u Panoniji, dok u mnogim krajevima Evrope takvi kalupi nisu uopšte nađeni. Zanimljivo je da se slični tipovi nakovanja nalaze tek na udaljenosti od 1200 km do 1400 km na zapadu u Francuskoj. Hronološki gledano, najsloženije forme javljaju se tokom srednjeg bronzanog doba, dok na kraju tog doba dominiraju jednostavniji oblici. Svi su izliveni od bronze (CuSn), a pojedini su napravljeni od posebne legure bakra s visokom koncentracijom kalaja od 10% do 310%, dok su neki sadržali i olovo (Pb 25%), antimon (Sb manje od 5%%) ili veoma malu količinu kalaja. Iz prethodne rasprave možemo zaključiti da su nakovnji predstavljali nezaobilazne delove kovačke opreme za izradu metalnih predmeta manjih ili većih dimenzija. Najbolja ilustracija za opremu jednog kovača jeste ostava Génelard iz Francuske (Fig. 18), sa setom alata za izradu različitih vrsta upotrebnih predmeta i nakita. U susedstvu Srbije najznačajnija je ostava Boljanić (BiH), a našu vezu sa Podunavljem predstavljaju ostave Nadap (u Mađarskoj) i Fratelia (u Rumuniji). Tokom bronzanog doba nakovnji su takođe bili neophodni i prilikom stvaranja i obrade predmeta od zlata, o čemu u nekoliko slučajeva svedoče nalazi: "North Sligo" (no. 79); Lusmagh (no. 78, Irska); Lichfield (no. 117, Engleska) i Fresné-la-Mère (no. 27, Normandija). To potvrđuju tragovi zlatnih čestica otkriveni na nakovnju iz LachenSpeyerdorf-a (no. 51, Jugozapadna Nemačka), ali se smatra da su primerci iz ostava Fresné-la-Mère (Normandija) i Velim (no. 9, Istočna Češka) takođe imali veze sa obradom zlata. Na kraju možemo zaključiti da su predstavljeni nakovnji iz bronzanog doba pretežno korišćeni za obradu manjih predmeta, izradu ornamenata i za modelovanje predmeta u obliku žice, traka i plastične dekoracije od bronze, srebra i zlata. Na njima su se mogle ne samo praviti oštrice alata i oružja već i dodatno oštriti. Najveći broj nakovanja nađen je u okviru ostava, a samo šest u kontekstu grobova. Oni su usled veće količine bronze, od koje su morali da budu napravljeni, verovatno imali veću vrednost, pa su se prenosili nasledstvom sa oca na sina. U tom bi smislu trebalo posmatrati i nalaz sa nekropole Velebit, odnosno - da je sa kovačem iz bronzanog doba pohranjen samo fragmentovani kalup, a ne ceo nakovanj.
AB  - During the first excavations of the cemetery dating from the Bronze Age and Early Antiquity in the village of Velebit near Kanjiža (Northern Serbia) one of the excavated artefacts was found to belong to a used and broken stone mould for casting anvils. However, without an expert archaeologist to supervise the recovery of this find, which remained unknown for decades after its discovery, as a starting point, the authors of this article present a synthesis that takes into account several aspects of this significant class of metalcraft object. This proceeds from the history of the excavation to the general role of European Bronze Age anvils in gold and bronze metalworking, and then further on to their typological, terminological, chronological and functional analysis and to their long-range distribution as a sign of an interregional network of craftsmen, including their social context and symbolism.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Livački kalupi iz Velebita i metalni nakovnji iz Bronzanog doba u Evropi
T1  - The moulds from Velebit and European Bronze Age metal anvils
EP  - 178
IS  - 69
SP  - 139
DO  - 10.2298/STa1969139a
UR  - conv_116
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Armbruster, Barbara and Jockenhövel, Albrecht and Kapuran, Aleksandar and Ramadanski, Raško",
year = "2019",
abstract = "Pre skoro pola veka izvedena su sistematska istraživanja nekropole iz bronzanog doba i kasne antike / ranog srednjeg veka na jednom lokalitetu koji se nalazio na ulazu u selo Velebit kod Kanjiže. Tom prilikom otkrivena je jedna praistorijska ostava kamenih kalupa za livenje predmeta od bronze, među kojima se izdvajao jedan tip za koji je profesor A. Jokenhovel potvrdio da pripada kalupu za izradu nakovanja. Stariji horizont sahranjivanja na ovoj nekropoli pripadao je Kulturi grobnih humki srednjeg bronzanog doba u centralnoj Evropi, a navedeni kalup iz tog konteksta predstavlja za sada jedini nalaz koji se povezuje s postojanjem nakovanja na teritoriji centralnog Balkana u bronzanom dobu, tako da je cilj ovoga rada da ukaže na veze koje je ovaj prostor imao sa razvojem produkcije bronzanih predmeta na celoj teritoriji Evrope. Istorija istraživanja nakovanja iz praistorije počinje u 19. veku prvim radovima na tu temu čiji je autor V. G. Čajld, a nastavljaju je svojim radovima J. Nikolard, G. Gušer, M. R. Erenberg i D. Jancen. Isprva su nakovnje predstavljali primerci od kamena, kao uostalom i ostale alatke za obradu bronzanih poluproizvoda tokom perioda Kulture zvonastih pehara i ranog bronzanog doba u Evropi, kao i u Çukuriçi Höyük u Anadoliji, a njihova upotreba se produžava kroz celokupno trajanje bronzanog doba. Čak se u pojedinim kontekstima zajedno može naći kameni i metalni alat za obradu metala, kao što je primer na lokalitetu Génelard u Francuskoj. Zbog terminoloških razlika u nazivu za nakovnje, u ovom radu je korišćen termin anvil, koji podrazumeva različite vrste statičnih podloga, sačinjenih od drvenog i metalnog dela, koje se koriste u procesu iskucavanja. Nakovnje smo podelili u sledeće kategorije i potkategorije: Kategorija 1: Pljosnati i piramidalni nakovnji (frustrum) - ravni nakovnji Brett-, Blockambosse); Potkategorija 1a: Pljosnato-ravni nakovnji (Brettambosse), sl. 6; Potkategorija 1b: Piramidalni (frustum) nakovnji (sl. 7); Potklasa 1c: Nakovnji s jednom radnom površinom (sl. 8); Potklasa 1d: Pljosnati nakovnji petougaonog preseka sa usadnikom (sl. 8); Potklasa 1e: Nakovnji u obliku "pečurke" (sl. 9); Potklasa 1f: Nakovnji sa ravnom ili kalotastom glavom (sl. 9); Klasa 2: Nakovnji s jednim ili dva rožasta ispupčenja (Hornambosse); Potklasa 2a1: Nakovnji s jednim lateralnim klinastim ispupčenjem koje se nalazi na istom nivou sa radnom površinom (sl. 10); Potklasa 2a2: Nakovnji s jednim lateralnim klinastim ispupčenjem koje se nalazi blizu radne površine (sl. 11); Potklasa 2b: Nakovnji sa dva lateralna klinasta ispupčenja koja su fiksirana na središnjem delu (sl. 12); Potklasa 2c: Nakovnji sa dve radne površine i sa dva lateralna klinasta ispupčenja (nakovnji u obliku slova "T" / tip Chalon-sur-Saône/Gray), sl. 13/1-6; Potklasa 2d: Nakovnji s jednom radnom površinom, jednim klinastim ispupčenjem i jednim usadnikom (tip Fresnè-la-Mère), sl. 13/7-10; Klasa 3: Ravni nakovnji sa ispupčenjima i udubljenjima (Riefenanken, Kugelanken), sl. 14/1-6; Klasa 4: Nakovnji savijeni pod uglom Biegestöcke), sl. 14/7-11; Klasa 5: Nakovnji za iskucavanje (Treibfäuste), sl. 15/1-3; Nakovnji specifičnih oblika (sl. 15/5-8); Ad hoc nakovnji (sl. 16); Nakovnji u obliku čekića sa usadnikom (Tüllenambosse), sl. 17. Do sada je konstatovano oko 124 predmeta što su imala funkciju nakovnja, i to pretežno u bronzanim ostavama, dok su pojedini nalaženi i na lokalitetima kao i u kontekstu sahrana. Najveća količina ovih predmeta potiče sa britanskih ostrva i iz Irske, Francuske kao i pojedinih delova Švajcarske. Manje količine su konstatovane u Italiji, Istočnim Alpima, Podunavlju, Panoniji i zapadnom Karpatskom basenu. Kalup za izradu nakovanja sa Velebita predstavlja prvi primerak u Srbiji i najstariji u Panoniji, dok u mnogim krajevima Evrope takvi kalupi nisu uopšte nađeni. Zanimljivo je da se slični tipovi nakovanja nalaze tek na udaljenosti od 1200 km do 1400 km na zapadu u Francuskoj. Hronološki gledano, najsloženije forme javljaju se tokom srednjeg bronzanog doba, dok na kraju tog doba dominiraju jednostavniji oblici. Svi su izliveni od bronze (CuSn), a pojedini su napravljeni od posebne legure bakra s visokom koncentracijom kalaja od 10% do 310%, dok su neki sadržali i olovo (Pb 25%), antimon (Sb manje od 5%%) ili veoma malu količinu kalaja. Iz prethodne rasprave možemo zaključiti da su nakovnji predstavljali nezaobilazne delove kovačke opreme za izradu metalnih predmeta manjih ili većih dimenzija. Najbolja ilustracija za opremu jednog kovača jeste ostava Génelard iz Francuske (Fig. 18), sa setom alata za izradu različitih vrsta upotrebnih predmeta i nakita. U susedstvu Srbije najznačajnija je ostava Boljanić (BiH), a našu vezu sa Podunavljem predstavljaju ostave Nadap (u Mađarskoj) i Fratelia (u Rumuniji). Tokom bronzanog doba nakovnji su takođe bili neophodni i prilikom stvaranja i obrade predmeta od zlata, o čemu u nekoliko slučajeva svedoče nalazi: "North Sligo" (no. 79); Lusmagh (no. 78, Irska); Lichfield (no. 117, Engleska) i Fresné-la-Mère (no. 27, Normandija). To potvrđuju tragovi zlatnih čestica otkriveni na nakovnju iz LachenSpeyerdorf-a (no. 51, Jugozapadna Nemačka), ali se smatra da su primerci iz ostava Fresné-la-Mère (Normandija) i Velim (no. 9, Istočna Češka) takođe imali veze sa obradom zlata. Na kraju možemo zaključiti da su predstavljeni nakovnji iz bronzanog doba pretežno korišćeni za obradu manjih predmeta, izradu ornamenata i za modelovanje predmeta u obliku žice, traka i plastične dekoracije od bronze, srebra i zlata. Na njima su se mogle ne samo praviti oštrice alata i oružja već i dodatno oštriti. Najveći broj nakovanja nađen je u okviru ostava, a samo šest u kontekstu grobova. Oni su usled veće količine bronze, od koje su morali da budu napravljeni, verovatno imali veću vrednost, pa su se prenosili nasledstvom sa oca na sina. U tom bi smislu trebalo posmatrati i nalaz sa nekropole Velebit, odnosno - da je sa kovačem iz bronzanog doba pohranjen samo fragmentovani kalup, a ne ceo nakovanj., During the first excavations of the cemetery dating from the Bronze Age and Early Antiquity in the village of Velebit near Kanjiža (Northern Serbia) one of the excavated artefacts was found to belong to a used and broken stone mould for casting anvils. However, without an expert archaeologist to supervise the recovery of this find, which remained unknown for decades after its discovery, as a starting point, the authors of this article present a synthesis that takes into account several aspects of this significant class of metalcraft object. This proceeds from the history of the excavation to the general role of European Bronze Age anvils in gold and bronze metalworking, and then further on to their typological, terminological, chronological and functional analysis and to their long-range distribution as a sign of an interregional network of craftsmen, including their social context and symbolism.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Livački kalupi iz Velebita i metalni nakovnji iz Bronzanog doba u Evropi, The moulds from Velebit and European Bronze Age metal anvils",
pages = "178-139",
number = "69",
doi = "10.2298/STa1969139a",
url = "conv_116"
}
Armbruster, B., Jockenhövel, A., Kapuran, A.,& Ramadanski, R.. (2019). Livački kalupi iz Velebita i metalni nakovnji iz Bronzanog doba u Evropi. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(69), 139-178.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STa1969139a
conv_116
Armbruster B, Jockenhövel A, Kapuran A, Ramadanski R. Livački kalupi iz Velebita i metalni nakovnji iz Bronzanog doba u Evropi. in Starinar. 2019;(69):139-178.
doi:10.2298/STa1969139a
conv_116 .
Armbruster, Barbara, Jockenhövel, Albrecht, Kapuran, Aleksandar, Ramadanski, Raško, "Livački kalupi iz Velebita i metalni nakovnji iz Bronzanog doba u Evropi" in Starinar, no. 69 (2019):139-178,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STa1969139a .,
conv_116 .
1

Novi prilozi za stratigrafiju starijeg gvozdenog doba na lokalitetu Hisar u leskovcu (Sektor I)

Kapuran, Aleksandar

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2018)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
PY  - 2018
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/288
AB  - Posle više od dve decenije istraživanja na lokalitetu Hisar u Leskovcu pokazala se potreba za revizijom nekih zaključaka kao i gledišta na kulturnu stratigrafiju ovog višeslojnog lokaliteta na kome je konstatovano naselje iz poznog bronzanog doba (brnjička kulturna grupa Br C/D Na L1), gvozdenog doba I (Na L 2-V 2) i gvozdenog doba III (VI-V vek pre n. e.), kasne antike i srednjeg veka. Cilj ovoga rada jeste da se ukaže na ozbiljne greške koje su u prvom redu nastale usled prenebregavanja uticaja raznih faktora - prirodnih i antropogenih procesa, erozija, posledica bombardovanja iz II sv. rata, kao i nedovoljnog poznavanja tehnologije praistorijske metalurgije - koji su doveli do niza pogrešnih zaključaka o kulturnoj stratigrafiji na Sektoru I, i to počevši od istraživanja iz 1999. godine pa do onih iz 2006. (sl. 1). Početničke greške u interpretaciji rezultata iz kampanje 1999. godine načinio je autor ovoga rada stoga što nije obratio pažnju na činjenicu da postoji visok procenat pomešanih nalaza keramičke produkcije sa karakteristikama i brnjičke i Belegiš II-Gava kulture u istim kontekstima, odnosno u sva 4 kulturna horizonta, koji su se prilično jasno ocrtavali na profilu a-B . Analizirajući u svom radu iz 2001. godine keramičke nalaze iz sonde 1/99, a. Kapuran nije uzeo u obzir činjenicu da su stratumi I-IV mogli nastati i dejstvom intenzivnih erozionih procesa koji idu iz pravca viših kota brda Hisar (platoa Sektora III), budući da se sonda nalazila na središnjem delu najstrmije padine sa istočne strane lokaliteta (sl. 1). Ova greška postala je očigledna tek 2006. godine, kada su preduzeta obimna istraživanja sondi I (površine 25 m x 8 m) i II te sonde Put na Sektoru I. Istraživanja iz 2006. godine pokazala su da jedini siguran i stratigrafski definisan objekat iz starijih horizonata predstavlja Objekat 14, u kome su se, jedna pored druge, nalazile sekira od gvožđa (tip plosnate sekire sa krilcima) i šuplja bronzana sekira kelt, koja se datuje najranije u Na B/B2, odnosno u 9. vek pre n. e. Istraživanja na Sektoru I iz 2006. godine dovela su do otkrića nadzemnog stambenog objekta (označenog kao Obj. 44+17/06) (sl. 2) koji, prema nalazima keramike na njegovoj osnovi, pripada Ha A2-B1 - kao što su prethodno konstatovali Bulatović i Jović. U manjoj depresiji u zdravici (Objekat 33/06) (sl. 2), koja je ujedno predstavljala gaznu površinu u kući, u istom kontekstu otkrivena je keramika starije faze Brnjice sa kraja bronzanog doba (T. II/1-4) i gvozdenog doba Ha A2-B1 (T. II/5-9). Na južnom delu poda kuće nalazila se grupa keramike (Objekat 29) i u njoj je, među izmešanim nalazima brnjičke (T. I/1-4) i kanelovane keramike (T. I/5-12), u VIII o. s. in situ otkrivena konična zdela ukrašena kosim kanelurama karakterističnim za XI i X vek pre n. e. - prema Bulatoviću (sl. 2). Kontroverzni nalaz Turovićeve igle, kao primer "najstarije metalurgije gvožđa", takođe treba kritički i u realnom svetlu sagledati i pritom uzeti u obzir navedene greške. U radu iz 2002. godine M. Stojić navodi da je Turovićeva igla otkrivena "u dnu profila sonde 1/99" - prema navodima Šćepana Turovića, koji je ovaj predmet doneo u Muzej. Već u sledećem radu navodi se da isti predmet potiče "iz sloja čija je relativna hronologija pouzdano utvrđena (tj. nema vidljivih ukopavanja iz mlađih horizonata)", i datuje se "u XIII ili XII vek pre n. e.", da bi u sledećem radu isti predmet bio datovan u XIV vek pre n. e. Tokom 2003. i 2005. godine, arheološka istraživanja bila su fokusirana na prostor oko mesta gde je igla navodno "pronađena" (sl. 1/sonda 2005). Kao rezultati tih istraživanja prezentovane su u radu iz 2006. godine fotografije sa osnovama "metalurških" peći (sa kraja bronzanog doba), zatim metalične šljake, kao i brojni rastirači koji mogu da se koriste u fazi pripreme rude gvožđa za dali proces topljenja. Zabunu izaziva i tvrdnja da metalurške peći poseduju kalotu, što je neuobičajen, a možemo reći i jedinstven slučaj za topioničarske peći iz praistorije, budući da je do sada poznata jedino forma zakošenog cilindra bez kalote, što Tylecot i Pleiner ilustruju u radovima vezanim za praistorijsku metalurgiju. Kao nalazi od gvožđa prikazano je nekoliko predmeta koji su se takođe nalazili na podnicama peći sa kalotom, ali oni tipološki mogu pripadati i drugim, hronološki mlađim kulturama na Sektoru I. Takođe, ostali smo uskraćeni za klučne informacije o preciznijoj ubikaciji ovih objekata, o nadmorskim visinama, za fotografije zatečene situacije ili za neki tehnički crtež. Smatramo da bi za zaklučak da je u pitanju praistorijska metalurgija gvožđa potrebno izvršiti fizičko-hemijske analize šljaka, od kojih inače komad predstavlen na fotografiji 5a nema precizno definisan arheološki kontekst i nađen je veoma blizu zdravice na prostoru sonde Put, oko 50 m dale od navedenih peći. Možda poreklo Turovićeve gvozdene igle treba tražiti u periodu turske dominacije na centralnom Balkanu, budući da prema dimenzijama, materijalu i tehnici kovanja najviše sličnosti pokazuje sa derviškim iglama kojima su se pripadnici derviškog reda probadali u ritualnom transu. U prilog ovoj tvrdnji možemo navesti nalaz gvozdene igle velikih dimenzija nađene na prostoru opustelog nasela Pazarište, u severnom podgrađu turskog utvrđenja Svrlig-grad.
AB  - Archaeological research at the site of Hisar in Leskovac began more than a decade ago and has initiated numerous papers on the relationship between the Mediana and Brnjica cultural groups and cultures that marked the transition from the Bronze to the Early Iron Age in the Central Balkans. This paper seeks to highlight and correct some of the key mistakes which have emerged in the stratigraphic interpretation of this multi-horizon site, and in such a way contribute to the better understanding of cultural movements at the transition from the 2nd to the 1st millennium BC.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Novi prilozi za stratigrafiju starijeg gvozdenog doba na lokalitetu Hisar u leskovcu (Sektor I)
T1  - New contributions for the Early Iron Age stratigraphy at the site of Hisar in Leskovac (Sector I)
EP  - 20
IS  - 68
SP  - 9
DO  - 10.2298/STA1767009K
UR  - conv_105
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Kapuran, Aleksandar",
year = "2018",
abstract = "Posle više od dve decenije istraživanja na lokalitetu Hisar u Leskovcu pokazala se potreba za revizijom nekih zaključaka kao i gledišta na kulturnu stratigrafiju ovog višeslojnog lokaliteta na kome je konstatovano naselje iz poznog bronzanog doba (brnjička kulturna grupa Br C/D Na L1), gvozdenog doba I (Na L 2-V 2) i gvozdenog doba III (VI-V vek pre n. e.), kasne antike i srednjeg veka. Cilj ovoga rada jeste da se ukaže na ozbiljne greške koje su u prvom redu nastale usled prenebregavanja uticaja raznih faktora - prirodnih i antropogenih procesa, erozija, posledica bombardovanja iz II sv. rata, kao i nedovoljnog poznavanja tehnologije praistorijske metalurgije - koji su doveli do niza pogrešnih zaključaka o kulturnoj stratigrafiji na Sektoru I, i to počevši od istraživanja iz 1999. godine pa do onih iz 2006. (sl. 1). Početničke greške u interpretaciji rezultata iz kampanje 1999. godine načinio je autor ovoga rada stoga što nije obratio pažnju na činjenicu da postoji visok procenat pomešanih nalaza keramičke produkcije sa karakteristikama i brnjičke i Belegiš II-Gava kulture u istim kontekstima, odnosno u sva 4 kulturna horizonta, koji su se prilično jasno ocrtavali na profilu a-B . Analizirajući u svom radu iz 2001. godine keramičke nalaze iz sonde 1/99, a. Kapuran nije uzeo u obzir činjenicu da su stratumi I-IV mogli nastati i dejstvom intenzivnih erozionih procesa koji idu iz pravca viših kota brda Hisar (platoa Sektora III), budući da se sonda nalazila na središnjem delu najstrmije padine sa istočne strane lokaliteta (sl. 1). Ova greška postala je očigledna tek 2006. godine, kada su preduzeta obimna istraživanja sondi I (površine 25 m x 8 m) i II te sonde Put na Sektoru I. Istraživanja iz 2006. godine pokazala su da jedini siguran i stratigrafski definisan objekat iz starijih horizonata predstavlja Objekat 14, u kome su se, jedna pored druge, nalazile sekira od gvožđa (tip plosnate sekire sa krilcima) i šuplja bronzana sekira kelt, koja se datuje najranije u Na B/B2, odnosno u 9. vek pre n. e. Istraživanja na Sektoru I iz 2006. godine dovela su do otkrića nadzemnog stambenog objekta (označenog kao Obj. 44+17/06) (sl. 2) koji, prema nalazima keramike na njegovoj osnovi, pripada Ha A2-B1 - kao što su prethodno konstatovali Bulatović i Jović. U manjoj depresiji u zdravici (Objekat 33/06) (sl. 2), koja je ujedno predstavljala gaznu površinu u kući, u istom kontekstu otkrivena je keramika starije faze Brnjice sa kraja bronzanog doba (T. II/1-4) i gvozdenog doba Ha A2-B1 (T. II/5-9). Na južnom delu poda kuće nalazila se grupa keramike (Objekat 29) i u njoj je, među izmešanim nalazima brnjičke (T. I/1-4) i kanelovane keramike (T. I/5-12), u VIII o. s. in situ otkrivena konična zdela ukrašena kosim kanelurama karakterističnim za XI i X vek pre n. e. - prema Bulatoviću (sl. 2). Kontroverzni nalaz Turovićeve igle, kao primer "najstarije metalurgije gvožđa", takođe treba kritički i u realnom svetlu sagledati i pritom uzeti u obzir navedene greške. U radu iz 2002. godine M. Stojić navodi da je Turovićeva igla otkrivena "u dnu profila sonde 1/99" - prema navodima Šćepana Turovića, koji je ovaj predmet doneo u Muzej. Već u sledećem radu navodi se da isti predmet potiče "iz sloja čija je relativna hronologija pouzdano utvrđena (tj. nema vidljivih ukopavanja iz mlađih horizonata)", i datuje se "u XIII ili XII vek pre n. e.", da bi u sledećem radu isti predmet bio datovan u XIV vek pre n. e. Tokom 2003. i 2005. godine, arheološka istraživanja bila su fokusirana na prostor oko mesta gde je igla navodno "pronađena" (sl. 1/sonda 2005). Kao rezultati tih istraživanja prezentovane su u radu iz 2006. godine fotografije sa osnovama "metalurških" peći (sa kraja bronzanog doba), zatim metalične šljake, kao i brojni rastirači koji mogu da se koriste u fazi pripreme rude gvožđa za dali proces topljenja. Zabunu izaziva i tvrdnja da metalurške peći poseduju kalotu, što je neuobičajen, a možemo reći i jedinstven slučaj za topioničarske peći iz praistorije, budući da je do sada poznata jedino forma zakošenog cilindra bez kalote, što Tylecot i Pleiner ilustruju u radovima vezanim za praistorijsku metalurgiju. Kao nalazi od gvožđa prikazano je nekoliko predmeta koji su se takođe nalazili na podnicama peći sa kalotom, ali oni tipološki mogu pripadati i drugim, hronološki mlađim kulturama na Sektoru I. Takođe, ostali smo uskraćeni za klučne informacije o preciznijoj ubikaciji ovih objekata, o nadmorskim visinama, za fotografije zatečene situacije ili za neki tehnički crtež. Smatramo da bi za zaklučak da je u pitanju praistorijska metalurgija gvožđa potrebno izvršiti fizičko-hemijske analize šljaka, od kojih inače komad predstavlen na fotografiji 5a nema precizno definisan arheološki kontekst i nađen je veoma blizu zdravice na prostoru sonde Put, oko 50 m dale od navedenih peći. Možda poreklo Turovićeve gvozdene igle treba tražiti u periodu turske dominacije na centralnom Balkanu, budući da prema dimenzijama, materijalu i tehnici kovanja najviše sličnosti pokazuje sa derviškim iglama kojima su se pripadnici derviškog reda probadali u ritualnom transu. U prilog ovoj tvrdnji možemo navesti nalaz gvozdene igle velikih dimenzija nađene na prostoru opustelog nasela Pazarište, u severnom podgrađu turskog utvrđenja Svrlig-grad., Archaeological research at the site of Hisar in Leskovac began more than a decade ago and has initiated numerous papers on the relationship between the Mediana and Brnjica cultural groups and cultures that marked the transition from the Bronze to the Early Iron Age in the Central Balkans. This paper seeks to highlight and correct some of the key mistakes which have emerged in the stratigraphic interpretation of this multi-horizon site, and in such a way contribute to the better understanding of cultural movements at the transition from the 2nd to the 1st millennium BC.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Novi prilozi za stratigrafiju starijeg gvozdenog doba na lokalitetu Hisar u leskovcu (Sektor I), New contributions for the Early Iron Age stratigraphy at the site of Hisar in Leskovac (Sector I)",
pages = "20-9",
number = "68",
doi = "10.2298/STA1767009K",
url = "conv_105"
}
Kapuran, A.. (2018). Novi prilozi za stratigrafiju starijeg gvozdenog doba na lokalitetu Hisar u leskovcu (Sektor I). in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(68), 9-20.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1767009K
conv_105
Kapuran A. Novi prilozi za stratigrafiju starijeg gvozdenog doba na lokalitetu Hisar u leskovcu (Sektor I). in Starinar. 2018;(68):9-20.
doi:10.2298/STA1767009K
conv_105 .
Kapuran, Aleksandar, "Novi prilozi za stratigrafiju starijeg gvozdenog doba na lokalitetu Hisar u leskovcu (Sektor I)" in Starinar, no. 68 (2018):9-20,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1767009K .,
conv_105 .

Jewellery made of bronze sheets from the prehistoric necropolis at the village of Velebit, near Kanjiža

Kapuran, Aleksandar

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2018)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
PY  - 2018
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/295
AB  - In 1970, a Bronze Age necropolis in the village of Velebit to the north of
   Vojvodina was fully explored, but has remained unpublished until today. Apart
   from possessing all of the features of a Hügelgräber culture complex, some
   finds indicate connections to the Belegiš - Cruceni culture, developed at the
   very south of the Carpathian basin. In this paper, we shall present only some
   of the most attractive finds from the necropolis, including jewellery made of
   bronze sheets. They include spiral greaves, a belt and finger-rings. The
   remaining finds shall be presented in a monograph that is being planned.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Jewellery made of bronze sheets from the prehistoric necropolis at the village of Velebit, near Kanjiža
EP  - 45
IS  - 68
SP  - 33
DO  - 10.2298/STA1868033K
UR  - conv_638
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Kapuran, Aleksandar",
year = "2018",
abstract = "In 1970, a Bronze Age necropolis in the village of Velebit to the north of
   Vojvodina was fully explored, but has remained unpublished until today. Apart
   from possessing all of the features of a Hügelgräber culture complex, some
   finds indicate connections to the Belegiš - Cruceni culture, developed at the
   very south of the Carpathian basin. In this paper, we shall present only some
   of the most attractive finds from the necropolis, including jewellery made of
   bronze sheets. They include spiral greaves, a belt and finger-rings. The
   remaining finds shall be presented in a monograph that is being planned.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Jewellery made of bronze sheets from the prehistoric necropolis at the village of Velebit, near Kanjiža",
pages = "45-33",
number = "68",
doi = "10.2298/STA1868033K",
url = "conv_638"
}
Kapuran, A.. (2018). Jewellery made of bronze sheets from the prehistoric necropolis at the village of Velebit, near Kanjiža. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(68), 33-45.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1868033K
conv_638
Kapuran A. Jewellery made of bronze sheets from the prehistoric necropolis at the village of Velebit, near Kanjiža. in Starinar. 2018;(68):33-45.
doi:10.2298/STA1868033K
conv_638 .
Kapuran, Aleksandar, "Jewellery made of bronze sheets from the prehistoric necropolis at the village of Velebit, near Kanjiža" in Starinar, no. 68 (2018):33-45,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1868033K .,
conv_638 .

New evidence for prehistoric copper metallurgy in the vicinity of Bor

Kapuran, Aleksandar; Živković, Dragana; Štrbac, Nada

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2016)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
AU  - Živković, Dragana
AU  - Štrbac, Nada
PY  - 2016
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/253
AB  - The last three years of archaeological investigations at the site Ru`ana in
   Banjsko Polje, in the immediate vicinity of Bor, have provided new evidence
   regarding the role of non-ferrous metallurgy in the economy of the
   prehistoric communities of north-eastern Serbia. The remains of metallurgical
   furnaces and a large amount of metallic slags at two neighbouring sites in
   the mentioned settlement reveal that locations with many installations for
   the thermal processing of copper ore existed in the Bronze Age. We believe,
   judging by the finds of material culture, that metallurgical activities in
   this area also continued into the Iron Age and, possibly, into the 4th
   century AD.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - New evidence for prehistoric copper metallurgy in the vicinity of Bor
EP  - 191
IS  - 66
SP  - 173
DO  - 10.2298/STA1666173K
UR  - conv_634
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Kapuran, Aleksandar and Živković, Dragana and Štrbac, Nada",
year = "2016",
abstract = "The last three years of archaeological investigations at the site Ru`ana in
   Banjsko Polje, in the immediate vicinity of Bor, have provided new evidence
   regarding the role of non-ferrous metallurgy in the economy of the
   prehistoric communities of north-eastern Serbia. The remains of metallurgical
   furnaces and a large amount of metallic slags at two neighbouring sites in
   the mentioned settlement reveal that locations with many installations for
   the thermal processing of copper ore existed in the Bronze Age. We believe,
   judging by the finds of material culture, that metallurgical activities in
   this area also continued into the Iron Age and, possibly, into the 4th
   century AD.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "New evidence for prehistoric copper metallurgy in the vicinity of Bor",
pages = "191-173",
number = "66",
doi = "10.2298/STA1666173K",
url = "conv_634"
}
Kapuran, A., Živković, D.,& Štrbac, N.. (2016). New evidence for prehistoric copper metallurgy in the vicinity of Bor. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(66), 173-191.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1666173K
conv_634
Kapuran A, Živković D, Štrbac N. New evidence for prehistoric copper metallurgy in the vicinity of Bor. in Starinar. 2016;(66):173-191.
doi:10.2298/STA1666173K
conv_634 .
Kapuran, Aleksandar, Živković, Dragana, Štrbac, Nada, "New evidence for prehistoric copper metallurgy in the vicinity of Bor" in Starinar, no. 66 (2016):173-191,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1666173K .,
conv_634 .
1

Cultural contacts between communities of southwestern Romania and the central Balkans in the fourth millennium BC

Bulatović, Aleksandar; Kapuran, Aleksandar

(Dept. of History, Archeology and Museology, Univ. of Alba Iulia, 2016)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
PY  - 2016
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/250
AB  - At the beginning of fourth millennium BC, after the disintegration of the Bubanj-Sǎlcuţa-Krivodol cultural complex, the so-called Transitional period from the Eneolithic to the Bronze Age began in the territory of Oltenia (western Bulgaria and Serbia). We still lack a lot of data about this period. In northwestern Bulgaria this period is defined by the Galatin group, and in Romania by the Sǎlcuţa IV group, while in Serbia it is almost completely unknown. Stratigraphical observations from new excavations (2008 to 2014) at the Bubanj site near Niš in southeastern Serbia suggest that elements of Bubanj-Hum I culture lasted longer there than in Oltenia and western Bulgaria, and that the hiatus between this culture and the Cernavodǎ III culture was very short. Excavations at the Mokranjske stene site in eastern Serbia, where the Coţofeni cultural layer lies directly above the Bubanj-Hum I culture layer, provide similar evidence. After this period, i.e. in the last quarter of the fourth millennium, it is possible again to notice some kind of cultural integration in the territory where the BSK complex previously existed. Across the vast territory from Transylvania in the north, across the Oltenia and eastern Serbia to southeastern Serbia to the south, almost identical stylistic and typological elements can be observed in the pottery record. According to recent absolute dates from Serbian sites, this cultural phenomenon can be chronologically defined starting from the end of the third quarter of fourth millennium BC, namely Cernavodǎ III culture. The situation is similar in the next period (last quarter of the fourth and first quarter of the third millennium BC), when Coţofeni and Kostolac societies met in the area of the Iron Gates and eastern Serbia, creating a new cultural phenomenon defined as Coţofeni-Kostolac culture. A significant proportion of the stylistic and typological elements of this culture are identical to those originating on Coţofeni territories in Oltenia and Transylvania. The impacts of these cultures reached far to the south, all the way to the Aegean coast, but in the late Eneolithic, Vucedol culture came to be a significant influence on the cultural milieu of the central Balkans. On the other hand, after the demise of Vucedol culture (second half of the third millennium BC), the Balkans became largely influenced by Aegean civilisation, which significantly contributed to the appearance of early Bronze Age cultures in the Balkans.
PB  - Dept. of History, Archeology and Museology, Univ. of Alba Iulia
T2  - Annales Universitatis Apulensis. Series Historica
T1  - Cultural contacts between communities of southwestern Romania and the central Balkans in the fourth millennium BC
EP  - 201 and 402
IS  - 2
SP  - 183
VL  - 20
UR  - conv_549
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bulatović, Aleksandar and Kapuran, Aleksandar",
year = "2016",
abstract = "At the beginning of fourth millennium BC, after the disintegration of the Bubanj-Sǎlcuţa-Krivodol cultural complex, the so-called Transitional period from the Eneolithic to the Bronze Age began in the territory of Oltenia (western Bulgaria and Serbia). We still lack a lot of data about this period. In northwestern Bulgaria this period is defined by the Galatin group, and in Romania by the Sǎlcuţa IV group, while in Serbia it is almost completely unknown. Stratigraphical observations from new excavations (2008 to 2014) at the Bubanj site near Niš in southeastern Serbia suggest that elements of Bubanj-Hum I culture lasted longer there than in Oltenia and western Bulgaria, and that the hiatus between this culture and the Cernavodǎ III culture was very short. Excavations at the Mokranjske stene site in eastern Serbia, where the Coţofeni cultural layer lies directly above the Bubanj-Hum I culture layer, provide similar evidence. After this period, i.e. in the last quarter of the fourth millennium, it is possible again to notice some kind of cultural integration in the territory where the BSK complex previously existed. Across the vast territory from Transylvania in the north, across the Oltenia and eastern Serbia to southeastern Serbia to the south, almost identical stylistic and typological elements can be observed in the pottery record. According to recent absolute dates from Serbian sites, this cultural phenomenon can be chronologically defined starting from the end of the third quarter of fourth millennium BC, namely Cernavodǎ III culture. The situation is similar in the next period (last quarter of the fourth and first quarter of the third millennium BC), when Coţofeni and Kostolac societies met in the area of the Iron Gates and eastern Serbia, creating a new cultural phenomenon defined as Coţofeni-Kostolac culture. A significant proportion of the stylistic and typological elements of this culture are identical to those originating on Coţofeni territories in Oltenia and Transylvania. The impacts of these cultures reached far to the south, all the way to the Aegean coast, but in the late Eneolithic, Vucedol culture came to be a significant influence on the cultural milieu of the central Balkans. On the other hand, after the demise of Vucedol culture (second half of the third millennium BC), the Balkans became largely influenced by Aegean civilisation, which significantly contributed to the appearance of early Bronze Age cultures in the Balkans.",
publisher = "Dept. of History, Archeology and Museology, Univ. of Alba Iulia",
journal = "Annales Universitatis Apulensis. Series Historica",
title = "Cultural contacts between communities of southwestern Romania and the central Balkans in the fourth millennium BC",
pages = "201 and 402-183",
number = "2",
volume = "20",
url = "conv_549"
}
Bulatović, A.,& Kapuran, A.. (2016). Cultural contacts between communities of southwestern Romania and the central Balkans in the fourth millennium BC. in Annales Universitatis Apulensis. Series Historica
Dept. of History, Archeology and Museology, Univ. of Alba Iulia., 20(2), 183-201 and 402.
conv_549
Bulatović A, Kapuran A. Cultural contacts between communities of southwestern Romania and the central Balkans in the fourth millennium BC. in Annales Universitatis Apulensis. Series Historica. 2016;20(2):183-201 and 402.
conv_549 .
Bulatović, Aleksandar, Kapuran, Aleksandar, "Cultural contacts between communities of southwestern Romania and the central Balkans in the fourth millennium BC" in Annales Universitatis Apulensis. Series Historica, 20, no. 2 (2016):183-201 and 402,
conv_549 .
2

Settlements and necropolises of the Early Iron Age along the middle course of the Nišava river

Kapuran, Aleksandar; Blagojević, Mirjana; Bizjak, Dragica

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2015)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
AU  - Blagojević, Mirjana
AU  - Bizjak, Dragica
PY  - 2015
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/224
AB  - As a result of the rescue archaeological investigations conducted along the
   E-80 motorway route, around the middle course of the Nišava river, from
   Sićevo Gorge to Dimitrovgrad, several sites from the Early Iron Age were
   discovered. At the same time, two caves located on the margins of this
   natural transportation route which links the Morava Valley and the Sofia
   Basin were explored. This paper comprises all the relevant finds of the
   material culture from Bela Palanka, Pirot and Dimitrovgrad, and sepulchral
   architecture and funerary customs practised during Hallstatt C and D. The aim
   of the paper is to indicate the influences of the Basarabi and Pšeničevo
   material culture in the territories assumed to have been inhabited by the
   Thracian and Illyrian tribes, which may help with the more accurate
   pinpointing of the demarcations between the Triballi, Thracians and
   Paeonians.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Settlements and necropolises of the Early Iron Age along the middle course of the Nišava river
EP  - 181
IS  - 65
SP  - 145
DO  - 10.2298/STA1565145K
UR  - conv_718
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Kapuran, Aleksandar and Blagojević, Mirjana and Bizjak, Dragica",
year = "2015",
abstract = "As a result of the rescue archaeological investigations conducted along the
   E-80 motorway route, around the middle course of the Nišava river, from
   Sićevo Gorge to Dimitrovgrad, several sites from the Early Iron Age were
   discovered. At the same time, two caves located on the margins of this
   natural transportation route which links the Morava Valley and the Sofia
   Basin were explored. This paper comprises all the relevant finds of the
   material culture from Bela Palanka, Pirot and Dimitrovgrad, and sepulchral
   architecture and funerary customs practised during Hallstatt C and D. The aim
   of the paper is to indicate the influences of the Basarabi and Pšeničevo
   material culture in the territories assumed to have been inhabited by the
   Thracian and Illyrian tribes, which may help with the more accurate
   pinpointing of the demarcations between the Triballi, Thracians and
   Paeonians.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Settlements and necropolises of the Early Iron Age along the middle course of the Nišava river",
pages = "181-145",
number = "65",
doi = "10.2298/STA1565145K",
url = "conv_718"
}
Kapuran, A., Blagojević, M.,& Bizjak, D.. (2015). Settlements and necropolises of the Early Iron Age along the middle course of the Nišava river. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(65), 145-181.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1565145K
conv_718
Kapuran A, Blagojević M, Bizjak D. Settlements and necropolises of the Early Iron Age along the middle course of the Nišava river. in Starinar. 2015;(65):145-181.
doi:10.2298/STA1565145K
conv_718 .
Kapuran, Aleksandar, Blagojević, Mirjana, Bizjak, Dragica, "Settlements and necropolises of the Early Iron Age along the middle course of the Nišava river" in Starinar, no. 65 (2015):145-181,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1565145K .,
conv_718 .
1

Über einige Tüllenbeilvarianten im Zentralbalkan

Gavranović, Mario; Kapuran, Aleksandar

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2014)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Gavranović, Mario
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
PY  - 2014
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/217
AB  - Im Rahmen der Vorbereitung für die Gesamtdarstellung der bronzenen Beile aus
   Serbien konnten einige lokale Formen mit einem begrenzten Verbreitungsradius
   verzeichnet werden. Es handelt sich in erster Linie um mehrere Varianten der
   Tüllenbeile mit einer arkadenförmigen Facettierung auf dem Beilkörper, einer
   seitlichen Öse und einem verstärkten Tüllenwulst mit horizontalen Rippen
   darunter. Im Bezug auf die Typologie, Verbreitung und den kultur-historischen
   Kontext sind die meisten der hier präsentierten Funde bislang unzureichend
   beschrieben. Die charakteristischen Tüllenbeile lassen sich vermutlich als
   Produkte der Werkstätte im Zentralbalkan interpretieren. Wichtig in diesem
   Zusammenhang sind noch prähistorische Kupferbergwerke, die im
   Verbreitungsraum der umschriebenen Beile liegen.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Über einige Tüllenbeilvarianten im Zentralbalkan
EP  - 56
IS  - 64
SP  - 31
DO  - 10.2298/STA1464031G
UR  - conv_737
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Gavranović, Mario and Kapuran, Aleksandar",
year = "2014",
abstract = "Im Rahmen der Vorbereitung für die Gesamtdarstellung der bronzenen Beile aus
   Serbien konnten einige lokale Formen mit einem begrenzten Verbreitungsradius
   verzeichnet werden. Es handelt sich in erster Linie um mehrere Varianten der
   Tüllenbeile mit einer arkadenförmigen Facettierung auf dem Beilkörper, einer
   seitlichen Öse und einem verstärkten Tüllenwulst mit horizontalen Rippen
   darunter. Im Bezug auf die Typologie, Verbreitung und den kultur-historischen
   Kontext sind die meisten der hier präsentierten Funde bislang unzureichend
   beschrieben. Die charakteristischen Tüllenbeile lassen sich vermutlich als
   Produkte der Werkstätte im Zentralbalkan interpretieren. Wichtig in diesem
   Zusammenhang sind noch prähistorische Kupferbergwerke, die im
   Verbreitungsraum der umschriebenen Beile liegen.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Über einige Tüllenbeilvarianten im Zentralbalkan",
pages = "56-31",
number = "64",
doi = "10.2298/STA1464031G",
url = "conv_737"
}
Gavranović, M.,& Kapuran, A.. (2014). Über einige Tüllenbeilvarianten im Zentralbalkan. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(64), 31-56.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1464031G
conv_737
Gavranović M, Kapuran A. Über einige Tüllenbeilvarianten im Zentralbalkan. in Starinar. 2014;(64):31-56.
doi:10.2298/STA1464031G
conv_737 .
Gavranović, Mario, Kapuran, Aleksandar, "Über einige Tüllenbeilvarianten im Zentralbalkan" in Starinar, no. 64 (2014):31-56,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1464031G .,
conv_737 .

Kriveljski kamen - Bunar - nekropola urnenfelder kulture u okolini Bora

Kapuran, Aleksandar; Miladinović-Radmilović, Nataša; Jovanović, Igor

(Narodni muzej, Beograd, 2013)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
AU  - Miladinović-Radmilović, Nataša
AU  - Jovanović, Igor
PY  - 2013
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/180
AB  - U neposrednoj blizini lokaliteta Čoka lu Balaš kod Krivelja, arheološka ekipa Muzeja rudarstva i metalurgije u Boru otkrila je nekropolu urnenfelder kulturne grupe, iz poznog bronzanog doba. Pored grobnih konstrukcija, u kulturnom sloju je nađena keramika iz poznog eneolita i starijeg gvozdenog doba. Ova nekropola sa spaljenim pokojnicima donosi nove podatke o funerarnim tradicijama metalurških zajednica koje su u bronzanom dobu naseljavale metalogenetski region između Bora i Majdanpeka.
AB  - Site Kriveljski Kamen - Bunar is located few hundred meters eastward of the hillfort settlement Čoka lu Balaš dating from the Middle and Late Eneolithic. Underneath medieval inhumation burials have been encountered circular stone structures with pottery urns, which are devastated by additional later burials. Prehistoric necropolis at the site Bunar considering the method of construction bears greatest resemblance to the necropolis Trnjane. Four structures with one urn each have been recorded during the excavation campaign. They were built on the rocky ground of marl where first the urn was dug in and then broken local gray stone was arranged making circular platform. Funerary structure 2 had in central zone also few flat limestone pebbles of rather large size that probably with its bright white color create the contrast with gray local stone. Within structures 3 and 4 besides gray local stone there were also rather large pieces of chalcopyrite rock and one rectangular piece of marl with natural netlike cracks. Although structure 4 is mostly devastated the urn was still preserved in situ in its bedding. Pottery finds in the cultural layer under and around these structures date from the Eneolithic period, i.e. from Coţofeni-Kostolac cultural circle and from the Basarabi culture of the Early Iron Age. Anthropological analysis revealed that in the urns had been deposited cremated remains of three adult individuals (urns 1, 3 and 4) and also skeletal remains of one juvenile (female?) individual (urn 3). Most interesting is certainly urn 3 where cremated and non-cremated bones were placed together. Their weight was almost identical (cremated bones are weighing 11.6 g and non-cremated 10.9 g), so it is possible that because of some unknown reason special care was taken that non-cremated bones are approximately of the same weight as cremated bones. This unusual ritual will probably be explained more precisely by future physicochemical analysis of the material. Necropolis Bunar near Krivelj belongs to the group of urnfield necropoleis where members of Late Bronze Age population in the Crni Timok river basin had been buried. It bears more resemblances to the necropoleis Trnjane and Hajdučka Česma near Brestovačka Banja and less to the necropolis Magura near Romuliana. Considering the geographic area of its location it probably belonged to the Bronze Age metallurgical communities, which inhabited territory between Bor and Majdanpek, i.e. the area richest in mineral raw materials in northeastern Serbia.
PB  - Narodni muzej, Beograd
T2  - Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija
T1  - Kriveljski kamen - Bunar - nekropola urnenfelder kulture u okolini Bora
T1  - Kriveljski kamen - Bunar: Necropolis of urnfield culture in the vicinity of Bor
EP  - 156
IS  - 21-1
SP  - 145
UR  - conv_204
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Kapuran, Aleksandar and Miladinović-Radmilović, Nataša and Jovanović, Igor",
year = "2013",
abstract = "U neposrednoj blizini lokaliteta Čoka lu Balaš kod Krivelja, arheološka ekipa Muzeja rudarstva i metalurgije u Boru otkrila je nekropolu urnenfelder kulturne grupe, iz poznog bronzanog doba. Pored grobnih konstrukcija, u kulturnom sloju je nađena keramika iz poznog eneolita i starijeg gvozdenog doba. Ova nekropola sa spaljenim pokojnicima donosi nove podatke o funerarnim tradicijama metalurških zajednica koje su u bronzanom dobu naseljavale metalogenetski region između Bora i Majdanpeka., Site Kriveljski Kamen - Bunar is located few hundred meters eastward of the hillfort settlement Čoka lu Balaš dating from the Middle and Late Eneolithic. Underneath medieval inhumation burials have been encountered circular stone structures with pottery urns, which are devastated by additional later burials. Prehistoric necropolis at the site Bunar considering the method of construction bears greatest resemblance to the necropolis Trnjane. Four structures with one urn each have been recorded during the excavation campaign. They were built on the rocky ground of marl where first the urn was dug in and then broken local gray stone was arranged making circular platform. Funerary structure 2 had in central zone also few flat limestone pebbles of rather large size that probably with its bright white color create the contrast with gray local stone. Within structures 3 and 4 besides gray local stone there were also rather large pieces of chalcopyrite rock and one rectangular piece of marl with natural netlike cracks. Although structure 4 is mostly devastated the urn was still preserved in situ in its bedding. Pottery finds in the cultural layer under and around these structures date from the Eneolithic period, i.e. from Coţofeni-Kostolac cultural circle and from the Basarabi culture of the Early Iron Age. Anthropological analysis revealed that in the urns had been deposited cremated remains of three adult individuals (urns 1, 3 and 4) and also skeletal remains of one juvenile (female?) individual (urn 3). Most interesting is certainly urn 3 where cremated and non-cremated bones were placed together. Their weight was almost identical (cremated bones are weighing 11.6 g and non-cremated 10.9 g), so it is possible that because of some unknown reason special care was taken that non-cremated bones are approximately of the same weight as cremated bones. This unusual ritual will probably be explained more precisely by future physicochemical analysis of the material. Necropolis Bunar near Krivelj belongs to the group of urnfield necropoleis where members of Late Bronze Age population in the Crni Timok river basin had been buried. It bears more resemblances to the necropoleis Trnjane and Hajdučka Česma near Brestovačka Banja and less to the necropolis Magura near Romuliana. Considering the geographic area of its location it probably belonged to the Bronze Age metallurgical communities, which inhabited territory between Bor and Majdanpek, i.e. the area richest in mineral raw materials in northeastern Serbia.",
publisher = "Narodni muzej, Beograd",
journal = "Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija",
title = "Kriveljski kamen - Bunar - nekropola urnenfelder kulture u okolini Bora, Kriveljski kamen - Bunar: Necropolis of urnfield culture in the vicinity of Bor",
pages = "156-145",
number = "21-1",
url = "conv_204"
}
Kapuran, A., Miladinović-Radmilović, N.,& Jovanović, I.. (2013). Kriveljski kamen - Bunar - nekropola urnenfelder kulture u okolini Bora. in Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija
Narodni muzej, Beograd.(21-1), 145-156.
conv_204
Kapuran A, Miladinović-Radmilović N, Jovanović I. Kriveljski kamen - Bunar - nekropola urnenfelder kulture u okolini Bora. in Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija. 2013;(21-1):145-156.
conv_204 .
Kapuran, Aleksandar, Miladinović-Radmilović, Nataša, Jovanović, Igor, "Kriveljski kamen - Bunar - nekropola urnenfelder kulture u okolini Bora" in Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija, no. 21-1 (2013):145-156,
conv_204 .

Praistorijski lokaliteti na trasi autoputa E 75 - prethodni izveštaj

Bulatović, Aleksandar; Kapuran, Aleksandar

(Narodni muzej, Leskovac, 2013)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
PY  - 2013
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/173
AB  - During the 2011 - 2012 The Archaeological Institute, Belgrade and the Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Philosophy in Belgrade conducted rescue excavations on a section of the E 75 Grabovnica near Leskovac and Bujanovac in Levosoj. Nine prehistoric sites, listed in this paper, were explored. Ranutovac, Meanište arch. site, Vranje (Map 1/1). The site contains the remains of people burned in funeral pyres, dates back to the Early Bronze Age(photo 1, Fig. 1-4), the village from the Early Iron Age(Fig. 5-7) and the settlement from the late phase of the early Iron Age (fig. 8-10). Donji Neradovac, Golo rebro arch. site, Vranje (Map 1/2); remains dates back to the Early Bronze Age(Fig. 11). Pavlovac, Kovačke njive site, Vranje (Map 1/3; 2 photos). Settlements from the Neolithic period (Starčevačka and The Vinča culture - photos 11, 12) and the Early Iron Age (Fig. 14, 15). Pavlovac, site Čukar, Vranje (Map 1/4). Settlements from the Neolithic period (Starčevačka and The Vinča culture) and the Early Iron Age. Pavlovac, site Gumnište Vranje (card 1/5). Settlements date back to the Middle and Late Neolithic. Davidovac, location site of the church, Vranje (Map 1/6). The settlement from the Early Iron Age (fig. 16-23). Davidovac, Gradište, Bujanovac (card 1/7). The burial dates back to the early Bronze Age settlements from the Late Bronze Age (fig. 24, 25) and the early Iron Age (fig. 26-28). Karadnik, Kamenjarke arch. site , Bujanovac (map 1/8). The settlement from the Early Iron Age. Oslare, Vučjak arch. site , Bujanovac (Map 1/9). The settlement dates back to the Early / late Iron Age.
PB  - Narodni muzej, Leskovac
T2  - Leskovački zbornik
T1  - Praistorijski lokaliteti na trasi autoputa E 75 - prethodni izveštaj
T1  - Prehistoric sites along highway 75 E: A preliminary report
EP  - 21
IS  - 53
SP  - 12
UR  - conv_281
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bulatović, Aleksandar and Kapuran, Aleksandar",
year = "2013",
abstract = "During the 2011 - 2012 The Archaeological Institute, Belgrade and the Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Philosophy in Belgrade conducted rescue excavations on a section of the E 75 Grabovnica near Leskovac and Bujanovac in Levosoj. Nine prehistoric sites, listed in this paper, were explored. Ranutovac, Meanište arch. site, Vranje (Map 1/1). The site contains the remains of people burned in funeral pyres, dates back to the Early Bronze Age(photo 1, Fig. 1-4), the village from the Early Iron Age(Fig. 5-7) and the settlement from the late phase of the early Iron Age (fig. 8-10). Donji Neradovac, Golo rebro arch. site, Vranje (Map 1/2); remains dates back to the Early Bronze Age(Fig. 11). Pavlovac, Kovačke njive site, Vranje (Map 1/3; 2 photos). Settlements from the Neolithic period (Starčevačka and The Vinča culture - photos 11, 12) and the Early Iron Age (Fig. 14, 15). Pavlovac, site Čukar, Vranje (Map 1/4). Settlements from the Neolithic period (Starčevačka and The Vinča culture) and the Early Iron Age. Pavlovac, site Gumnište Vranje (card 1/5). Settlements date back to the Middle and Late Neolithic. Davidovac, location site of the church, Vranje (Map 1/6). The settlement from the Early Iron Age (fig. 16-23). Davidovac, Gradište, Bujanovac (card 1/7). The burial dates back to the early Bronze Age settlements from the Late Bronze Age (fig. 24, 25) and the early Iron Age (fig. 26-28). Karadnik, Kamenjarke arch. site , Bujanovac (map 1/8). The settlement from the Early Iron Age. Oslare, Vučjak arch. site , Bujanovac (Map 1/9). The settlement dates back to the Early / late Iron Age.",
publisher = "Narodni muzej, Leskovac",
journal = "Leskovački zbornik",
title = "Praistorijski lokaliteti na trasi autoputa E 75 - prethodni izveštaj, Prehistoric sites along highway 75 E: A preliminary report",
pages = "21-12",
number = "53",
url = "conv_281"
}
Bulatović, A.,& Kapuran, A.. (2013). Praistorijski lokaliteti na trasi autoputa E 75 - prethodni izveštaj. in Leskovački zbornik
Narodni muzej, Leskovac.(53), 12-21.
conv_281
Bulatović A, Kapuran A. Praistorijski lokaliteti na trasi autoputa E 75 - prethodni izveštaj. in Leskovački zbornik. 2013;(53):12-21.
conv_281 .
Bulatović, Aleksandar, Kapuran, Aleksandar, "Praistorijski lokaliteti na trasi autoputa E 75 - prethodni izveštaj" in Leskovački zbornik, no. 53 (2013):12-21,
conv_281 .

Keramika poznog halštata u severoistočnoj Srbiji (VI-IV vek pre n. e.)

Kapuran, Aleksandar

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2013)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
PY  - 2013
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/174
AB  - Nalazišta poznog halštata, prema rasprostiranju na teritoriji Srbije možemo svrstati u pet kulturno-geografskih celina ili krugova: južnu Panoniju, Pomoravlje, istočnu Srbiju, zapadnu Srbiju, Kosovo i južnu Srbiju (južno Pomoravlje). Nalazištima na obodu južne Panonije, telskim naseljima Gradina na Bosutu (Bosut IVc), Feudvar kod Mošorina i Židovar kod Vršca, istraživači su posvetili najviše pažnje budući da se u konstatovanoj stratigrafiji ovaj horizont jasno izdvajao. Tipologiju keramike poznog halštata u severoistočnoj Srbiji predstavljaju: . šolje, plitke, konične, sa masivnom drškom većom od recipijenta; pojedini primeri su ukrašeni utiscima na obodu, urezanim horizontalnim linijama i ubadanjem (Pl. I/11; II/5,6; Pl. V/10; Pl. VI/1;6; Pl. X/1); šolje cilindrične sa visokom drškom (Pl. I/I/10); šolje blagobikonične sa cilindričnim vratom i zaobljenim ramenom (Pl. I/15; II/11,12; Pl. III/5; Pl. V/13), ukrašene urezanim linijama; pehari konični na niskoj stopi (Pl. II/20; Pl. X/2,3), oštro profilisanog oboda, ukrašeni jednom fasetom; pehari jednouhi sa kosim i razgrnutim obodom (Pl. III/5; Pl. X/7), masivnom drškom koja prelazi obod, u pojedinim slučajevima pravougaona stopa sa konkavnim udubljenjem (Pl. VII/5,7; Pl. X/4,5); pehari jednouhi, bikonični, zakošenog oboda ukrašenog urezima, kanelurama na trbuhu (Pl. I/13,14; Pl. II/7,8; Pl. IV/1-4; Pl. V/1); pehari jednouhi, bikonični sa visokom trakastom drškom ukrašenom parom protoma u vidu rogova (Pl. VII/8,9; Pl. X/12), ili jednog dugmetastog protoma (Pl. VII/11); pehari jednouhi (Pl. I/15,16; Pl. VII/6,10) ili dvouhi, trbušasti sa cilindričnim ili bikoničnim vratom, masivnim drškama koje prelaze obod, dobro uglačani (Pl. X/9,10) i ukrašeni kanelurama (Pl. Ia/19,21), urezima ili ubodima (Pl. I/15,16; Ia/18,19,21; VI/2,3,8; Pl. V/6,11; Pl. III/9); zdele poluloptaste ili konične ukrašene žljebom ispod oboda (Pl. I/12; V/5); zdele konične sa uvučenim obodom, bez ukrasa (Pl. I/1-3; II/1,2; Pl. V/8; VII/3,4; Pl. VIII/2); zdele sa horizontalno ili koso kanelovanim obodom, sa kanelurama koje se nalaze i u unutrašnjosti, sa urezanim ili uglačanim motivom (Pl. I/9; III/4,16; Pl. VIII/1; Pl. X/18); zdele uvučenog oboda sa jezičastim drškama (Pl. I/3,8) ili parom vertikalnih aplika. NA ramenu (Pl. I/2,7; IV/6; Pl. X/16), kao i kalemastim drškama na obodu (Pl. I/11,14; Pl. X/13-16), ili sa urezima u vidu cikcak linija (Pl. X/17); zdele bikonične, široko razgrnutog oboda (Pl. Ia/20,22; V/2), kanelovane (Pl. I/3; Pl. VI/7); lonci konični, neukrašeni (Pl. I/27; II/16; Pl. VII/1,2); lonci konični sa ojačanim obodom koji je ukrašen apliciranom trakom sa 'X' cikcak i urezima sa motivom mreže (Pl. Ia/28-30; III/10; Pl. VIII/3,4), nizom utisaka instrumentom (Pl. V/7) ili prstom (Pl. Ia/33-35); lonci konični sa proširenim trbuhom, ukrašeni urezivanjem (Pl. IV/7,12; Pl. VI/13), utiskivanjem prstom (Pl. I/26; III/10; Pl. IV/11), apliciranim horizontalnim (Pl. Ia/28,29; V/9; Pl. VI/14; Pl. VIII/5) i polumesečastim plastičnim trakama (Pl. II/15; Pl. IV/8 Pl. V/4; Pl. VIII/6) i jezičastim drškama (Pl. IV/9); poluloptasti lonci sa razgrnutim obodom (Pl. V/3,12); lonci kruškoliki sa razgrnutim obodom (Pl. VI/5,15); pitosi sa masivnim oštro profilisanim obodom, u pojedinim slučajevima ukrašeni urezivanjem (Pl. III/14); pitosi razgrnutog oboda (Pl. III/11) ukrašeni kanelurama na vratu (Pl. I/4); amfore bikonične sa blago razgrnutim obodom i kosim vratom, trbuh ukrašen jezičastim drškama (Pl. I/23; III/12,15,18; Pl. X/20); amfore bikonične sa neznatno razgrnutim obodom i cilindričnim vratom, jezičastim drškama na trbuhu, i ornamentisane urezima, ubodima (Pl. Ia/24,25; III/15; Pl. IV/10) ili apliciranom plastičnom trakom (Pl. X/20); piraunosi. Horizontu nekropola poznog halštata u srpskom delu Panonije kojima pripadaju Stubarlija i Šabac treba priključiti i istovremene, teritorijalno veoma bliske nekropole iz okoline Vinkovaca, Zvonimirovo, kao i Mokronog, koji se nalazi u jugozapadnoj Panoniji. Ova grupa se na jugu mogla prostirati zamišljenom linijom od Šapca, sve do Ljuljaka u centralnoj Šumadiji. Na istoku, ona se pruža negde do Mlave i Peka. Nalazi praistorijske keramike iz pojedinih grobova na Pećinama pokazuju mešavinu i panonskih i pomoravskih elemenata. Što se tiče teritorije južno od Save i Dunava, tj. Pomoravlja i zapadne Srbije, pozni halštat najbolje predstavljaju Kneževski grobovi iz Ltenice, Pilatovića, Priboja, Novog Pazara, Kruševice itd. Mada nedostaju naselja istovremena sa nekropolama, povoljnu okolnost predstavlja činjenica da su u više slučajeva na jugozapadu Srbije otkrivena pojedina gradinska naselja sa nalazima iz ovog perioda. Etnička pripadnost populacija koje naseljavaju centralni Balkan od VI do IV veka pre n. e. u Pomoravlju i zapadnoj Srbiji vezuje se za Tribale, a hronološki se određuju u period gvozdenog doba IIIa i Šb. U gornjem Pomoravlju, na Kosovu i u južnoj Srbiji tokom poznog halštata formira se stilsko-tipološko jedinstvo u keramičkoj produkciji. Na Kosovu tokom VI-IV veka pre n. e. izdvajaju se tri naselja, Belaćevac kod Prištine (mlađa faza), Gadimlje i Hisar u Suvoj Reci, i nekropole Karagač kod Zvečana i Fuše u Rogovu. Istom kulturnom krugu u južnoj Srbiji bi pripadali Kale u Krševici, Ranutovac-Meanište i Oraovica u Kacipupu kod Preševa. Na teritoriji severoistočne Srbije pored Zlotske pećine, prilikom prvih zaštitinih istraživanja Đerdapa konstatovano je nekoliko naselja sa nalazima iz perioda poznog halštata: Padina, Hajdučka Vodenica, Baraće i Pecka Bara. Kasnije je istraživana Kuznjica kod Rudne Glave, a zaštitnim istraživanjima Đerdapa II otkriveni su Ruženjka i Mokranjske stene - kamenolom kod Negotina. Nove podatke o nalazima materijalne i duhovne kulture poznog halštata u severoistočnoj Srbiji dala su istraživanja Mihailovog ponora na Miroču, Banjice u Rgoštu kod Knjaževca i Mokranjskih stena na Potkapini kod Negotina. Ostali lokaliteti, konstatovani rekognosciranjem, jesu Trvaj i Selište u Zlotu, Zlatkov rt u Beloj reci, Bele stene u Rgotini, Kusjak-Grle, Ždrelo-Zazidana pećina, Salakovac-Mogila, Stari salaš kod Mokranja, Džanov potok kod Brestovca, Pjatra ku Albina kod Laznice, Čoka Njica kod Bora i Šetaće kod Zlota. Teritorija centralnog Balkana tokom poznog halštata pokazuje izvestan stepen jedinstva u oblicima i tipovima keramičkih proizvoda, koji se mogu pratiti od Podunavlja do sliva južne Morave. Treba naglasiti da su pojave trakokimerskih, skitskih ili grčkih elemenata mogle da pred- stavljaju pre odraz trgovinske razmene nego njihovog naseljavanja i mešanja sa lokalnim stanovništvom. Ovo nam govori kako postojanje jakih plemenskih saveza na centralnom Balkanu nije uslovilo prestanak prometa kvalitetne robe i ideja. Za sada je sigurno da ove praistorijske zajednice tokom razvijenog halštata objedinjuje kulturni kontinuitet sa karakteristikama basarabi stila, iz kojega su u VI veku pre n. e. nastale zajednice Dardanaca na Kosovu i južnoj Srbiji, Tribala u dolinama Ibra, Zapadne i južne Morave, u Šumadiji i istočnoj Srbiji i Dako-G eta u Vojvodini. Drugi opet smatraju kako je tokom V veka pre n. e. nastalo doba intenzivnije razmene sirovina i dobara između ovih zajednica i plemena, pa je stoga gotovo nemoguće razaznati koja se etno-kulturna grupa može vezati za određene oblike nakita, oruđa, oružja ili keramike. Izvesne karakteristike keramičke produkcije pokazuju preuzimanje određenih tipova panonsko-podunavskog karaktera, koje se vidi na nalazima otkrivenim od doline Ibra na zapadu do doline Moravice na jugu i Negotinske Krajine na istoku Srbije. Materijal iz severoistočne Srbije pokazuje veće uticaje iz pravca Panonije nego od strane Feriđile grupe, odnosno od strane jugozapadne Rumunije. Fenomen koji je zajednički za zapadnu, istočnu i južnu Srbiju jeste pojava 'sive keramike', nalaza koji su ili nastali pod uticajem ili pripadaju grčkom svetu, što najbolje pokazuju granice njihovog ekonomskog i političkog širenja među paleobalkanskim plemenima. .
AB  - By looking at prehistoric collections and unpublished material from the museums in north-eastern Serbia, as well as by surveying and excavating, new information was gained which fulfills the image of material and spiritual culture of prehistoric communities from the end of the Early Iron Age. Usually, for a closer chronological determination, metal jewellery and weapons were considered. Pottery finds were published only occasionally, usually due to contexts which were not clear enough, or due to chronological insensitivity (unless they were grave goods), but also due to stylistic and typological differences not clearly distinguished between the 'Basarabi' culture and the culture of 'channelled pottery'. This paper aims to define features of pottery production from different sites, more precisely, those found in the territory between the Iron Gates, Ključ and the Timok valley.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Keramika poznog halštata u severoistočnoj Srbiji (VI-IV vek pre n. e.)
T1  - Late Hallstatt pottery from north-eastern Serbia (6th to 4th century BC)
EP  - 51
IS  - 63
SP  - 23
DO  - 10.2298/STA1363023K
UR  - conv_697
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Kapuran, Aleksandar",
year = "2013",
abstract = "Nalazišta poznog halštata, prema rasprostiranju na teritoriji Srbije možemo svrstati u pet kulturno-geografskih celina ili krugova: južnu Panoniju, Pomoravlje, istočnu Srbiju, zapadnu Srbiju, Kosovo i južnu Srbiju (južno Pomoravlje). Nalazištima na obodu južne Panonije, telskim naseljima Gradina na Bosutu (Bosut IVc), Feudvar kod Mošorina i Židovar kod Vršca, istraživači su posvetili najviše pažnje budući da se u konstatovanoj stratigrafiji ovaj horizont jasno izdvajao. Tipologiju keramike poznog halštata u severoistočnoj Srbiji predstavljaju: . šolje, plitke, konične, sa masivnom drškom većom od recipijenta; pojedini primeri su ukrašeni utiscima na obodu, urezanim horizontalnim linijama i ubadanjem (Pl. I/11; II/5,6; Pl. V/10; Pl. VI/1;6; Pl. X/1); šolje cilindrične sa visokom drškom (Pl. I/I/10); šolje blagobikonične sa cilindričnim vratom i zaobljenim ramenom (Pl. I/15; II/11,12; Pl. III/5; Pl. V/13), ukrašene urezanim linijama; pehari konični na niskoj stopi (Pl. II/20; Pl. X/2,3), oštro profilisanog oboda, ukrašeni jednom fasetom; pehari jednouhi sa kosim i razgrnutim obodom (Pl. III/5; Pl. X/7), masivnom drškom koja prelazi obod, u pojedinim slučajevima pravougaona stopa sa konkavnim udubljenjem (Pl. VII/5,7; Pl. X/4,5); pehari jednouhi, bikonični, zakošenog oboda ukrašenog urezima, kanelurama na trbuhu (Pl. I/13,14; Pl. II/7,8; Pl. IV/1-4; Pl. V/1); pehari jednouhi, bikonični sa visokom trakastom drškom ukrašenom parom protoma u vidu rogova (Pl. VII/8,9; Pl. X/12), ili jednog dugmetastog protoma (Pl. VII/11); pehari jednouhi (Pl. I/15,16; Pl. VII/6,10) ili dvouhi, trbušasti sa cilindričnim ili bikoničnim vratom, masivnim drškama koje prelaze obod, dobro uglačani (Pl. X/9,10) i ukrašeni kanelurama (Pl. Ia/19,21), urezima ili ubodima (Pl. I/15,16; Ia/18,19,21; VI/2,3,8; Pl. V/6,11; Pl. III/9); zdele poluloptaste ili konične ukrašene žljebom ispod oboda (Pl. I/12; V/5); zdele konične sa uvučenim obodom, bez ukrasa (Pl. I/1-3; II/1,2; Pl. V/8; VII/3,4; Pl. VIII/2); zdele sa horizontalno ili koso kanelovanim obodom, sa kanelurama koje se nalaze i u unutrašnjosti, sa urezanim ili uglačanim motivom (Pl. I/9; III/4,16; Pl. VIII/1; Pl. X/18); zdele uvučenog oboda sa jezičastim drškama (Pl. I/3,8) ili parom vertikalnih aplika. NA ramenu (Pl. I/2,7; IV/6; Pl. X/16), kao i kalemastim drškama na obodu (Pl. I/11,14; Pl. X/13-16), ili sa urezima u vidu cikcak linija (Pl. X/17); zdele bikonične, široko razgrnutog oboda (Pl. Ia/20,22; V/2), kanelovane (Pl. I/3; Pl. VI/7); lonci konični, neukrašeni (Pl. I/27; II/16; Pl. VII/1,2); lonci konični sa ojačanim obodom koji je ukrašen apliciranom trakom sa 'X' cikcak i urezima sa motivom mreže (Pl. Ia/28-30; III/10; Pl. VIII/3,4), nizom utisaka instrumentom (Pl. V/7) ili prstom (Pl. Ia/33-35); lonci konični sa proširenim trbuhom, ukrašeni urezivanjem (Pl. IV/7,12; Pl. VI/13), utiskivanjem prstom (Pl. I/26; III/10; Pl. IV/11), apliciranim horizontalnim (Pl. Ia/28,29; V/9; Pl. VI/14; Pl. VIII/5) i polumesečastim plastičnim trakama (Pl. II/15; Pl. IV/8 Pl. V/4; Pl. VIII/6) i jezičastim drškama (Pl. IV/9); poluloptasti lonci sa razgrnutim obodom (Pl. V/3,12); lonci kruškoliki sa razgrnutim obodom (Pl. VI/5,15); pitosi sa masivnim oštro profilisanim obodom, u pojedinim slučajevima ukrašeni urezivanjem (Pl. III/14); pitosi razgrnutog oboda (Pl. III/11) ukrašeni kanelurama na vratu (Pl. I/4); amfore bikonične sa blago razgrnutim obodom i kosim vratom, trbuh ukrašen jezičastim drškama (Pl. I/23; III/12,15,18; Pl. X/20); amfore bikonične sa neznatno razgrnutim obodom i cilindričnim vratom, jezičastim drškama na trbuhu, i ornamentisane urezima, ubodima (Pl. Ia/24,25; III/15; Pl. IV/10) ili apliciranom plastičnom trakom (Pl. X/20); piraunosi. Horizontu nekropola poznog halštata u srpskom delu Panonije kojima pripadaju Stubarlija i Šabac treba priključiti i istovremene, teritorijalno veoma bliske nekropole iz okoline Vinkovaca, Zvonimirovo, kao i Mokronog, koji se nalazi u jugozapadnoj Panoniji. Ova grupa se na jugu mogla prostirati zamišljenom linijom od Šapca, sve do Ljuljaka u centralnoj Šumadiji. Na istoku, ona se pruža negde do Mlave i Peka. Nalazi praistorijske keramike iz pojedinih grobova na Pećinama pokazuju mešavinu i panonskih i pomoravskih elemenata. Što se tiče teritorije južno od Save i Dunava, tj. Pomoravlja i zapadne Srbije, pozni halštat najbolje predstavljaju Kneževski grobovi iz Ltenice, Pilatovića, Priboja, Novog Pazara, Kruševice itd. Mada nedostaju naselja istovremena sa nekropolama, povoljnu okolnost predstavlja činjenica da su u više slučajeva na jugozapadu Srbije otkrivena pojedina gradinska naselja sa nalazima iz ovog perioda. Etnička pripadnost populacija koje naseljavaju centralni Balkan od VI do IV veka pre n. e. u Pomoravlju i zapadnoj Srbiji vezuje se za Tribale, a hronološki se određuju u period gvozdenog doba IIIa i Šb. U gornjem Pomoravlju, na Kosovu i u južnoj Srbiji tokom poznog halštata formira se stilsko-tipološko jedinstvo u keramičkoj produkciji. Na Kosovu tokom VI-IV veka pre n. e. izdvajaju se tri naselja, Belaćevac kod Prištine (mlađa faza), Gadimlje i Hisar u Suvoj Reci, i nekropole Karagač kod Zvečana i Fuše u Rogovu. Istom kulturnom krugu u južnoj Srbiji bi pripadali Kale u Krševici, Ranutovac-Meanište i Oraovica u Kacipupu kod Preševa. Na teritoriji severoistočne Srbije pored Zlotske pećine, prilikom prvih zaštitinih istraživanja Đerdapa konstatovano je nekoliko naselja sa nalazima iz perioda poznog halštata: Padina, Hajdučka Vodenica, Baraće i Pecka Bara. Kasnije je istraživana Kuznjica kod Rudne Glave, a zaštitnim istraživanjima Đerdapa II otkriveni su Ruženjka i Mokranjske stene - kamenolom kod Negotina. Nove podatke o nalazima materijalne i duhovne kulture poznog halštata u severoistočnoj Srbiji dala su istraživanja Mihailovog ponora na Miroču, Banjice u Rgoštu kod Knjaževca i Mokranjskih stena na Potkapini kod Negotina. Ostali lokaliteti, konstatovani rekognosciranjem, jesu Trvaj i Selište u Zlotu, Zlatkov rt u Beloj reci, Bele stene u Rgotini, Kusjak-Grle, Ždrelo-Zazidana pećina, Salakovac-Mogila, Stari salaš kod Mokranja, Džanov potok kod Brestovca, Pjatra ku Albina kod Laznice, Čoka Njica kod Bora i Šetaće kod Zlota. Teritorija centralnog Balkana tokom poznog halštata pokazuje izvestan stepen jedinstva u oblicima i tipovima keramičkih proizvoda, koji se mogu pratiti od Podunavlja do sliva južne Morave. Treba naglasiti da su pojave trakokimerskih, skitskih ili grčkih elemenata mogle da pred- stavljaju pre odraz trgovinske razmene nego njihovog naseljavanja i mešanja sa lokalnim stanovništvom. Ovo nam govori kako postojanje jakih plemenskih saveza na centralnom Balkanu nije uslovilo prestanak prometa kvalitetne robe i ideja. Za sada je sigurno da ove praistorijske zajednice tokom razvijenog halštata objedinjuje kulturni kontinuitet sa karakteristikama basarabi stila, iz kojega su u VI veku pre n. e. nastale zajednice Dardanaca na Kosovu i južnoj Srbiji, Tribala u dolinama Ibra, Zapadne i južne Morave, u Šumadiji i istočnoj Srbiji i Dako-G eta u Vojvodini. Drugi opet smatraju kako je tokom V veka pre n. e. nastalo doba intenzivnije razmene sirovina i dobara između ovih zajednica i plemena, pa je stoga gotovo nemoguće razaznati koja se etno-kulturna grupa može vezati za određene oblike nakita, oruđa, oružja ili keramike. Izvesne karakteristike keramičke produkcije pokazuju preuzimanje određenih tipova panonsko-podunavskog karaktera, koje se vidi na nalazima otkrivenim od doline Ibra na zapadu do doline Moravice na jugu i Negotinske Krajine na istoku Srbije. Materijal iz severoistočne Srbije pokazuje veće uticaje iz pravca Panonije nego od strane Feriđile grupe, odnosno od strane jugozapadne Rumunije. Fenomen koji je zajednički za zapadnu, istočnu i južnu Srbiju jeste pojava 'sive keramike', nalaza koji su ili nastali pod uticajem ili pripadaju grčkom svetu, što najbolje pokazuju granice njihovog ekonomskog i političkog širenja među paleobalkanskim plemenima. ., By looking at prehistoric collections and unpublished material from the museums in north-eastern Serbia, as well as by surveying and excavating, new information was gained which fulfills the image of material and spiritual culture of prehistoric communities from the end of the Early Iron Age. Usually, for a closer chronological determination, metal jewellery and weapons were considered. Pottery finds were published only occasionally, usually due to contexts which were not clear enough, or due to chronological insensitivity (unless they were grave goods), but also due to stylistic and typological differences not clearly distinguished between the 'Basarabi' culture and the culture of 'channelled pottery'. This paper aims to define features of pottery production from different sites, more precisely, those found in the territory between the Iron Gates, Ključ and the Timok valley.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Keramika poznog halštata u severoistočnoj Srbiji (VI-IV vek pre n. e.), Late Hallstatt pottery from north-eastern Serbia (6th to 4th century BC)",
pages = "51-23",
number = "63",
doi = "10.2298/STA1363023K",
url = "conv_697"
}
Kapuran, A.. (2013). Keramika poznog halštata u severoistočnoj Srbiji (VI-IV vek pre n. e.). in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(63), 23-51.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1363023K
conv_697
Kapuran A. Keramika poznog halštata u severoistočnoj Srbiji (VI-IV vek pre n. e.). in Starinar. 2013;(63):23-51.
doi:10.2298/STA1363023K
conv_697 .
Kapuran, Aleksandar, "Keramika poznog halštata u severoistočnoj Srbiji (VI-IV vek pre n. e.)" in Starinar, no. 63 (2013):23-51,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1363023K .,
conv_697 .

Arheološka iskopavanja nalazišta Gamzigrad - Romuliana 2007-2008. godine

Petković, Sofija; Kapuran, Aleksandar

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2013)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Petković, Sofija
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
PY  - 2013
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/177
AB  - U članku su prikazani rezultati sistematskih arheoloških iskopavanja 2007-2008. godine na lokalitetu Gamzigrad - Felix Romuliana u jugoistočnom delu utvrđene carske palate, na Sektoru termi. Nastavljeno je istraživanje kasnoantičkog horizonta života (iz poslednje četvrtine IV i prve polovine V veka) i horizonta izgradnje Galerijeve palate s kraja III - početka IV veka, kao i starijeg rimskog horizonta života, predstavljenog velikom građevinom javnog karaktera iz III veka. Takođe, u jednoj sondi su istraženi praistorijski kulturni slojevi, koji su prethodili rimskom naselju, sve do kulturno-sterilnog sloja, zdravice.
AB  - Systematical archaeological excavations at the site Gamzigrad - Felix Romuliana continued in 2007-2008 in the south-eastern part of the fortified imperial palace, in the section of the thermae according to the plan of archaeological research for this site (2005-2009). In 2007, squares L'XXIV, M'XXIV, M'XXIH and M'XXII, which were investigated in 2005 to the horizon c, dated to the end of the 5th and the beginning of the 6th centuries, were completely excavated to the level of the porch of the earlier fortification of Romuliana (Plan 1). The stratigraphy of the cultural layers in these squares is as follows (Fig. 1): Below horizon c there is a layer of construction rubble mixed with brownish-yellow, clay like, sandy soil, 50-75 cm thick, comprising the finds dated in the last quarter of the 4th-5th centuries, layer D; The level of layer D is horizon d, where a structure destroyed in a conflagration, house 1/07, was discovered in squares M'XXII and M'XXIII. It could be dated, on the basis of the preserved household (pottery, metal and antler items, coins, etc.), from the last quarter of the 4th to the middle of the 5th century; Horizon d 1 is a mortar floor discovered beneath horizon d, which presents the earlier phase of house 1/07; Horizon d 2 is the earliest mortar floor inside the house 1/07, covered with a later mortar floor (horizon d 1) and a levelling layer of yellow sand and gravel, which comprises the finds dating also to the last quarter of the 4th to the middle of the 5th centuries; Layer E, 15-40 cm thick, is below horizon d, comprising dark brown soil with rubble and lenses of soot at the bottom, together with finds dated to the second half of the 4th century; Horizon e is covered with layer E, and spread across all the squares which were investigated to the south and to the east of Galerius' bath, where 8 large postholes, which outlined a space 7 x 3 m large and probably some kind of porch, were found along with two furnaces and two pits; Layer F, about 30 cm thick, is the substructure of horizon e and it comprises crushed stone and pebbles mixed with lime mortar, and in places has a levelling of reddish-brown sand. Finds here were dated to the end of the 3rd and the first half of the 4th centuries; Horizon f is a mortar floor of the later fortification of Felix Romuliana at a level of 184.75 m in the west and 184.55 m in the east (an average level of 184.64 m), which was interrupted by a trench running in an east-west direction along the southern section of squares L'-M'XXIV. The trench was filled with soot, small rubble and reddish-brown sand and comprised a large amount of artifacts, such as pottery and glass fragments, metal and bone items and coins dated to the second half of the 3rd century (Fig. 4). Layer G consists of dark brown and yellowish-brown clay with small rubble and soot. It was a levelling layer above the intense construction rubble from the previous horizon and a substructure of horizon f. This layer comprised archaeological finds dated to the end of the 3rd and the first half of the 4th centuries and to the prehistoric period (Early Iron Age); Horizon g is a mortar floor of the porch of the southern and eastern rampart of the earlier fortification of Romuliana. 4 pillars of the eastern porch (pillars 1-4, discovered in 2004-2005), a corner pillar in an L-shape (pillar 5) and one pillar of the southern porch (pillar 6) have been ascertained. From this level the water and sewage canals were dug (Fig. 5). In squares K'XXII-XXIII a trench, measuring 4 x 2 m, in an east-west direction, was opened which aimed to investigate the layers beneath the Roman horizon g. The stratigraphy in this trench is as follows: - Layer G at a level of about 184.53 m; - Layer H, about 35 cm thick, is greenish-yellow clay in which Roman canals were buried, comprising the fragments of the Early and Late Iron Age pottery and fragments of reddish rammed earth (Fig. 2); Layer I, about 20cm thick, is greenish-brown clay, comprising the scarce fragments of the Early and Late Iron Age pottery; Virgin soil consists of yellow clay starting from a level of 184.00 m in the west and of 183.60 m in the east. In 2008, the remains of an earlier building were discovered beneath the floor of the apodyterium of Galerius' bath found in 2002 and below the foundation of the sudatorium and the tepidarium of the same structure, which were found in 2005. Also, for the purposes of conservation and restoration of the thermae, an apsidal room next to the west wall of the apodyterium, so called 'Galerius' dressing room', was completely filled with construction rubble, among which was found a part of an abraded vault (Fig. 6). Excavations proved that the apsidal room had been a pool with cold water, a frigidarium, which was twice renovated and was decorated with mosaic made of black, white and grey stone cubes (Fig. 7). The phases of reconstruction of the frigidarium could also be noticed in its eastern wall (Fig. 8). Also in the rubble inside the pool, glass mosaic cubes of deep blue and golden colours were discovered, indicating the decoration of the vault. In the latest phase, two pillars were constructed to carry the stairs made of stone slabs (Fig. 8). The earliest phase of this room, which had a rectangular layout and a mortar floor, could be part of the building dating back to before Galerius' bath (Plan 2). During the cleaning of the eastern wall of the frigidarium, a semicircular niche with a fresco decoration of geometrical and figural motives, painted in black, dark red, orange and blue on an ochre surface, was discovered (Fig. 3). Under Galerius' bath, a large earlier building was investigated (trenches 1-5/08). Only its foundation zone is preserved. The walls of the Imperial bath were founded on the earlier walls, which were 0.65 m thick and had foundations which were 0.90 m thick (Plan 2). The pilaster of the west faeade of the thermae was also founded on the earlier wall, but it destroyed a water canal (canal A discovered inside the south room of Galerius' bath in 2004), which was constructed after the earlier structure and before the Imperial bath (Fig. 9). It is interesting that the part of the earlier building to the west of the thermae was not demolished during the construction of the Imperial residence. It was adapted and incorporated into the plan of the fortified palace. The original construction was a large public building, probably theprincipia, with a row of rooms around a large courtyard, the atrium. The entrance, which had a porch and a pylon with two square towers and thresholds made of stone slabs, was in the north. (Figs. 10-14) Previously, this building was mistakenly dated to the 4th-5th centuries, because it had been reused in Late Roman and Early Byzantine periods. (Figs. 15-18) However, based on the results of the new research, it could be dated to the 3rd century. .
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Arheološka iskopavanja nalazišta Gamzigrad - Romuliana 2007-2008. godine
T1  - Archaeological excavations at Gamzigrad - Romuliana in 2007-2008
EP  - 300
IS  - 63
SP  - 287
DO  - 10.2298/STA1363287P
UR  - conv_711
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Petković, Sofija and Kapuran, Aleksandar",
year = "2013",
abstract = "U članku su prikazani rezultati sistematskih arheoloških iskopavanja 2007-2008. godine na lokalitetu Gamzigrad - Felix Romuliana u jugoistočnom delu utvrđene carske palate, na Sektoru termi. Nastavljeno je istraživanje kasnoantičkog horizonta života (iz poslednje četvrtine IV i prve polovine V veka) i horizonta izgradnje Galerijeve palate s kraja III - početka IV veka, kao i starijeg rimskog horizonta života, predstavljenog velikom građevinom javnog karaktera iz III veka. Takođe, u jednoj sondi su istraženi praistorijski kulturni slojevi, koji su prethodili rimskom naselju, sve do kulturno-sterilnog sloja, zdravice., Systematical archaeological excavations at the site Gamzigrad - Felix Romuliana continued in 2007-2008 in the south-eastern part of the fortified imperial palace, in the section of the thermae according to the plan of archaeological research for this site (2005-2009). In 2007, squares L'XXIV, M'XXIV, M'XXIH and M'XXII, which were investigated in 2005 to the horizon c, dated to the end of the 5th and the beginning of the 6th centuries, were completely excavated to the level of the porch of the earlier fortification of Romuliana (Plan 1). The stratigraphy of the cultural layers in these squares is as follows (Fig. 1): Below horizon c there is a layer of construction rubble mixed with brownish-yellow, clay like, sandy soil, 50-75 cm thick, comprising the finds dated in the last quarter of the 4th-5th centuries, layer D; The level of layer D is horizon d, where a structure destroyed in a conflagration, house 1/07, was discovered in squares M'XXII and M'XXIII. It could be dated, on the basis of the preserved household (pottery, metal and antler items, coins, etc.), from the last quarter of the 4th to the middle of the 5th century; Horizon d 1 is a mortar floor discovered beneath horizon d, which presents the earlier phase of house 1/07; Horizon d 2 is the earliest mortar floor inside the house 1/07, covered with a later mortar floor (horizon d 1) and a levelling layer of yellow sand and gravel, which comprises the finds dating also to the last quarter of the 4th to the middle of the 5th centuries; Layer E, 15-40 cm thick, is below horizon d, comprising dark brown soil with rubble and lenses of soot at the bottom, together with finds dated to the second half of the 4th century; Horizon e is covered with layer E, and spread across all the squares which were investigated to the south and to the east of Galerius' bath, where 8 large postholes, which outlined a space 7 x 3 m large and probably some kind of porch, were found along with two furnaces and two pits; Layer F, about 30 cm thick, is the substructure of horizon e and it comprises crushed stone and pebbles mixed with lime mortar, and in places has a levelling of reddish-brown sand. Finds here were dated to the end of the 3rd and the first half of the 4th centuries; Horizon f is a mortar floor of the later fortification of Felix Romuliana at a level of 184.75 m in the west and 184.55 m in the east (an average level of 184.64 m), which was interrupted by a trench running in an east-west direction along the southern section of squares L'-M'XXIV. The trench was filled with soot, small rubble and reddish-brown sand and comprised a large amount of artifacts, such as pottery and glass fragments, metal and bone items and coins dated to the second half of the 3rd century (Fig. 4). Layer G consists of dark brown and yellowish-brown clay with small rubble and soot. It was a levelling layer above the intense construction rubble from the previous horizon and a substructure of horizon f. This layer comprised archaeological finds dated to the end of the 3rd and the first half of the 4th centuries and to the prehistoric period (Early Iron Age); Horizon g is a mortar floor of the porch of the southern and eastern rampart of the earlier fortification of Romuliana. 4 pillars of the eastern porch (pillars 1-4, discovered in 2004-2005), a corner pillar in an L-shape (pillar 5) and one pillar of the southern porch (pillar 6) have been ascertained. From this level the water and sewage canals were dug (Fig. 5). In squares K'XXII-XXIII a trench, measuring 4 x 2 m, in an east-west direction, was opened which aimed to investigate the layers beneath the Roman horizon g. The stratigraphy in this trench is as follows: - Layer G at a level of about 184.53 m; - Layer H, about 35 cm thick, is greenish-yellow clay in which Roman canals were buried, comprising the fragments of the Early and Late Iron Age pottery and fragments of reddish rammed earth (Fig. 2); Layer I, about 20cm thick, is greenish-brown clay, comprising the scarce fragments of the Early and Late Iron Age pottery; Virgin soil consists of yellow clay starting from a level of 184.00 m in the west and of 183.60 m in the east. In 2008, the remains of an earlier building were discovered beneath the floor of the apodyterium of Galerius' bath found in 2002 and below the foundation of the sudatorium and the tepidarium of the same structure, which were found in 2005. Also, for the purposes of conservation and restoration of the thermae, an apsidal room next to the west wall of the apodyterium, so called 'Galerius' dressing room', was completely filled with construction rubble, among which was found a part of an abraded vault (Fig. 6). Excavations proved that the apsidal room had been a pool with cold water, a frigidarium, which was twice renovated and was decorated with mosaic made of black, white and grey stone cubes (Fig. 7). The phases of reconstruction of the frigidarium could also be noticed in its eastern wall (Fig. 8). Also in the rubble inside the pool, glass mosaic cubes of deep blue and golden colours were discovered, indicating the decoration of the vault. In the latest phase, two pillars were constructed to carry the stairs made of stone slabs (Fig. 8). The earliest phase of this room, which had a rectangular layout and a mortar floor, could be part of the building dating back to before Galerius' bath (Plan 2). During the cleaning of the eastern wall of the frigidarium, a semicircular niche with a fresco decoration of geometrical and figural motives, painted in black, dark red, orange and blue on an ochre surface, was discovered (Fig. 3). Under Galerius' bath, a large earlier building was investigated (trenches 1-5/08). Only its foundation zone is preserved. The walls of the Imperial bath were founded on the earlier walls, which were 0.65 m thick and had foundations which were 0.90 m thick (Plan 2). The pilaster of the west faeade of the thermae was also founded on the earlier wall, but it destroyed a water canal (canal A discovered inside the south room of Galerius' bath in 2004), which was constructed after the earlier structure and before the Imperial bath (Fig. 9). It is interesting that the part of the earlier building to the west of the thermae was not demolished during the construction of the Imperial residence. It was adapted and incorporated into the plan of the fortified palace. The original construction was a large public building, probably theprincipia, with a row of rooms around a large courtyard, the atrium. The entrance, which had a porch and a pylon with two square towers and thresholds made of stone slabs, was in the north. (Figs. 10-14) Previously, this building was mistakenly dated to the 4th-5th centuries, because it had been reused in Late Roman and Early Byzantine periods. (Figs. 15-18) However, based on the results of the new research, it could be dated to the 3rd century. .",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Arheološka iskopavanja nalazišta Gamzigrad - Romuliana 2007-2008. godine, Archaeological excavations at Gamzigrad - Romuliana in 2007-2008",
pages = "300-287",
number = "63",
doi = "10.2298/STA1363287P",
url = "conv_711"
}
Petković, S.,& Kapuran, A.. (2013). Arheološka iskopavanja nalazišta Gamzigrad - Romuliana 2007-2008. godine. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(63), 287-300.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1363287P
conv_711
Petković S, Kapuran A. Arheološka iskopavanja nalazišta Gamzigrad - Romuliana 2007-2008. godine. in Starinar. 2013;(63):287-300.
doi:10.2298/STA1363287P
conv_711 .
Petković, Sofija, Kapuran, Aleksandar, "Arheološka iskopavanja nalazišta Gamzigrad - Romuliana 2007-2008. godine" in Starinar, no. 63 (2013):287-300,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1363287P .,
conv_711 .

Rockshelter mokranjske stene - A new late prehistoric site in eastern Serbia region

Kapuran, Aleksandar; Milošević, S.

(Nous Publishers Ltd., 2013)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
AU  - Milošević, S.
PY  - 2013
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/193
AB  - Archaeological research in Mokranjske stene rockshelter represents the first survey in the region of northeastern Serbia after a three decade long pause, since salvage archaeological work had been conducted prior to the construction of the Derdap II dam. Beside the Byzantine forts dating back to the Middle Ages, finds and cultural horizons had been identified from the La Tène period, the Late Iron Age (Zlot group), the Middle Bronze Age (Verbicioara group), the Late Eneolithic period (Co{ofeni group) and the Middle Eneolithic period (Bubanj-Sǎlcuta-Krivodol cultural complex). The previously unknown Byzantine fort is associated with a larger neighboring fort above the rockshelter. The La Tene period at the rockshelter site is best represented by the find of the infant grave. The settlements from the Late Iron Age and the Middle Bronze Age were probably short-term in contrast to the horizon of the Late Eneolithic Co{ofeni-Kostolac group, which presence was the most intense through the stratigraphy. The horizon with finds from the Bubanj-Salcuja-Krivodol cultural complex is the oldest horizon reached by the test trench, although it contains very few finds.
PB  - Nous Publishers Ltd.
T2  - Archaeologia Bulgarica
T1  - Rockshelter mokranjske stene - A new late prehistoric site in eastern Serbia region
EP  - 37
IS  - 2
SP  - 17
VL  - 17
UR  - conv_589
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Kapuran, Aleksandar and Milošević, S.",
year = "2013",
abstract = "Archaeological research in Mokranjske stene rockshelter represents the first survey in the region of northeastern Serbia after a three decade long pause, since salvage archaeological work had been conducted prior to the construction of the Derdap II dam. Beside the Byzantine forts dating back to the Middle Ages, finds and cultural horizons had been identified from the La Tène period, the Late Iron Age (Zlot group), the Middle Bronze Age (Verbicioara group), the Late Eneolithic period (Co{ofeni group) and the Middle Eneolithic period (Bubanj-Sǎlcuta-Krivodol cultural complex). The previously unknown Byzantine fort is associated with a larger neighboring fort above the rockshelter. The La Tene period at the rockshelter site is best represented by the find of the infant grave. The settlements from the Late Iron Age and the Middle Bronze Age were probably short-term in contrast to the horizon of the Late Eneolithic Co{ofeni-Kostolac group, which presence was the most intense through the stratigraphy. The horizon with finds from the Bubanj-Salcuja-Krivodol cultural complex is the oldest horizon reached by the test trench, although it contains very few finds.",
publisher = "Nous Publishers Ltd.",
journal = "Archaeologia Bulgarica",
title = "Rockshelter mokranjske stene - A new late prehistoric site in eastern Serbia region",
pages = "37-17",
number = "2",
volume = "17",
url = "conv_589"
}
Kapuran, A.,& Milošević, S.. (2013). Rockshelter mokranjske stene - A new late prehistoric site in eastern Serbia region. in Archaeologia Bulgarica
Nous Publishers Ltd.., 17(2), 17-37.
conv_589
Kapuran A, Milošević S. Rockshelter mokranjske stene - A new late prehistoric site in eastern Serbia region. in Archaeologia Bulgarica. 2013;17(2):17-37.
conv_589 .
Kapuran, Aleksandar, Milošević, S., "Rockshelter mokranjske stene - A new late prehistoric site in eastern Serbia region" in Archaeologia Bulgarica, 17, no. 2 (2013):17-37,
conv_589 .
2

Kulturna grupa Kocofeni-Kostolac na teritoriji severoistočne Srbije

Kapuran, Aleksandar; Bulatović, Aleksandar

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2012)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
PY  - 2012
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/165
AB  - Poslednjih godina se pokazalo da na teritoriji Srbije postoji mnogo veći broj lokaliteta Kocofeni kulturne grupe nego što je publikovano pre jedne ili više decenija. Objedinjavanjem nepublikovanih podataka i dokumentacije sa arheoloških iskopavanja i rekognosciranja, kao i apsolutnim datumima dobijenim poslednjih godina, stvorena je potreba da se u nekim aspektima koriguju i bolje sagledaju rasprostranjenost, način života i trajanje ove kulturne grupe na prostoru severoistočne Srbije, gde je ona i najprisutnija. Osim nalaza materijalne kulture, u radu su prezentovane topografske karakteristike naselja koja su sada u najvećem procentu georeferencirana. Ovaj rad, takođe, predstavlja pokušaj da se pojasne neke od dilema vezanih za društveno-ekonomski i tehnološki razvoj populacija kasnog bakarnog i ranog bronzanog doba.
AB  - The settlement of the territory of north-eastern Serbia by the representatives of the Coţofeni culture began during the second half of the IV millennium, probably under the pressure of invading tribes from Euroasian steppe. This territory extended over Transylvania, Banat, Oltenia and Muntenia (Map 2). On the territory of Serbia they settled from the Djrerdap gorge up to the Mlava river to the west, and through Kučajske mountains, Bor, Zaječar and further to the south, up to Niš. Aspecific symbiosis occurred on the territory of Serbia between the Coţofeni and the Kostolac cultures. According to the results of the latest project of re-identification, the number of Coţofeni-Kostolac sites and settlements increased to 76. After all the sites were re-identified and georeferenced, with consideration of the surrounding landscape, hydrography, geomorphology of the terrain and the character of the ceramic production finds, we believe that there is a need for re-analyzing specific aspects of the cultural and geographic development not only of settlements, but of the entire Coţofeni-Kostolac cultural phenomenon. In this paper we considered three archaeological sites in the Nišava valley, given that re-identification work over the past several years yielded new information (Bubanj-Staro Selo, Velika Humska čuka and Donja Vrežina). The topography of Coţofeni-Kostolac settlements on the territory of north-eastern Serbia, the Serbian part of the Danube valley and its hinterland, is characterized by diversity of position (location above sea level and landscape placement), types of houses and economic survival. In the 70’s of the last century sites were identified that are located in very inaccessible terrain, which in particular cases has an slope incline of 45°, where the number of such settlements in the meantime increased to nine. They are represented by Kulmja Škjopuluji in Klokočevac and Pjatra Kosti in Crnajka (T. I/1-2; Map 1/9), followed by Vratna -Veliki most (T. I/ 7; Map 1/33), Bogovina-above a cave (T. I/ 4; Map 1/8), Jezero (T. I/ 3; Map 1/12), Kljanc (T. I/3; Map 1/11), Turija-Stenje (T. I/ 6; Map 1/22), Mokranjske stene-quarry (T. I/ 5; Map 1/39) and Bolvan (T. I/ 8; Map 1/66). These settlements have several other common elements, the most important being that each one of the elevated settlements is positioned on the rocky peak of a canyon, in places where smaller rivers or brooks flow into a larger river. We can suppose how the selection of such positions was of strategic importance, given that in the mountainous area of north-eastern Serbia the system of waterways and river valleys represents communicational links from prehistory to modern times. The second common characteristic of these settlements is the rocky massif which provided the foundation for their erection. The rock foundation in the majority of cases is of limestone origin and is well suited to artificial nivelation into terraces atop which surface structures could be built using wood covered with mud (Jezero, Kulmja Škjopuluji, Pjatra Kosti, Vratna, Bogovina). The third shared characteristic is that one or more caves are usually located in the immediate vicinity of settlements. An example of the symbiosis of cave and hill fort Coţofeni-Kostolac settlements is the vicinity of the Zavojsko jezero near Majdanpek. So far two hill fort settlements, Jezero and Kljanc (T. I/3; Map 1/11-12), were identified in this area, built on limestone cliffs above the Mali Pek river. The Rajkova cave (Map 1/14), Paskova cave and Kapetanova cave (Map 1/13) are located in their immediate vicinity, in which the remains of anthropogenic activity were discovered. The Kapetanova cave provides stratigraphy of over 3 m high, which represents a rare case for Coţofeni-Kostolac cultural sites. This fact does not only indicate its long-term use, but could provide the answer to the genesis and duration of this cultural phenomenon on the territory of the Serbian part of the Djerdap hinterland. The fourth shared characteristic which links these settlements is their dominant position in the landscape. Given that their position and appearance are readily visible from a considerable distance, they probably were not used for hiding, but for making their position prominent. We suppose that pastoral communities emphasized in this manner their control of mountain crosspass and roads, particularly in places where rivers exit narrow canyons in important communications paths to the Crni and Beli Timok, Pek and Danuber rivers. The other Coţofeni-Kostolac type settlement on the territory of north-eastern Serbia is represented by settlements that are positioned on smaller hills or on gentle slopes that on the average range between 336 and 210 m above sea level. The only fortified hill fort settlement discovered so far, Čoka lu Balaš near Krivelj (Map 1/3) belongs to this group. The archaeological sites Velika Čuka i Neresnica (Map 1/23), Smiljkova glavica in Štubik (Map 1/31) and Ćetaće in Kovilovo (Map 1/38) are located on wide and flat, elevated plateaus that dominate up on river valleys. Judging by the considerable surface that they occupy, their position and surroundings for these two settlements, we can suppose that they could have been used for wintering places or points for gathering of flocks and shepherds during pauses between seasonal migrations. They are primarily characterized by the natural surroundings of smaller hills and larger river valleys, as well as the relatively low above sea level elevation on which they are located. Such 'seasonal stations or checkpoints' on which larger groups of shepherds could gather with their flocks during the winter months represented important locations in the lives of pastoral communities. During the warm summer period, homesteads with stable architecture are abandoned because of migrations into mountain areas, where favourable grazing areas area located. Certain groups of shepherds during autumn returned to these settlements en route to lowlands and river terraces, while other groups probably continued their journey to gathering centres in valleys near the Danube and the Timok rivers. The next type of settlement belongs to high, multi-layered settlements (Arija baba-Košobrdo, Čoka Kormaroš, Field of Z. Brzanović, Varzari and Smedovac-Grabar-Svračar) which represent sunbathed dominant positions, with a good view of the surrounding area, well suited to long-term occupation. Settlements on high elevations of this type are usually linked with landscapes that predominate in grazing areas and in which there are no large forests. The last type of Coţofeni-Kostolac settlement is characteristic of lowland settlements positioned on river terraces. The settlements on the right bank of the Danube, around Ključ (Kladovo- Brodoimpeks, Mala Vrbica, Zbradila-Fund, Korbovo- Obala, Vajuga-Pesak, Jakomirski potok estuary, Velesnica, Ljubič evac-river bank, Ljubičevac-Island, Brzi prun, Slatinska reka estuary, Knjepište, Ruženjka, Kusjak-Bordjej, Kusjak-Motel, Kusjak-Vrkalj), represented points at which shepherd’s flocks could remain for longer periods, waiting for favourable conditions for crossing to the other side of the river. This assumption is based on old maps predating the construction of the accumulation lake. These maps indicate that in the immediate vicinity of these settlements were located small sand islands linked to the river bank, pointing to shallows and crossing points. These sections of the river bank, during prolonged droughts or during cold winters, when ice was formed, could have been places where the river was crossed from one side to the other. Residential architecture cannot be precisely defined, given that the discovered remains of houses are very meagre and lack sufficient elements for reconstruction. The most recent excavations on the Bubanj-Staro Selo settlemant at Niš, indicate an identical type of architectural construction as discovered at Gomolava and Bordjej which represents structures that are characteristic for lowland areas. Houses in hill fort settlements built on artificial terraces have been mostly devastated by erosion, so that judging by the impressions of wooden structures and wattle and daub, as well as the remains of hearths, it can be asserted that these were residential structures. Numerous studies so far noted that based on the stylistic and typological characteristics of ceramics on archaeological sites in Timočka Krajina it is possible to distinguish between two phases of the Coţofeni group, where the first is dominated by ornamental techniques of carving that are characteristic of the Coţofeni group, and a later phase in which this style is mixed with the furchenstich, as well as other Kostolac cultural elements (furchenstich, certain types of ceramics, etc.). The fact is that the majority of Coţofeni-Kostolac group sites in eastern Serbia have not been excavated, or have only been partially excavated, and that no vertical stratigraphy had been observed, where no stratigraphic relationship between stylistic-topological characteristics of older ceramics (Coţofeni) and the more recent phase (Coţofeni-Kostolac) have been established. These are mostly settlements in which ceramics were observed with elements both of the Kostolac and the Coţofeni group, or only with elements of the Coţofeni group, while settlements with only Kostolac ceramics have not been identified. Therefore, in Serbia it is only possible to distinguish between sites where furchenstich ornamentation has been observed and those where this type of ornamentation still has not been observed. Still, it is unclear whether this distinction can be applied to period assignment, or whether it is in fact caused by settlement of different populations in different regions of Eastern Serbia - the Kostolac region from the west and the Coţofeni group from the East. In Romania, however, vertical stratigraphy was observed at several settlements where development phases were observed of the Coţofeni group, so that based on the stratigraphy at those sites, with certain caution, it is possible to draw conclusions about the development of the Coţofeni-Kostolac group in eastern Serbia. Settlements without any furchenstich ornamentation would be assigned to the older phase (Coţofeni group) where ceramics characteristic of the Coţofeni group have been observed, although observed shapes and ornaments are usually associated with the furchenstich technique and the more recent phase of the group. The most frequent type of vessels at sites in eastern Serbia are amphorae with extended funnel shaped necks, ornamented below the neck with carved lines or with stamped ornamentation (fig. 6, 21, 38, 64, 71, 89, 98-100, 104, 109, 115, 116, 134), fishbone shape impressions (fig. 4, 28), and in the more recent period furchenstich ornamentation or point impressions (fig. 9, 20, 25, 140), with a tongue shaped or vertically perforated handle, tunnel shaped or horse-shoe shaped handle below the rim (fig. 6, 9, 20, 21, 51, 63, 100, 126, 134, 88, 115 ). The second characteristic type of vessel are semi-spherical bowls with deeper recipients, with flat rims (fig. 11, 12, 23, 27, 29, 52-54, 57, 59-60, 74, 79, 81, 82, 90, 91, 95, 113, 124, 125, 131 and 145), or with shallower recipients, with a slanted, triangular rim or T-shaped profiled rim (14, 19, 133 and 146). Such vessels are characteristic for both phases, because they are ornamented, besides vertical ribs, with carves, and with furchenstich ornamentation (fig. 23, 68, 81 and 82). The third type of vessels are semi-spherical bowls with contracted rims creating a nearly spherical shape. They can be ornamented with vertical ribs on rims (fig. 148) in combination with pinholes (fig. 17), carves (fig. 61, 84, 85) or line impressions (fig. 132). Less frequent vessels on the territory of northeastern Serbia are biconical or spherical goblets, followed by pare-shaped goblets with a single handle, larger pare-shaped amphorae with an extended or conical neck, with small handles below the rim, ornamented with a series of carves (fig. 39, 86), as well as barrel or spherical pots ornamented with carves, horizontal tapes or circular impressions (fig. 45-47, 141, 142). The appearance of ropeshape ornaments is very significant, given that they appear in Rumanian finds in the second phase of the Coţofeni group, and most frequently in the third phase. This ornament was sporadically observed in the far south, on the Dikili Taš site on the northern shore of the Aegean sea, in level 6, which according to the author belongs chronologically to the Bubanj-Hum II group and the Kostolac group. Its presence at sites in eastern Serbia can be linked to the older phase at the majority of settlements, except in the case of Grabar-Svračar, as these ceramics were not found alongside ceramics with furchenstich. The largest number of sites with only Coţofeni elements on ceramics have been observed (34), but it is indicative that only a few have been excavated. 28 sites with Kostolac group elements were noted, while 17 unspecified sites in which the period cannot be precisely defined have been identified. According to the stratigraphy of several of the mentioned sites in western Bulgaria, in the Morava valley and in southern Romania it can be concluded that the Coţofeni group (northeastern Serbia and Romania) and the Coţofeni-Kostolac group (Morava valley and western Bulgaria), in all of the mentioned regions, was preceded by the Černavoda III group, and was superseded by the Vučedol culture and the Bubanj-Hum II group in the Morava valle and the Struma valley, and the Glina II-Schnekenber group in Oltenija and the territory of Transylvania and the southern Carpathians. Analysis of the distribution of settlements and stylistictopological characteristics of ceramics from all of the settlements led to the conclusion that the oldest settlements, without ceramics with furchenstich ornamentation, were established in Ključ in Negotinska Krajina, leading to the assumption that the representatives of the Coţofeni group came from Oltenia and from the southern Carpathians. A large number fo sites west of Ključ, along the Danube, at which ceramics with furchenstich ornamentation were noted, point to the direction of expansion of Kostolac elements, from Banat, Branicevo and Stig. The influence of the Kostolac group was very strong starting in the Coţofeni II phase, even in Romanian sites, given that in Transylvania and in the southern Carpathians a large number of ceramic finds were found with furchenstich ornamentation, while it is interesting that only sporadic appearances were noted in Oltenia. It is clear that Coţofeni group settlements represented a certain barrier to the expansion of these elements to the east. With the formation of the Coţofeni-Kostolac group which was created through contacts between representatives of the Coţofeni to the east and the representatives of the Kostolac group to the west and north-west a short period of coexistence occurred on this territory. Absolute dating of the chronological framework of the Coţofeni-Kostolac group in the Danube valley and in eastern Serbia can only be assigned indirectly, as there is no carbon dating available from these sites. According to J. Bojačijev, phase II-III of the Coţofeni group (4400-4300 bp) can be assigned chronologically approximately to the same period as the Kostolac group (4500-4100 bp), and if we suppose that the Coţofeni-Kostolac group occurred a little while after the occurrence of the Kostolac group, it can be concluded that the Coţofeni-Kostolac group existed at the end of the IV and the first half of the III millennium BC, although it is possible that it continued even later in particular regions. The results for the oldest and the middle phase of the Kostolac cultural group at Gomolava range between 3038-2903 BC and 3108-2877 BC, while the Kostolac culture at the Streim and Vučedol sits was dated 3310-2920 BC, as is the approximate dating of settlements of this group in Pivnica (3042-2857 BC). All the dating of Kostolac group sites indicate that this cultural group occurred and developed in the period of the last quarter of the IV and the first half of the III millennium BC, which would chronologically assign the Coţofeni-Kostolac group in the Morava valley and Timočka Krajina to the end of the IV and the start of the III millennium BC, and to the ensuing period.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Kulturna grupa Kocofeni-Kostolac na teritoriji severoistočne Srbije
T1  - Coţofeni-Kostolac culture on the territory of north-eastern Serbia
EP  - 94
IS  - 62
SP  - 65
DO  - 10.2298/STA1262065K
UR  - conv_656
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Kapuran, Aleksandar and Bulatović, Aleksandar",
year = "2012",
abstract = "Poslednjih godina se pokazalo da na teritoriji Srbije postoji mnogo veći broj lokaliteta Kocofeni kulturne grupe nego što je publikovano pre jedne ili više decenija. Objedinjavanjem nepublikovanih podataka i dokumentacije sa arheoloških iskopavanja i rekognosciranja, kao i apsolutnim datumima dobijenim poslednjih godina, stvorena je potreba da se u nekim aspektima koriguju i bolje sagledaju rasprostranjenost, način života i trajanje ove kulturne grupe na prostoru severoistočne Srbije, gde je ona i najprisutnija. Osim nalaza materijalne kulture, u radu su prezentovane topografske karakteristike naselja koja su sada u najvećem procentu georeferencirana. Ovaj rad, takođe, predstavlja pokušaj da se pojasne neke od dilema vezanih za društveno-ekonomski i tehnološki razvoj populacija kasnog bakarnog i ranog bronzanog doba., The settlement of the territory of north-eastern Serbia by the representatives of the Coţofeni culture began during the second half of the IV millennium, probably under the pressure of invading tribes from Euroasian steppe. This territory extended over Transylvania, Banat, Oltenia and Muntenia (Map 2). On the territory of Serbia they settled from the Djrerdap gorge up to the Mlava river to the west, and through Kučajske mountains, Bor, Zaječar and further to the south, up to Niš. Aspecific symbiosis occurred on the territory of Serbia between the Coţofeni and the Kostolac cultures. According to the results of the latest project of re-identification, the number of Coţofeni-Kostolac sites and settlements increased to 76. After all the sites were re-identified and georeferenced, with consideration of the surrounding landscape, hydrography, geomorphology of the terrain and the character of the ceramic production finds, we believe that there is a need for re-analyzing specific aspects of the cultural and geographic development not only of settlements, but of the entire Coţofeni-Kostolac cultural phenomenon. In this paper we considered three archaeological sites in the Nišava valley, given that re-identification work over the past several years yielded new information (Bubanj-Staro Selo, Velika Humska čuka and Donja Vrežina). The topography of Coţofeni-Kostolac settlements on the territory of north-eastern Serbia, the Serbian part of the Danube valley and its hinterland, is characterized by diversity of position (location above sea level and landscape placement), types of houses and economic survival. In the 70’s of the last century sites were identified that are located in very inaccessible terrain, which in particular cases has an slope incline of 45°, where the number of such settlements in the meantime increased to nine. They are represented by Kulmja Škjopuluji in Klokočevac and Pjatra Kosti in Crnajka (T. I/1-2; Map 1/9), followed by Vratna -Veliki most (T. I/ 7; Map 1/33), Bogovina-above a cave (T. I/ 4; Map 1/8), Jezero (T. I/ 3; Map 1/12), Kljanc (T. I/3; Map 1/11), Turija-Stenje (T. I/ 6; Map 1/22), Mokranjske stene-quarry (T. I/ 5; Map 1/39) and Bolvan (T. I/ 8; Map 1/66). These settlements have several other common elements, the most important being that each one of the elevated settlements is positioned on the rocky peak of a canyon, in places where smaller rivers or brooks flow into a larger river. We can suppose how the selection of such positions was of strategic importance, given that in the mountainous area of north-eastern Serbia the system of waterways and river valleys represents communicational links from prehistory to modern times. The second common characteristic of these settlements is the rocky massif which provided the foundation for their erection. The rock foundation in the majority of cases is of limestone origin and is well suited to artificial nivelation into terraces atop which surface structures could be built using wood covered with mud (Jezero, Kulmja Škjopuluji, Pjatra Kosti, Vratna, Bogovina). The third shared characteristic is that one or more caves are usually located in the immediate vicinity of settlements. An example of the symbiosis of cave and hill fort Coţofeni-Kostolac settlements is the vicinity of the Zavojsko jezero near Majdanpek. So far two hill fort settlements, Jezero and Kljanc (T. I/3; Map 1/11-12), were identified in this area, built on limestone cliffs above the Mali Pek river. The Rajkova cave (Map 1/14), Paskova cave and Kapetanova cave (Map 1/13) are located in their immediate vicinity, in which the remains of anthropogenic activity were discovered. The Kapetanova cave provides stratigraphy of over 3 m high, which represents a rare case for Coţofeni-Kostolac cultural sites. This fact does not only indicate its long-term use, but could provide the answer to the genesis and duration of this cultural phenomenon on the territory of the Serbian part of the Djerdap hinterland. The fourth shared characteristic which links these settlements is their dominant position in the landscape. Given that their position and appearance are readily visible from a considerable distance, they probably were not used for hiding, but for making their position prominent. We suppose that pastoral communities emphasized in this manner their control of mountain crosspass and roads, particularly in places where rivers exit narrow canyons in important communications paths to the Crni and Beli Timok, Pek and Danuber rivers. The other Coţofeni-Kostolac type settlement on the territory of north-eastern Serbia is represented by settlements that are positioned on smaller hills or on gentle slopes that on the average range between 336 and 210 m above sea level. The only fortified hill fort settlement discovered so far, Čoka lu Balaš near Krivelj (Map 1/3) belongs to this group. The archaeological sites Velika Čuka i Neresnica (Map 1/23), Smiljkova glavica in Štubik (Map 1/31) and Ćetaće in Kovilovo (Map 1/38) are located on wide and flat, elevated plateaus that dominate up on river valleys. Judging by the considerable surface that they occupy, their position and surroundings for these two settlements, we can suppose that they could have been used for wintering places or points for gathering of flocks and shepherds during pauses between seasonal migrations. They are primarily characterized by the natural surroundings of smaller hills and larger river valleys, as well as the relatively low above sea level elevation on which they are located. Such 'seasonal stations or checkpoints' on which larger groups of shepherds could gather with their flocks during the winter months represented important locations in the lives of pastoral communities. During the warm summer period, homesteads with stable architecture are abandoned because of migrations into mountain areas, where favourable grazing areas area located. Certain groups of shepherds during autumn returned to these settlements en route to lowlands and river terraces, while other groups probably continued their journey to gathering centres in valleys near the Danube and the Timok rivers. The next type of settlement belongs to high, multi-layered settlements (Arija baba-Košobrdo, Čoka Kormaroš, Field of Z. Brzanović, Varzari and Smedovac-Grabar-Svračar) which represent sunbathed dominant positions, with a good view of the surrounding area, well suited to long-term occupation. Settlements on high elevations of this type are usually linked with landscapes that predominate in grazing areas and in which there are no large forests. The last type of Coţofeni-Kostolac settlement is characteristic of lowland settlements positioned on river terraces. The settlements on the right bank of the Danube, around Ključ (Kladovo- Brodoimpeks, Mala Vrbica, Zbradila-Fund, Korbovo- Obala, Vajuga-Pesak, Jakomirski potok estuary, Velesnica, Ljubič evac-river bank, Ljubičevac-Island, Brzi prun, Slatinska reka estuary, Knjepište, Ruženjka, Kusjak-Bordjej, Kusjak-Motel, Kusjak-Vrkalj), represented points at which shepherd’s flocks could remain for longer periods, waiting for favourable conditions for crossing to the other side of the river. This assumption is based on old maps predating the construction of the accumulation lake. These maps indicate that in the immediate vicinity of these settlements were located small sand islands linked to the river bank, pointing to shallows and crossing points. These sections of the river bank, during prolonged droughts or during cold winters, when ice was formed, could have been places where the river was crossed from one side to the other. Residential architecture cannot be precisely defined, given that the discovered remains of houses are very meagre and lack sufficient elements for reconstruction. The most recent excavations on the Bubanj-Staro Selo settlemant at Niš, indicate an identical type of architectural construction as discovered at Gomolava and Bordjej which represents structures that are characteristic for lowland areas. Houses in hill fort settlements built on artificial terraces have been mostly devastated by erosion, so that judging by the impressions of wooden structures and wattle and daub, as well as the remains of hearths, it can be asserted that these were residential structures. Numerous studies so far noted that based on the stylistic and typological characteristics of ceramics on archaeological sites in Timočka Krajina it is possible to distinguish between two phases of the Coţofeni group, where the first is dominated by ornamental techniques of carving that are characteristic of the Coţofeni group, and a later phase in which this style is mixed with the furchenstich, as well as other Kostolac cultural elements (furchenstich, certain types of ceramics, etc.). The fact is that the majority of Coţofeni-Kostolac group sites in eastern Serbia have not been excavated, or have only been partially excavated, and that no vertical stratigraphy had been observed, where no stratigraphic relationship between stylistic-topological characteristics of older ceramics (Coţofeni) and the more recent phase (Coţofeni-Kostolac) have been established. These are mostly settlements in which ceramics were observed with elements both of the Kostolac and the Coţofeni group, or only with elements of the Coţofeni group, while settlements with only Kostolac ceramics have not been identified. Therefore, in Serbia it is only possible to distinguish between sites where furchenstich ornamentation has been observed and those where this type of ornamentation still has not been observed. Still, it is unclear whether this distinction can be applied to period assignment, or whether it is in fact caused by settlement of different populations in different regions of Eastern Serbia - the Kostolac region from the west and the Coţofeni group from the East. In Romania, however, vertical stratigraphy was observed at several settlements where development phases were observed of the Coţofeni group, so that based on the stratigraphy at those sites, with certain caution, it is possible to draw conclusions about the development of the Coţofeni-Kostolac group in eastern Serbia. Settlements without any furchenstich ornamentation would be assigned to the older phase (Coţofeni group) where ceramics characteristic of the Coţofeni group have been observed, although observed shapes and ornaments are usually associated with the furchenstich technique and the more recent phase of the group. The most frequent type of vessels at sites in eastern Serbia are amphorae with extended funnel shaped necks, ornamented below the neck with carved lines or with stamped ornamentation (fig. 6, 21, 38, 64, 71, 89, 98-100, 104, 109, 115, 116, 134), fishbone shape impressions (fig. 4, 28), and in the more recent period furchenstich ornamentation or point impressions (fig. 9, 20, 25, 140), with a tongue shaped or vertically perforated handle, tunnel shaped or horse-shoe shaped handle below the rim (fig. 6, 9, 20, 21, 51, 63, 100, 126, 134, 88, 115 ). The second characteristic type of vessel are semi-spherical bowls with deeper recipients, with flat rims (fig. 11, 12, 23, 27, 29, 52-54, 57, 59-60, 74, 79, 81, 82, 90, 91, 95, 113, 124, 125, 131 and 145), or with shallower recipients, with a slanted, triangular rim or T-shaped profiled rim (14, 19, 133 and 146). Such vessels are characteristic for both phases, because they are ornamented, besides vertical ribs, with carves, and with furchenstich ornamentation (fig. 23, 68, 81 and 82). The third type of vessels are semi-spherical bowls with contracted rims creating a nearly spherical shape. They can be ornamented with vertical ribs on rims (fig. 148) in combination with pinholes (fig. 17), carves (fig. 61, 84, 85) or line impressions (fig. 132). Less frequent vessels on the territory of northeastern Serbia are biconical or spherical goblets, followed by pare-shaped goblets with a single handle, larger pare-shaped amphorae with an extended or conical neck, with small handles below the rim, ornamented with a series of carves (fig. 39, 86), as well as barrel or spherical pots ornamented with carves, horizontal tapes or circular impressions (fig. 45-47, 141, 142). The appearance of ropeshape ornaments is very significant, given that they appear in Rumanian finds in the second phase of the Coţofeni group, and most frequently in the third phase. This ornament was sporadically observed in the far south, on the Dikili Taš site on the northern shore of the Aegean sea, in level 6, which according to the author belongs chronologically to the Bubanj-Hum II group and the Kostolac group. Its presence at sites in eastern Serbia can be linked to the older phase at the majority of settlements, except in the case of Grabar-Svračar, as these ceramics were not found alongside ceramics with furchenstich. The largest number of sites with only Coţofeni elements on ceramics have been observed (34), but it is indicative that only a few have been excavated. 28 sites with Kostolac group elements were noted, while 17 unspecified sites in which the period cannot be precisely defined have been identified. According to the stratigraphy of several of the mentioned sites in western Bulgaria, in the Morava valley and in southern Romania it can be concluded that the Coţofeni group (northeastern Serbia and Romania) and the Coţofeni-Kostolac group (Morava valley and western Bulgaria), in all of the mentioned regions, was preceded by the Černavoda III group, and was superseded by the Vučedol culture and the Bubanj-Hum II group in the Morava valle and the Struma valley, and the Glina II-Schnekenber group in Oltenija and the territory of Transylvania and the southern Carpathians. Analysis of the distribution of settlements and stylistictopological characteristics of ceramics from all of the settlements led to the conclusion that the oldest settlements, without ceramics with furchenstich ornamentation, were established in Ključ in Negotinska Krajina, leading to the assumption that the representatives of the Coţofeni group came from Oltenia and from the southern Carpathians. A large number fo sites west of Ključ, along the Danube, at which ceramics with furchenstich ornamentation were noted, point to the direction of expansion of Kostolac elements, from Banat, Branicevo and Stig. The influence of the Kostolac group was very strong starting in the Coţofeni II phase, even in Romanian sites, given that in Transylvania and in the southern Carpathians a large number of ceramic finds were found with furchenstich ornamentation, while it is interesting that only sporadic appearances were noted in Oltenia. It is clear that Coţofeni group settlements represented a certain barrier to the expansion of these elements to the east. With the formation of the Coţofeni-Kostolac group which was created through contacts between representatives of the Coţofeni to the east and the representatives of the Kostolac group to the west and north-west a short period of coexistence occurred on this territory. Absolute dating of the chronological framework of the Coţofeni-Kostolac group in the Danube valley and in eastern Serbia can only be assigned indirectly, as there is no carbon dating available from these sites. According to J. Bojačijev, phase II-III of the Coţofeni group (4400-4300 bp) can be assigned chronologically approximately to the same period as the Kostolac group (4500-4100 bp), and if we suppose that the Coţofeni-Kostolac group occurred a little while after the occurrence of the Kostolac group, it can be concluded that the Coţofeni-Kostolac group existed at the end of the IV and the first half of the III millennium BC, although it is possible that it continued even later in particular regions. The results for the oldest and the middle phase of the Kostolac cultural group at Gomolava range between 3038-2903 BC and 3108-2877 BC, while the Kostolac culture at the Streim and Vučedol sits was dated 3310-2920 BC, as is the approximate dating of settlements of this group in Pivnica (3042-2857 BC). All the dating of Kostolac group sites indicate that this cultural group occurred and developed in the period of the last quarter of the IV and the first half of the III millennium BC, which would chronologically assign the Coţofeni-Kostolac group in the Morava valley and Timočka Krajina to the end of the IV and the start of the III millennium BC, and to the ensuing period.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Kulturna grupa Kocofeni-Kostolac na teritoriji severoistočne Srbije, Coţofeni-Kostolac culture on the territory of north-eastern Serbia",
pages = "94-65",
number = "62",
doi = "10.2298/STA1262065K",
url = "conv_656"
}
Kapuran, A.,& Bulatović, A.. (2012). Kulturna grupa Kocofeni-Kostolac na teritoriji severoistočne Srbije. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(62), 65-94.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1262065K
conv_656
Kapuran A, Bulatović A. Kulturna grupa Kocofeni-Kostolac na teritoriji severoistočne Srbije. in Starinar. 2012;(62):65-94.
doi:10.2298/STA1262065K
conv_656 .
Kapuran, Aleksandar, Bulatović, Aleksandar, "Kulturna grupa Kocofeni-Kostolac na teritoriji severoistočne Srbije" in Starinar, no. 62 (2012):65-94,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1262065K .,
conv_656 .
1

Latenski nalazi u okolini Bora - prilog proučavanju latenske kulture u Timočkoj krajini

Bulatović, Aleksandar; Kapuran, Aleksandar; Jovanović, Igor

(Narodni muzej, Beograd, 2011)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
AU  - Jovanović, Igor
PY  - 2011
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/153
AB  - U radu su predstavljeni nepublikovani nalazi keramike sa lokaliteta koji se nalaze u neposrednoj okolini Bora, kao i sa lokaliteta Ćetaće u Kučaju. Sva nalazišta pripadaju poznolatenskom periodu, a nalazi su stilsko-tipološki analogni keramici sa brojnih lokaliteta u Đerdapu, Sremu, južnoj Bačkoj i južnomoravskom slivu.
AB  - We are presenting in this work unpublished pottery finds from few sites in the vicinity of Bor and finds from the site Ćetaće near Kučevo that are housed in the Museum of Mining and Metallurgy in Bor. These finds along with the data from recently published sites in the basins of the rivers Svrljiški Timok and Crni Timok helped to supplement archaeological map of the La Tene sites in the Timok river basin dating from the last two centuries BC. On the basis of the analogous pottery all presented sites are dated to the Late La Tene period i.e. to the period from the end of 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD. The finds of La Tene culture and new registered settlements besides supplementing the map of La Tene sites in this territory also suggested more intensive life in this period than it has been considered until recently.
PB  - Narodni muzej, Beograd
T2  - Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija
T1  - Latenski nalazi u okolini Bora - prilog proučavanju latenske kulture u Timočkoj krajini
T1  - La Tene finds in the vicinity of Bor
EP  - 128
IS  - 20-1
SP  - 119
UR  - conv_196
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Bulatović, Aleksandar and Kapuran, Aleksandar and Jovanović, Igor",
year = "2011",
abstract = "U radu su predstavljeni nepublikovani nalazi keramike sa lokaliteta koji se nalaze u neposrednoj okolini Bora, kao i sa lokaliteta Ćetaće u Kučaju. Sva nalazišta pripadaju poznolatenskom periodu, a nalazi su stilsko-tipološki analogni keramici sa brojnih lokaliteta u Đerdapu, Sremu, južnoj Bačkoj i južnomoravskom slivu., We are presenting in this work unpublished pottery finds from few sites in the vicinity of Bor and finds from the site Ćetaće near Kučevo that are housed in the Museum of Mining and Metallurgy in Bor. These finds along with the data from recently published sites in the basins of the rivers Svrljiški Timok and Crni Timok helped to supplement archaeological map of the La Tene sites in the Timok river basin dating from the last two centuries BC. On the basis of the analogous pottery all presented sites are dated to the Late La Tene period i.e. to the period from the end of 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD. The finds of La Tene culture and new registered settlements besides supplementing the map of La Tene sites in this territory also suggested more intensive life in this period than it has been considered until recently.",
publisher = "Narodni muzej, Beograd",
journal = "Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija",
title = "Latenski nalazi u okolini Bora - prilog proučavanju latenske kulture u Timočkoj krajini, La Tene finds in the vicinity of Bor",
pages = "128-119",
number = "20-1",
url = "conv_196"
}
Bulatović, A., Kapuran, A.,& Jovanović, I.. (2011). Latenski nalazi u okolini Bora - prilog proučavanju latenske kulture u Timočkoj krajini. in Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija
Narodni muzej, Beograd.(20-1), 119-128.
conv_196
Bulatović A, Kapuran A, Jovanović I. Latenski nalazi u okolini Bora - prilog proučavanju latenske kulture u Timočkoj krajini. in Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija. 2011;(20-1):119-128.
conv_196 .
Bulatović, Aleksandar, Kapuran, Aleksandar, Jovanović, Igor, "Latenski nalazi u okolini Bora - prilog proučavanju latenske kulture u Timočkoj krajini" in Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija, no. 20-1 (2011):119-128,
conv_196 .

Necropolis on Bor lake: New reports on Bronze age burial

Kapuran, Aleksandar; Miladinović-Radmilović, Nataša

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2011)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
AU  - Miladinović-Radmilović, Nataša
PY  - 2011
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/141
AB  - This article deals with the social and anthropological aspects of burial
   rituals during the Middle Bronze Age in Timočka Krajina. Decades of
   systematic research of necropolises and reconnaissance in the basin of the
   Crni Timok proved an increase in number of sites around ore - rich areas of
   the east Kučaj mountains as well as around Romuliana site and the fertile
   valleys of Džanovo polje (Map. 1). The quantitative increase in settlements
   was reflected by the emergence of large necropolises, only three of which
   have been systematically explored; those in Trnjani, Magura and Bor Lake
   (Fig. 1; Plan 1). Analysis of geographical features of many settlements and
   their position in relation to natural resources helped define two
   communities, one of which carried out mining and metallurgical activities,
   while the other group engaged in the production of food. Both groups lived in
   the immediate vicinity and mutual dependence, functioning within a developed
   market for copper production. During the exploration of the necropolis near
   Bor Lake in 1997, the remains of burnt skeletons were collected from burial
   structures 2/97 and 13/97 (Fig. 2; Plans 2 and 3). Anthropological analysis
   of the cremated remains of the deceased showed that high temperatures were
   used during the cremation process, which we assume could have only been
   achieved in metallurgical furnaces. This is confirmed by the fact that the
   skeletal fragments contain traces of melted metal, as well as finds of bronze
   slag inside urns and grave structures in the necropolis in Trnjani (Figs. 3
   and 4; Tables 1-4). Burial ritual of this kind was not proved by systematic
   archaeological research of necropolises in the basin of Crni Timok, although
   anthropological data collected from necropolises linked to metallurgical
   settlements may indicate some guidelines in the ritual cremation of prominent
   members of these communities.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Necropolis on Bor lake: New reports on Bronze age burial
EP  - 153
IS  - 61
SP  - 141
DO  - 10.2298/STA1161141K
UR  - conv_644
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Kapuran, Aleksandar and Miladinović-Radmilović, Nataša",
year = "2011",
abstract = "This article deals with the social and anthropological aspects of burial
   rituals during the Middle Bronze Age in Timočka Krajina. Decades of
   systematic research of necropolises and reconnaissance in the basin of the
   Crni Timok proved an increase in number of sites around ore - rich areas of
   the east Kučaj mountains as well as around Romuliana site and the fertile
   valleys of Džanovo polje (Map. 1). The quantitative increase in settlements
   was reflected by the emergence of large necropolises, only three of which
   have been systematically explored; those in Trnjani, Magura and Bor Lake
   (Fig. 1; Plan 1). Analysis of geographical features of many settlements and
   their position in relation to natural resources helped define two
   communities, one of which carried out mining and metallurgical activities,
   while the other group engaged in the production of food. Both groups lived in
   the immediate vicinity and mutual dependence, functioning within a developed
   market for copper production. During the exploration of the necropolis near
   Bor Lake in 1997, the remains of burnt skeletons were collected from burial
   structures 2/97 and 13/97 (Fig. 2; Plans 2 and 3). Anthropological analysis
   of the cremated remains of the deceased showed that high temperatures were
   used during the cremation process, which we assume could have only been
   achieved in metallurgical furnaces. This is confirmed by the fact that the
   skeletal fragments contain traces of melted metal, as well as finds of bronze
   slag inside urns and grave structures in the necropolis in Trnjani (Figs. 3
   and 4; Tables 1-4). Burial ritual of this kind was not proved by systematic
   archaeological research of necropolises in the basin of Crni Timok, although
   anthropological data collected from necropolises linked to metallurgical
   settlements may indicate some guidelines in the ritual cremation of prominent
   members of these communities.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Necropolis on Bor lake: New reports on Bronze age burial",
pages = "153-141",
number = "61",
doi = "10.2298/STA1161141K",
url = "conv_644"
}
Kapuran, A.,& Miladinović-Radmilović, N.. (2011). Necropolis on Bor lake: New reports on Bronze age burial. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(61), 141-153.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1161141K
conv_644
Kapuran A, Miladinović-Radmilović N. Necropolis on Bor lake: New reports on Bronze age burial. in Starinar. 2011;(61):141-153.
doi:10.2298/STA1161141K
conv_644 .
Kapuran, Aleksandar, Miladinović-Radmilović, Nataša, "Necropolis on Bor lake: New reports on Bronze age burial" in Starinar, no. 61 (2011):141-153,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1161141K .,
conv_644 .

Prilozi za poznavanje praistorije u raškoj oblasti

Kapuran, Aleksandar; Jevtić, Miloš

(Narodni muzej, Beograd, 2011)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
AU  - Jevtić, Miloš
PY  - 2011
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/133
AB  - Arheološka istraživanja izvršena na srednjovekovnim utvrđenjima Gradina Končuljić, Gradina Brvenik i Gradina Trešnjevica, izvršio je Istorijski institut u okviru projekta Ministarstva za nauku i tehnološki razvoj Re publike Srbije. Ispod srednjovekovnih otkriveni su i praistorijski horizonti koji su se kretali od ranog bronzanog doba do gvozdenog doba III. Ovi praistorijski nalazi nam ukazuju kako je oblast zapadne Srbije i same Pešterske visoravni, kao razdelnice Balkanskog poluostrva, mogla biti zona mešavine različitih regionalnih uticaja. Horizont RBD-a na lokalitetu Končuljić, predstavlja kontinuitet iz eneolitskog supstrata i pokazuje istovremeni uticaj iz područja centralne Bosne, kao i iz Panonije i Pomoravlja. Horizont prelaznog perioda iz mlađeg bronzanog doba u starije gvozdeno doba na Gradini Brvenik, kao i nalazi koji pripadaju ranoj fazi Bosuta i Kalakače, pokazuju izvesne uticaje iz Pomoravlja. Nalazi iz perioda gvozdenog doba III, otkriveni na Brveniku i Trešnjevici široko su rasprostranjeni na teritoriji Raške od V do IV veka p. n. e., iako sa primetnim uticajem glasinačke kulturne grupe, ukazuju i na moguće pravce prodora arhajske i helenističke kulture u središte Balkanskog poluostrva.
AB  - The archaeological picture of prehistory in western Serbia, Raška region and Brvenik district has been supplemented by archaeological investigations of the hillforts Končuljić, Brvenik and Trešnjevica organized by the Institute of History in Belgrade. The investigations of archaeological remains of fortifications from the period of Turkish domination, Serbian medieval period and period of Byzantine domination revealed sporadic pottery finds from the Bronze and Iron Age in the earliest cultural layers. Two horizons of prehistoric settlement were discovered at the hillfort Končulj. The earlier settlement dates from the Early Bronze Age in the central Balkans, central Bosnia and Pannonia. From the later horizon date the finds, which could be attributed to the Iron Age III or to 5th-4th centuries BC and that has analogies with material from Novi Pazar, Osaonica and Hisar in Leskovac. Two prehistoric horizons were also discovered at the hillfort Trešnjevica. The earlier horizon is characterized by the pottery from the period of transition from Bronze to Iron Age and period of channeled pottery in the Danube basin. The material from the later horizon dates from the early phase of Bosut and Kalakača but with influences from the Morava valley. The prehistoric material was discovered at hillfort Trešnjevica in the trench excavated in the fortification suburbium, so it means that material probably reached this location as result of erosion. Therefore, the only way to reconstruct the stratigraphy is to analyze stylistic and typological characteristics of the material. Here, also we were able to distinguish two cultural horizons, earlier one with material from the Iron Age II and later with material from early antique, Greek and Hellenistic period typical of the south Morava valley.
PB  - Narodni muzej, Beograd
T2  - Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija
T1  - Prilozi za poznavanje praistorije u raškoj oblasti
T1  - New data about prehistory in the Raška region
EP  - 101
IS  - 20-1
SP  - 83
UR  - conv_195
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Kapuran, Aleksandar and Jevtić, Miloš",
year = "2011",
abstract = "Arheološka istraživanja izvršena na srednjovekovnim utvrđenjima Gradina Končuljić, Gradina Brvenik i Gradina Trešnjevica, izvršio je Istorijski institut u okviru projekta Ministarstva za nauku i tehnološki razvoj Re publike Srbije. Ispod srednjovekovnih otkriveni su i praistorijski horizonti koji su se kretali od ranog bronzanog doba do gvozdenog doba III. Ovi praistorijski nalazi nam ukazuju kako je oblast zapadne Srbije i same Pešterske visoravni, kao razdelnice Balkanskog poluostrva, mogla biti zona mešavine različitih regionalnih uticaja. Horizont RBD-a na lokalitetu Končuljić, predstavlja kontinuitet iz eneolitskog supstrata i pokazuje istovremeni uticaj iz područja centralne Bosne, kao i iz Panonije i Pomoravlja. Horizont prelaznog perioda iz mlađeg bronzanog doba u starije gvozdeno doba na Gradini Brvenik, kao i nalazi koji pripadaju ranoj fazi Bosuta i Kalakače, pokazuju izvesne uticaje iz Pomoravlja. Nalazi iz perioda gvozdenog doba III, otkriveni na Brveniku i Trešnjevici široko su rasprostranjeni na teritoriji Raške od V do IV veka p. n. e., iako sa primetnim uticajem glasinačke kulturne grupe, ukazuju i na moguće pravce prodora arhajske i helenističke kulture u središte Balkanskog poluostrva., The archaeological picture of prehistory in western Serbia, Raška region and Brvenik district has been supplemented by archaeological investigations of the hillforts Končuljić, Brvenik and Trešnjevica organized by the Institute of History in Belgrade. The investigations of archaeological remains of fortifications from the period of Turkish domination, Serbian medieval period and period of Byzantine domination revealed sporadic pottery finds from the Bronze and Iron Age in the earliest cultural layers. Two horizons of prehistoric settlement were discovered at the hillfort Končulj. The earlier settlement dates from the Early Bronze Age in the central Balkans, central Bosnia and Pannonia. From the later horizon date the finds, which could be attributed to the Iron Age III or to 5th-4th centuries BC and that has analogies with material from Novi Pazar, Osaonica and Hisar in Leskovac. Two prehistoric horizons were also discovered at the hillfort Trešnjevica. The earlier horizon is characterized by the pottery from the period of transition from Bronze to Iron Age and period of channeled pottery in the Danube basin. The material from the later horizon dates from the early phase of Bosut and Kalakača but with influences from the Morava valley. The prehistoric material was discovered at hillfort Trešnjevica in the trench excavated in the fortification suburbium, so it means that material probably reached this location as result of erosion. Therefore, the only way to reconstruct the stratigraphy is to analyze stylistic and typological characteristics of the material. Here, also we were able to distinguish two cultural horizons, earlier one with material from the Iron Age II and later with material from early antique, Greek and Hellenistic period typical of the south Morava valley.",
publisher = "Narodni muzej, Beograd",
journal = "Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija",
title = "Prilozi za poznavanje praistorije u raškoj oblasti, New data about prehistory in the Raška region",
pages = "101-83",
number = "20-1",
url = "conv_195"
}
Kapuran, A.,& Jevtić, M.. (2011). Prilozi za poznavanje praistorije u raškoj oblasti. in Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija
Narodni muzej, Beograd.(20-1), 83-101.
conv_195
Kapuran A, Jevtić M. Prilozi za poznavanje praistorije u raškoj oblasti. in Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija. 2011;(20-1):83-101.
conv_195 .
Kapuran, Aleksandar, Jevtić, Miloš, "Prilozi za poznavanje praistorije u raškoj oblasti" in Zbornik Narodnog muzeja - serija: Arheologija, no. 20-1 (2011):83-101,
conv_195 .

Naselja ranog neolita u Timočkoj krajini i zaleđu Đerdapa

Kapuran, Aleksandar; Bulatović, Aleksandar; Jovanović, Igor

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2010)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
AU  - Bulatović, Aleksandar
AU  - Jovanović, Igor
PY  - 2010
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/127
AB  - Ukoliko pogledamo arheološke karte neolitskih nalazišta na teritoriji Srbije, primetićemo prazan prostor bez označenih lokaliteta, u severoistočnoj Srbiji, između Pomoravlja i Đerdapa. Kučajna kod Bora predstavlja jedino sistematski istraženo neolitsko naselje iz perioda ranog neolita na teritoriji sliva Crnog Timoka. Cilj ovog rada je da prikaže nove i nepublikovane neolitske lokalitete konstatovane tokom više rekognosciranja sa područja srednjeg toka ovog značajnog komunikacijskog pravca Timočke Krajine. U radu je naročita pažnja posvećena topografskim karakteristikama naselja i prirodnom okruženju, u cilju boljeg razumevanja procesa naseljavanja ovog dela Srbije.
AB  - For many years, the territory along the course of the Crni Timok river in northeast Serbia was not presented as an interesting area for early Neolithic excavation. However, recent inspection of older unpublished data, with newer reconnaissance, has shed new light on this period of prehistory. A larger number of sites have been discovered with similar topographical positions on the edges/rims of large areas or on ridges above river courses. Thanks to cooperation between the geographical project TOPOI from Berlin and the Archaeological Institute in Belgrade, work has begun on the production of a digital 'archaeological model of probability' (ARM), which will improve reconnaissance of this region. Alongside the only systematic excavation/investigation of settlements in Kučajna, 16 more localities have been confirmed, situated in the area between the Roman imperial palace of Felix Romuiana in the south and Bor in the north. They are located at the following sites: Cerova Faca and Dubrava in Brestovac; Kot 1 and 2, Punđilov potok (Punđil's stream) in Metovnica; La Bunar in Šarbanovac; Smolnica, Abri above Lazareve pećine (Lazarus' cave), Donja Stopanja (Lower Stopanja) Kobila in Zlot. In the area around Felix Romuliana several settlements have been discovered: in sectors Intra and Extra muros, Kravarnik, Varzari, Petronj 2, sites between Magura and Rimski majdan (Roman mine) and Višicina Bašta. From the examination of finds discovered at these sites it can be concluded that on the territory along the course of the River Timok the population of the Starčevo-Kereš-Kriš cultural complex was relatively well established during the early Neolithic period. The Neolithic occupation of the region had proceeded from the Đerdap gorge in the north and Sićevačka, Svrljiška and Trgoviška gorges in the south, towards the course of the River Timok i.e. the central part of north-east Serbia. The Mesolithic populations had gradually accepted the production of food. Utilizing the optimal climate and fertile soil, they improved their husbandry through new agricultural methods and the better domestication of animals. This experimental process demanded successive migrations, which impoverished the quality of soil and the seasonal movements of animals that needed to be tamed. By analysis of the topographical and geomorphologic character of this terrain, early Neolithic settlements can be described as being agricultural-livestock husbandry and livestock husbandry-hunting based. The first settlements were located on gently inclined terrains relatively close to water sources, at altitudes of 180 to 300 m. The second category of settlements were formed on uplands, offering a better view of the terrain, 230 to over 450 metres above sea level. These were probably short-term or seasonal settlements since such territories were usually unsuitable for habitation during the winter months. The poor geomorphology of the land, the magma-rock substratum and ill-drained soil, in combination with primitive agriculture, guaranteed greater soil erosion, which would destroy the economic worth of the soil. With the disappearance of the early- Neolithic population from this region, human habitation did not reoccur until several millennia later, during the middle Bronze age.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - Naselja ranog neolita u Timočkoj krajini i zaleđu Đerdapa
T1  - The neolithic settlements in the Timok region and Đerdap gorge hinterland
EP  - 36
IS  - 60
SP  - 19
DO  - 10.2298/STA1060019K
UR  - conv_709
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Kapuran, Aleksandar and Bulatović, Aleksandar and Jovanović, Igor",
year = "2010",
abstract = "Ukoliko pogledamo arheološke karte neolitskih nalazišta na teritoriji Srbije, primetićemo prazan prostor bez označenih lokaliteta, u severoistočnoj Srbiji, između Pomoravlja i Đerdapa. Kučajna kod Bora predstavlja jedino sistematski istraženo neolitsko naselje iz perioda ranog neolita na teritoriji sliva Crnog Timoka. Cilj ovog rada je da prikaže nove i nepublikovane neolitske lokalitete konstatovane tokom više rekognosciranja sa područja srednjeg toka ovog značajnog komunikacijskog pravca Timočke Krajine. U radu je naročita pažnja posvećena topografskim karakteristikama naselja i prirodnom okruženju, u cilju boljeg razumevanja procesa naseljavanja ovog dela Srbije., For many years, the territory along the course of the Crni Timok river in northeast Serbia was not presented as an interesting area for early Neolithic excavation. However, recent inspection of older unpublished data, with newer reconnaissance, has shed new light on this period of prehistory. A larger number of sites have been discovered with similar topographical positions on the edges/rims of large areas or on ridges above river courses. Thanks to cooperation between the geographical project TOPOI from Berlin and the Archaeological Institute in Belgrade, work has begun on the production of a digital 'archaeological model of probability' (ARM), which will improve reconnaissance of this region. Alongside the only systematic excavation/investigation of settlements in Kučajna, 16 more localities have been confirmed, situated in the area between the Roman imperial palace of Felix Romuiana in the south and Bor in the north. They are located at the following sites: Cerova Faca and Dubrava in Brestovac; Kot 1 and 2, Punđilov potok (Punđil's stream) in Metovnica; La Bunar in Šarbanovac; Smolnica, Abri above Lazareve pećine (Lazarus' cave), Donja Stopanja (Lower Stopanja) Kobila in Zlot. In the area around Felix Romuliana several settlements have been discovered: in sectors Intra and Extra muros, Kravarnik, Varzari, Petronj 2, sites between Magura and Rimski majdan (Roman mine) and Višicina Bašta. From the examination of finds discovered at these sites it can be concluded that on the territory along the course of the River Timok the population of the Starčevo-Kereš-Kriš cultural complex was relatively well established during the early Neolithic period. The Neolithic occupation of the region had proceeded from the Đerdap gorge in the north and Sićevačka, Svrljiška and Trgoviška gorges in the south, towards the course of the River Timok i.e. the central part of north-east Serbia. The Mesolithic populations had gradually accepted the production of food. Utilizing the optimal climate and fertile soil, they improved their husbandry through new agricultural methods and the better domestication of animals. This experimental process demanded successive migrations, which impoverished the quality of soil and the seasonal movements of animals that needed to be tamed. By analysis of the topographical and geomorphologic character of this terrain, early Neolithic settlements can be described as being agricultural-livestock husbandry and livestock husbandry-hunting based. The first settlements were located on gently inclined terrains relatively close to water sources, at altitudes of 180 to 300 m. The second category of settlements were formed on uplands, offering a better view of the terrain, 230 to over 450 metres above sea level. These were probably short-term or seasonal settlements since such territories were usually unsuitable for habitation during the winter months. The poor geomorphology of the land, the magma-rock substratum and ill-drained soil, in combination with primitive agriculture, guaranteed greater soil erosion, which would destroy the economic worth of the soil. With the disappearance of the early- Neolithic population from this region, human habitation did not reoccur until several millennia later, during the middle Bronze age.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "Naselja ranog neolita u Timočkoj krajini i zaleđu Đerdapa, The neolithic settlements in the Timok region and Đerdap gorge hinterland",
pages = "36-19",
number = "60",
doi = "10.2298/STA1060019K",
url = "conv_709"
}
Kapuran, A., Bulatović, A.,& Jovanović, I.. (2010). Naselja ranog neolita u Timočkoj krajini i zaleđu Đerdapa. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(60), 19-36.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1060019K
conv_709
Kapuran A, Bulatović A, Jovanović I. Naselja ranog neolita u Timočkoj krajini i zaleđu Đerdapa. in Starinar. 2010;(60):19-36.
doi:10.2298/STA1060019K
conv_709 .
Kapuran, Aleksandar, Bulatović, Aleksandar, Jovanović, Igor, "Naselja ranog neolita u Timočkoj krajini i zaleđu Đerdapa" in Starinar, no. 60 (2010):19-36,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA1060019K .,
conv_709 .

Antropološka analiza nalaza iz groba otkrivenog na lokalitetu Pećine u Vrdniku

Miladinović-Radmilović, Nataša; Kapuran, Aleksandar

(Muzej Vojvodine, Novi Sad, 2010)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Miladinović-Radmilović, Nataša
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
PY  - 2010
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/126
AB  - U tekstu je predstavljena antropološka analiza nalaza iz Groba pronađenog u zapadnom delu sonde II na lokalitetu Pećine u Vrdniku 1969. Godine. Na osnovu Grobnih priloga, Grob je opredeljen u starije Gvozdeno doba. U pitanju su dobro očuvani, ali nekompletni, skeletni ostaci muške individue stare oko 25 godina. Od paleopatoloških promena, osim 'osteochondritis dissecans-a', uočeni su još tragovu osteoartritisa na ramenom, lakatnom i skočnom zglobu. S obzirom na to ga je ova individua relativno mlada, možemo konstatovati gaje razvoju osteoartritisa verovatno doprineo mehanički stres i fizička aktivnost.
AB  - A study investigates human skeletal remains from one grave (from the Earlier Iron Age), which were excavated during 1969, in Vrdnik (Site Pećine) (fig. 1-3). Although skeletal remains were well preserved, but incomplete and fragmentary, we managed to determinate sex and age of this individual (male, around 25 years old) (figs. 4-9; table 1-5). Dental analysis shows presence of attrition, periodontal disorder, enamel hypoplasia and disorder in tooth eruption. A careful observation of skeletal remains demonstrates that this person suffered of osteochondritis dissecans and osteoarthris (caused by mechanical stress and physical activities). Since any of these pathological changes couldn't be the cause of death, we can say that he probably died from natural causes.
PB  - Muzej Vojvodine, Novi Sad
T2  - Rad muzeja Vojvodine
T1  - Antropološka analiza nalaza iz groba otkrivenog na lokalitetu Pećine u Vrdniku
T1  - Anthropological analysis of skeletal remains from one grave from site Pećine in Vrdnik
EP  - 99
IS  - 52
SP  - 91
UR  - conv_288
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Miladinović-Radmilović, Nataša and Kapuran, Aleksandar",
year = "2010",
abstract = "U tekstu je predstavljena antropološka analiza nalaza iz Groba pronađenog u zapadnom delu sonde II na lokalitetu Pećine u Vrdniku 1969. Godine. Na osnovu Grobnih priloga, Grob je opredeljen u starije Gvozdeno doba. U pitanju su dobro očuvani, ali nekompletni, skeletni ostaci muške individue stare oko 25 godina. Od paleopatoloških promena, osim 'osteochondritis dissecans-a', uočeni su još tragovu osteoartritisa na ramenom, lakatnom i skočnom zglobu. S obzirom na to ga je ova individua relativno mlada, možemo konstatovati gaje razvoju osteoartritisa verovatno doprineo mehanički stres i fizička aktivnost., A study investigates human skeletal remains from one grave (from the Earlier Iron Age), which were excavated during 1969, in Vrdnik (Site Pećine) (fig. 1-3). Although skeletal remains were well preserved, but incomplete and fragmentary, we managed to determinate sex and age of this individual (male, around 25 years old) (figs. 4-9; table 1-5). Dental analysis shows presence of attrition, periodontal disorder, enamel hypoplasia and disorder in tooth eruption. A careful observation of skeletal remains demonstrates that this person suffered of osteochondritis dissecans and osteoarthris (caused by mechanical stress and physical activities). Since any of these pathological changes couldn't be the cause of death, we can say that he probably died from natural causes.",
publisher = "Muzej Vojvodine, Novi Sad",
journal = "Rad muzeja Vojvodine",
title = "Antropološka analiza nalaza iz groba otkrivenog na lokalitetu Pećine u Vrdniku, Anthropological analysis of skeletal remains from one grave from site Pećine in Vrdnik",
pages = "99-91",
number = "52",
url = "conv_288"
}
Miladinović-Radmilović, N.,& Kapuran, A.. (2010). Antropološka analiza nalaza iz groba otkrivenog na lokalitetu Pećine u Vrdniku. in Rad muzeja Vojvodine
Muzej Vojvodine, Novi Sad.(52), 91-99.
conv_288
Miladinović-Radmilović N, Kapuran A. Antropološka analiza nalaza iz groba otkrivenog na lokalitetu Pećine u Vrdniku. in Rad muzeja Vojvodine. 2010;(52):91-99.
conv_288 .
Miladinović-Radmilović, Nataša, Kapuran, Aleksandar, "Antropološka analiza nalaza iz groba otkrivenog na lokalitetu Pećine u Vrdniku" in Rad muzeja Vojvodine, no. 52 (2010):91-99,
conv_288 .

O uticajima vatina i verbičoare na nalazima gamzigradske kulturne grupe

Kapuran, Aleksandar

(Arheološki institut, Beograd, 2009)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
PY  - 2009
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/119
AB  - Ovaj rad se bavi analogijama gamzigradske kulturne grupe sa susednim kulturnim manifestacijama ranog i srednjeg bronzanog doba u Podunavlju i Pomoravlju. Rekognosciranjima teritorije u bližoj okolini lokaliteta Romulijana, izvedenih u dva navrata 2001. i 2008. godine, došlo se do jasnijeg sagledavanja distribucije lokaliteta i stilsko-tipoloških karakteristika na keramici ove kulturne grupe. Prema analogijama i učestalostima određenih keramičkih tipova, pokušava se rasvetliti karakter i nastanak ove kulturne manifestacije pozicionirane na uskom prostoru između paraćinskog i vatinskog kompleksa sa jedne, i kulture Verbičoara sa druge strane.
AB  - The Timočka Krajina region has not been sufficiently investigated archaeologically, which coupled with the fact that a very small number of metal finds and remains have been discovered, makes the reconstruction of the start and end of the Bronze Age that much more difficult. Identification work in the area around Romuliana on two occasions in 2001 and 2008 led to the discovery of another 10 predominantly multi-layered sites dating back to the Bronze Age, of which 7 are highland settlements while 3 are lowland settlements located in the immediate vicinity of the Timok river or its tributaries. The discovered sites 1. Varsari, 2. Đokin Vis, 3. Kravarnik, 4. Mustafa, 5. Nikolov Savat, 6. Njiva Zore Brzanović, 7. Petronj, 8. Potes-Petronj, 9. Strenjak and 10. Zvezdan; bare the characteristics of the material culture of the 'Gamzigrad group' of the Middle Iron Age. Besides known ceramic forms and characteristic ornamentation of this culture, there is a visibly strong influence of the Vatin (Crvenka-Cornesþi) and Verbicioara elements to a greater extent, and Paraćin cultural elements to a lesser extent. Given that this material was collected during identification work, we are now aware of the stratigraphic relations between these elements, and have devoted more attention to common characteristics and interconnections from which certain conclusions can be drawn. Based on the finds from archaeological sites that have been excavated it can be concluded that the distribution of sites with Gamzigrad cultural characteristics is limited to a very small area, i.e. only to the vicinity of the Crni Timok river. Nearly at all sites, both highland and lowland, Vatin and Verbicioara elements are strongly visible on the ceramic materials. The geographic position of the Crni Timok, which is located in the area where the Paraćin, Vatin and Verbichoar cultures connected and overlapped, could contribute to shedding light on the origin and characteristics of this phenomenon of the Middle Bronze Age in Eastern Serbia.
PB  - Arheološki institut, Beograd
T2  - Starinar
T1  - O uticajima vatina i verbičoare na nalazima gamzigradske kulturne grupe
T1  - On the influence of Vatin and Verbicioara cultures in the finds of the Gamzigrad cultural group
EP  - 69
IS  - 59
SP  - 53
DO  - 10.2298/STA0959053K
UR  - conv_679
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Kapuran, Aleksandar",
year = "2009",
abstract = "Ovaj rad se bavi analogijama gamzigradske kulturne grupe sa susednim kulturnim manifestacijama ranog i srednjeg bronzanog doba u Podunavlju i Pomoravlju. Rekognosciranjima teritorije u bližoj okolini lokaliteta Romulijana, izvedenih u dva navrata 2001. i 2008. godine, došlo se do jasnijeg sagledavanja distribucije lokaliteta i stilsko-tipoloških karakteristika na keramici ove kulturne grupe. Prema analogijama i učestalostima određenih keramičkih tipova, pokušava se rasvetliti karakter i nastanak ove kulturne manifestacije pozicionirane na uskom prostoru između paraćinskog i vatinskog kompleksa sa jedne, i kulture Verbičoara sa druge strane., The Timočka Krajina region has not been sufficiently investigated archaeologically, which coupled with the fact that a very small number of metal finds and remains have been discovered, makes the reconstruction of the start and end of the Bronze Age that much more difficult. Identification work in the area around Romuliana on two occasions in 2001 and 2008 led to the discovery of another 10 predominantly multi-layered sites dating back to the Bronze Age, of which 7 are highland settlements while 3 are lowland settlements located in the immediate vicinity of the Timok river or its tributaries. The discovered sites 1. Varsari, 2. Đokin Vis, 3. Kravarnik, 4. Mustafa, 5. Nikolov Savat, 6. Njiva Zore Brzanović, 7. Petronj, 8. Potes-Petronj, 9. Strenjak and 10. Zvezdan; bare the characteristics of the material culture of the 'Gamzigrad group' of the Middle Iron Age. Besides known ceramic forms and characteristic ornamentation of this culture, there is a visibly strong influence of the Vatin (Crvenka-Cornesþi) and Verbicioara elements to a greater extent, and Paraćin cultural elements to a lesser extent. Given that this material was collected during identification work, we are now aware of the stratigraphic relations between these elements, and have devoted more attention to common characteristics and interconnections from which certain conclusions can be drawn. Based on the finds from archaeological sites that have been excavated it can be concluded that the distribution of sites with Gamzigrad cultural characteristics is limited to a very small area, i.e. only to the vicinity of the Crni Timok river. Nearly at all sites, both highland and lowland, Vatin and Verbicioara elements are strongly visible on the ceramic materials. The geographic position of the Crni Timok, which is located in the area where the Paraćin, Vatin and Verbichoar cultures connected and overlapped, could contribute to shedding light on the origin and characteristics of this phenomenon of the Middle Bronze Age in Eastern Serbia.",
publisher = "Arheološki institut, Beograd",
journal = "Starinar",
title = "O uticajima vatina i verbičoare na nalazima gamzigradske kulturne grupe, On the influence of Vatin and Verbicioara cultures in the finds of the Gamzigrad cultural group",
pages = "69-53",
number = "59",
doi = "10.2298/STA0959053K",
url = "conv_679"
}
Kapuran, A.. (2009). O uticajima vatina i verbičoare na nalazima gamzigradske kulturne grupe. in Starinar
Arheološki institut, Beograd.(59), 53-69.
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA0959053K
conv_679
Kapuran A. O uticajima vatina i verbičoare na nalazima gamzigradske kulturne grupe. in Starinar. 2009;(59):53-69.
doi:10.2298/STA0959053K
conv_679 .
Kapuran, Aleksandar, "O uticajima vatina i verbičoare na nalazima gamzigradske kulturne grupe" in Starinar, no. 59 (2009):53-69,
https://doi.org/10.2298/STA0959053K .,
conv_679 .

Prilog praistorijskoj stratigrafiji Feliks Romulijane u svetlu novih nalaza

Kapuran, Aleksandar

(Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd, 2008)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Kapuran, Aleksandar
PY  - 2008
UR  - http://rai.ai.ac.rs/handle/123456789/105
AB  - Sistematska istraživanja utvrđene carske palate Feliks Romulijana nedaleko od sela Gamzigrad, kao i njene bliže okoline, dala su obimnu arheološku građu iz gotovo svih perioda praistorije. Osim naselja obuhvaćenog bedemima antičkog utvrđenja, na ovom prostoru otkriveno je i nekoliko praistorijskih nekropola, kao i gradinskih i ravničarskih naselja. Istraživanja na Sektoru termi predstavila su kompletnu stratigrafiju sa horizontima od praistorije do srednjeg veka. Nakon uvida u celokupni praistorijski materijal iz svih prethodnih kampanja sistematskih istraživanja na Sektoru termi, može se zaključiti da praistorijsku kulturnu stratigrafiju čine nalazi iz perioda neolita, starijeg gvozdenog doba Basarabi horizonta i mlađeg gvozdenog doba latena, odnosno dakogetskog kulturnog kruga.
AB  - Decades of excavation at Gaierius's paiace, Feiix Romuiiana (fig. 1) near Gamzigrad village (Eastern Serbia) have yielded, in addition to archaeoiogicai material dated to the Roman period, a significant quantity of prehistoric finds (figs. 5-8; pi. I). Most of the sporadic prehistoric finds within the fortified palace were probably imported along with the earth used for leveling the layers (the earth was taken from the area north of the palace). Relatively continual occupation of the site and its 'immediate vicinity lasted from the Neolithic to the Mediaeval period. The continuity is, inter alia, demonstrated by the southern profile of the Square L XXIV-K XXIV (fig. 3) in the sector of the Thermae (fig. 1). Within the Thermae itself prehistoric finds were discovered in strata H and I (figs. 2, 4). Judging from the prehistoric archaeological material from the sector of the Thermae, the oldest pottery belongs to Neolithic Starčevo Culture (fig. 5/8; pl. I/9), followed by Early Iron Age (Basarabi) (figs. 5/1-7; 6/1-9; 7/1-11), and Late Iron Age, (La Tène and Daco-Getian) (fig. 8/1-13). Two bronze fibulae dated to the Late Iron Age were found in Tower 19 (pi. I/2; fig. 8/14), and a third in the sector of the Great Temple (pi. I/1). All three are to be dated to 1st century B.C.- 1st century. Within the same chronological span there was probably a settlement and per- haps a cemetery at Felix Romuliana or in its immediate vicinity.
PB  - Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd
T2  - Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva
T1  - Prilog praistorijskoj stratigrafiji Feliks Romulijane u svetlu novih nalaza
T1  - A contribution to prehistoric stratigraphy of Felix Romuliana in the light of new findings
EP  - 264
IS  - 24
SP  - 245
UR  - conv_243
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Kapuran, Aleksandar",
year = "2008",
abstract = "Sistematska istraživanja utvrđene carske palate Feliks Romulijana nedaleko od sela Gamzigrad, kao i njene bliže okoline, dala su obimnu arheološku građu iz gotovo svih perioda praistorije. Osim naselja obuhvaćenog bedemima antičkog utvrđenja, na ovom prostoru otkriveno je i nekoliko praistorijskih nekropola, kao i gradinskih i ravničarskih naselja. Istraživanja na Sektoru termi predstavila su kompletnu stratigrafiju sa horizontima od praistorije do srednjeg veka. Nakon uvida u celokupni praistorijski materijal iz svih prethodnih kampanja sistematskih istraživanja na Sektoru termi, može se zaključiti da praistorijsku kulturnu stratigrafiju čine nalazi iz perioda neolita, starijeg gvozdenog doba Basarabi horizonta i mlađeg gvozdenog doba latena, odnosno dakogetskog kulturnog kruga., Decades of excavation at Gaierius's paiace, Feiix Romuiiana (fig. 1) near Gamzigrad village (Eastern Serbia) have yielded, in addition to archaeoiogicai material dated to the Roman period, a significant quantity of prehistoric finds (figs. 5-8; pi. I). Most of the sporadic prehistoric finds within the fortified palace were probably imported along with the earth used for leveling the layers (the earth was taken from the area north of the palace). Relatively continual occupation of the site and its 'immediate vicinity lasted from the Neolithic to the Mediaeval period. The continuity is, inter alia, demonstrated by the southern profile of the Square L XXIV-K XXIV (fig. 3) in the sector of the Thermae (fig. 1). Within the Thermae itself prehistoric finds were discovered in strata H and I (figs. 2, 4). Judging from the prehistoric archaeological material from the sector of the Thermae, the oldest pottery belongs to Neolithic Starčevo Culture (fig. 5/8; pl. I/9), followed by Early Iron Age (Basarabi) (figs. 5/1-7; 6/1-9; 7/1-11), and Late Iron Age, (La Tène and Daco-Getian) (fig. 8/1-13). Two bronze fibulae dated to the Late Iron Age were found in Tower 19 (pi. I/2; fig. 8/14), and a third in the sector of the Great Temple (pi. I/1). All three are to be dated to 1st century B.C.- 1st century. Within the same chronological span there was probably a settlement and per- haps a cemetery at Felix Romuliana or in its immediate vicinity.",
publisher = "Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd",
journal = "Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva",
title = "Prilog praistorijskoj stratigrafiji Feliks Romulijane u svetlu novih nalaza, A contribution to prehistoric stratigraphy of Felix Romuliana in the light of new findings",
pages = "264-245",
number = "24",
url = "conv_243"
}
Kapuran, A.. (2008). Prilog praistorijskoj stratigrafiji Feliks Romulijane u svetlu novih nalaza. in Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva
Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd.(24), 245-264.
conv_243
Kapuran A. Prilog praistorijskoj stratigrafiji Feliks Romulijane u svetlu novih nalaza. in Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva. 2008;(24):245-264.
conv_243 .
Kapuran, Aleksandar, "Prilog praistorijskoj stratigrafiji Feliks Romulijane u svetlu novih nalaza" in Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva, no. 24 (2008):245-264,
conv_243 .